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SOFA 2016

The State of Food and Agriculture 2016 (SOFA): Climate change, agriculture and food security

The 2016 SOFA report presents evidence on today and tomorrow’s impact of climate change on agriculture and food systems. The report assesses the options to make agriculture and food systems resilient to climate change impacts, while minimizing environmental impacts. It shows that making agriculture and food systems sustainable is both economically and technically feasible. However barriers to the adoption of appropriate technologies and management practices will have to be lowered, especially for smallholder farmers and women farmers amongst them. Likewise, an overhaul is needed of agricultural and food policies to shift incentives in favour of investments, worldwide, in sustainable technologies and practices.
Full Report 
In-Brief  | Flyer 
Infographic on Adaptation 
Infographic on Mitigation
SOFA Website 
E-Books: IPAD | Kindle

Recent releases

Incentive allocation for mangrove protection

This publication guides the establishment of systems for allocating performance-based incentives to coastal communities in exchange for mangrove restoration and protection. It is aimed at potential financiers of mangrove restoration and protection including private entities, development organizations, government agencies and/or other proponents interested in supporting long-term mangrove restoration and protection initiatives.

This is the fourth in a series of four publications intended to be used in conjunction in establishing sustainable financing for mangrove protection in Asia.

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Mangrove related policy and institutional frameworks in Pakistan, Thailand and Viet Nam

This study provides an overview of policy and institutional frameworks for mangrove management in Pakistan, Thailand and Viet Nam. In spite of these values, mangroves in Asia continue to be converted to other land uses, and sustainable financing for their protection has not been forthcoming. This has resulted from limited length of project cycles, a lack of established PES schemes covering mangroves, unclear tenure, and the relatively small size of mangroves areas in relation to the economies of scale necessary to offset costs associated with accessing carbon payments.
This is the second in a series of four project publications intended to be used in conjunction in establishing sustainable financing for mangrove protection, and provides a review of mangrove related policy and institutional frameworks in Pakistan, Thailand and Viet Nam. 

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Financing for mangrove protection with emphasis on Pakistan, Thailand and Viet Nam

This report reviews sources of funding for mangrove protection with particular focus on Pakistan, Thailand and Viet Nam. Because of the role of mangroves in climate change adaptation, climate change mitigation and disaster risk management, sources of financing targeting these objectives are included along with financing sources aiming specifically at mangrove conservation and restoration.

This is the first in a series of four publications intended to be used in conjunction in establishing sustainable financing for mangrove protection in Asia.

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Migration, agriculture et développement rural

This booklet is directed towards FAO Member States, UN system and all other potential partners, and sheds light on the role that agriculture and rural development and the sustainable management of natural resources can play in curbing migration pressure in rural areas. It also outlines the main entry points where FAO can support international efforts to address global movements of refugees and migrants. 

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Governing Tenure Rights to Commons

This Technical Guide on Governing Tenure Rights to Commons aims to support states, community-based organizations and civil society organizations, the private sector and other relevant actors to take proactive measures to implement the standards and recommendations of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests(Tenure Guidelines) for legally recognizing and protecting tenure rights to commons and community-based governance structures.

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Bioenergy and Food Security Assessment for Turkey:Sustainable Bioenergy Options from Crop and Livestock Residues

This report was developed under the FAO EBRD project on bioenergy with the aim is to support decision-making related to bioenergy investment in countries of operations of the EBRD. Turkey, a country of operation, has a large agriculture sector, the requirement to produce 20 percent of its electricity from renewable energy and diversify its energy mix, which currently heavily relies on imported fossil fuels. This report presents the results from the country level assessment to identify the potential to produce bioenergy from crop and livestock residues.

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Environmental performance of large ruminant supply chains

Demand for livestock products is projected to grow 1.3 percent per year until 2050, driven by global population growth and increasing wealth and urbanization. This projected growth places signi¬ficant pressure on the livestock sector to perform in a more sustainable way. Currently, many different methods are used to assess the environmental impacts and performance of livestock products. This causes confusion and makes it dif¬ficult to compare results and set priorities for continuing improvement. The intention of this document is to provide an overview assessment of existing studies and associated methods that have used life cycle assessment for the evaluation of large ruminant supply chains.

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Principles for the assessment of livestock impacts on biodiversity

The provision of guidance for the quantitative assessment of biodiversity in live¬stock and other sectors is an emerging area of work. This document represents an initial step in which international experts with various backgrounds shared their views on biodiversity assessment. The general objective of this document was to de-velop principles applicable to different assessment methods in order to guarantee a minimum level of soundness, transparency, scientific relevance, and completeness. These principles can be used to identify crucial elements of livestock systems that affect biodiversity, to monitor changes and make improvements, and to produce assessment results for internal or external communication.

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Influencing food environments for healthy diets

More and more people are becoming overweight and obese, with increasing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Behind the global shifts in malnutrition and NCDs are unhealthy diets and a sedentary lifestyle. Our food systems and the food environments are not delivering on the diets needed to promote and sustain optimum health. This publication focuses on Influencing food environments for healthy diets and offers suggestions on suitable interventions to address that environment. Countries will find the information useful as they develop policies and programmes to make healthy diets an easier choice for their citizens.

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Pacific Tourism and Agriculture Policy Toolkit: Policy measures to promote linkages and drive inclusive growth in Pacific Island Countries

The aim of this Toolkit is to showcase examples of robust policies to promote stronger economic linkages between the agriculture and tourism sectors, thus increasing the value of tourism to PICs. Specifically, it provides case study examples of the tools available to policy-makers to improve market opportunities by incorporating local food into the cuisine offerings provided by PIC tourism.

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