Basin covers an area of approximately 3.1 million km2, which
represents some 10 percent of African continent. Ten countries
share the river: Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo,
Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania
and Uganda. Five of these are among the poorest in the world.
The Nile Basin is home to approximately 180 million people,
while some 300 million live within the 10 riparian states.
The Nile region is characterized by high population growth
and considerable development challenges.
km, the Nile is the longest river in the world. But it is
not a big river in terms of volume of water. The contrast
between the size of the basin and the comparatively small
volume of runoff is an important feature and among the main
causes of the rising water scarcity concerns.
waters play a vital role in the socio-economic development
of the Nile co-basin States. Agriculture is the dominant
economic sector in most Nile riparians, and reliable access
to water remains key to increasing agricultural productivity,
providing employment, and to raising the standards of living
of the people residing in the basin. The Nile also represents
a vast resource for hydropower generation.
Nile region is plagued by environmental degradation, armed
strife, drought, and famine. Weak institutions and capacity,
together with inadequate infrastructure conspire to perpetuate
poverty. The Nile waters bear a tremendous potential as
lever for social and economic development. Collaborative
and sustainable development of the shared water resources
can attract investment and assist in alleviating poverty.
High demographic growth rates and accelerating environmental
degradation narrow the window of opportunity to reverse
the negative trends in the region.
See system maps