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Issue paper

2020

Rural migration in sub-Saharan Africa: patterns, drivers and relation to structural transformation

Sub-Saharan Africa has a long history of internal and international migratory movements. Migration patterns and dynamics from, to and between rural areas are profoundly differentiated across regions, and flows have considerably evolved over time. Yet, more recently, rural migration takes place in the unique situation of a major rural and urban demographic increase, which results in critical socio-economic and environmental challenges. In this context, intertwined migration drivers emerge and call for a better understanding of on-going dynamics.This working paper draws on a combination of literature review and data analysis, building on the results of the Atlas "Rural Africa in motion. [...]

Training & e-learning

2020

FAO elearning Academy - Courses on Migration

Explore our wide variety of free, multilingual courses in the areas of food and nutrition security, social and economic developmentand sustainable management of natural resources, all supporting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Issue paper

2020

Key success factors and obstacles for FAO energy projects in humanitarian settings. An evaluation of FAO’s energy-in-emergency portfolio to inform future programming in three Eastern African Countries

Under the Safe Access to Fuel and Energy (SAFE) programme, FAO has contributed to improving resilience and livelihoods for refugees and internally displaced people in 14 countries through four types of activities: clean cooking, forest management, renewable energy in agri-food chains and policy support.This publication evaluates FAO’s energy-in-emergency portfolio in Kenya, Uganda and South Sudan to define innovative programming options for efficient energy access within the humanitarian settings of these three countries.

Case study

2020

Pour un environnement institutionnel et financier favorable à l’investissement par les jeunes dans l’agriculture et les systèmes alimentaires en Tunisie

En Tunisie, le taux de chômage des jeunes de 15 à 35 ans est très élevé, se situant autour de 35 pour cent, chez les diplômés du supérieur des régions de l’intérieur et en milieu rural, ce qui pousse un nombre important à l’exode et à l’émigration souvent au péril de leur vie. Par ailleurs, les régions de l’intérieur à dominante agricole et rurale accusent le plus grand retard de développement. Caractérisé par un vieillissement de la population des chefs d’exploitation et un faible niveau d’innovations techniques et organisationnelles, le secteur agricole peine à faire face aux défis de la [...]

Briefs

2020

Migrant workers and remittances in the context of COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa

African migrants stimulate economic growth and development in areas of destination, transit and origin through their labour, skills transfer, consumption and investments. Their remittances also make significant contributions to food security, human capital, rural development and overall Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in areas of origin.The impact of COVID-19 affects migrant workers disproportionally. Often precarious working conditions and overcrowded living and transport arrangements increase their vulnerability to contagion and loss of employment, threatening their health and livelihoods. Those working under informal arrangements, commonly in the agriculture sector, are largely excluded from accessing real-time reliable information, social protection, healthcare and government response [...]

Report

2020

Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition in the Near East and North Africa 2019 - Rethinking food systems for healthy diets and improved nutrition

The past few decades have seen dramatic improvements in the region in access to food, reduction in stunting rates, in premature death and disability caused by communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases. However, the gains in the fight against hunger and malnutrition have reversed in the wake of conflicts and violence that have spread in many parts of the region in the last decade. Today, nearly 55 million people in the Arab States, 13.2 percent of the population, are hungry and the situation is particularly worrying in countries affected by conflicts and violence: Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Syria, Sudan, and Yemen. Displacements [...]

Briefs

2020

Migrant workers and the COVID-19 pandemic

The policy brief reviews the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on migrants working in agri-food systems and their families in rural areas of origin. It points out some of the policy implications and presents key policy recommendations. Measures affecting the movement of people (internally and internationally) and resulting labour shortages, will have an impact on agricultural value chains, affecting food availability and market prices globally. At the same time, large shares of migrants work under informal or casual arrangements, which leave them unprotected, vulnerable to exploitation, poverty and food insecurity, and often without access to healthcare, social protection and the measures [...]

Briefs

2020

Responding to the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on food value chains through efficient logistics

Measures implemented around the world to contain the COVID-19 pandemic have entailed a severe reduction not only in the transportation of goods and services that rely on transport, but also in the migration of labour domestically and internationally. Workers are less available reflecting both disruptions in transportation systems and restrictions to stop the transmission of the disease, within and across borders. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) urges countries to maintain functioning food value chains to avoid food shortages, following practices that are being proven to work. This note summarizes some practices that could be useful for [...]

Case study

2020

Assessment of Forest Resource Degradation and Intervention Options in Refugee-Hosting Areas of Western and Southwestern Uganda

Uganda is currently hosting over 1.3 million refugees making it the largest refugee host country in Africa. The inflow of refugees is reported to have exacerbated a range of ongoing environmental impacts and associated challenges, including land degradation and woodland loss, resulting in inadequate access to energy for cooking and competition with local people for water and other natural resources. Supporting more sustainable use of those resources, especially forests and other woodlands, could help address environmental degradation and improve energy access. Building on a 2018 assessment of natural resource degradation in the refugee-hosting areas of northern Uganda, FAO, in collaboration with [...]

Issue paper

2020

Characteristics, patterns and drivers of rural migration in Senegal

Although migratory flows from rural areas are a common phenomenon in most developing countries, we possess little information on their dynamics and determinants. In this context, in September 2017, in the framework of the project “Fostering productive investments to create decent farm and non-farm jobs for rural youth in migration-prone areas in Senegal”, FAO and the Senegalese National Agency of Statistics and Demography (ANSD) conducted a household survey with the aim of generating information on migration phenomena in rural areas. The survey results described in this study contribute to broadening the available knowledge base on the causes and dynamics of [...]
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