This technical paper comprises a series of reviews and case studies, compiled by an interdisciplinary group of experts, from Latin American countries regarding fishers’ knowledge (FK) and its application to fisheries management under the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF). This publication responds to the pressing need for theoretical frameworks, practical examples and guidance on what FK encompasses and how this knowledge and experience can be integrated into management of fisheries resources under the EAF. The papers highlight underlying principles for working with FK, good practices and lessons learned in knowledge exchange with fishers, and the role of government and legal frameworks in the context of both marine and inland fisheries.
Shifting cultivation, livelihood and food security: New and old challenges for indigenous peoples in Asia
In August 2010 the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations adopted a policy on indigenous and tribal peoples in order to ensure the relevance of its efforts to respect, include, and promote indigenous people’s related issues in its general work. This publication is an outcome of a regional consultation held in Bangkok, Thailand in November 2013. It documents seven case studies which were conducted in Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Nepal and Thailand to take stock of the changes in livelihood and food security among indigenous shifting cultivation communities in South and Southeast Asia against the backdrop of the rapid socio-economic transformations currently engulfing the region. The case studies identify external – macro-economic, political, legal, policy – and internal – demographic, social, cultural – factors that hinder and facilitate achieving and sustaining livelihood and food security. The case studies also document good practices in adaptive changes among shifting cultivation communities with respect to livelihood and food security, land tenure and natural resource management, and identify intervention measures supporting and promoting good practices in adaptive changes among shifting cultivators in the region.
Food losses and waste (FL&W) in the Near East & North Africa (NENA) region are high and contribute to reduced food availability, aggravated water scarcity, adverse environmental impacts and increased food imports, in an already highly import-dependent region. This document outlines a Regional Strategic Framework for reducing food losses and waste in the region. It responds to the FAO NERC-31 (in May 2012) recommendation calling on FAO to “assist member countries in addressing the key challenges of reducing food waste and losses by conducting comprehensive studies on impact of food losses and waste on food security in the region and in establishing a plan to reduce food losses and waste in the region by 50% within 10 years”. The components of the strategic framework are based on the region’s socio-economic context, gaps in combating FL&W, and availability of resources.
West African Agriculture is at a turning point. The combination of strong demand growth, sustained economic growth, higher global agricultural prices, and an improved policy environment has generated the most conducive conditions for Agricultural growth in over 30 years. The study contributes to a better understanding of the evolving context for growth in West Africa’s agrifood sector by: (1) examining the drivers and trends affecting the demand for and supply of agrifood products, (2) evaluating the performance of the Agricultural sector and related policies in the light of those trends and (3) distilling the main implications for future policy priorities.
Understanding Mountain Soils: A Contribution from mountain areas to the International Year of Soils 2015
In every mountain region, soils constitute the foundation for agriculture, supporting essential ecosystem functions and food security. Mountain soils are particularly susceptible to climate change, deforestation, unsustainable farming practices and resource extraction methods that affect their fertility and trigger land degradation, desertification and disasters such as floods and landslides. Mountain peoples often have a deep-rooted connection to the soils they live on; it is a part of their heritage. This publication, produced by the Mountain Partnership as a contribution to the International Year of Soils 2015, presents the main features of mountain soil systems, their environmental, economic and social values, the threats they are facing and the cultural traditions concerning them. Case studies provided by Mountain Partnership members and partners around the world showcase challenges and opportunities as well as lessons learned in soil management. This publication presents a series of lessons learned and recommendations to inform mountain communities, policy-makers, development experts and academics who support sustainable mountain development.
In November 2014, a new EU Regulation to address Invasive Alien Species (IAS) and protect biodiversity was published. This entered into force across the EU in January 2015. The aim of the Regulation is to ‘prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species’. In an effort to provide focus to the Regulation prior to its publishing and to identify the major issues relating to Invasive Alien Species in Europe, the views of invasive species experts from around the world were sought. These were consolidated at an international conference (Freshwater Invasives - Networking for Strategy (FINS)) that was held in Ireland in April 2013. A major outcome from this meeting of experts was the production of the Top 20 IAS issues that relate primarily to freshwater habitats but are also directly relevant to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. This list will support policy makers throughout the EU as preparations are made to implement this important piece of legislation. A further outcome from the conference was the formation of an expert IAS Advisory Group to support EIFAAC in its work on invasive species.
Social Protection and Food Security indicators: An inquiry through data from 10 household budget surveys
The aim of the paper is to provide empirical evidence on the association between social protection systems and food security conditions in selected developing countries, which will serve as a basis for building a global data set for monitoring and harmonizing indicators on these two thematic areas. Using the methodology of the ADePT Food Security and Social Protection modules and the classification of the World Bank’s Social Protection Atlas (ASPIRE), we cross-tabulate indicators derived from ten Household Budget Survey to capture heterogeneity across region. In many instances, data highlight inadequate sampling and collection techniques. Several areas for improvement are identified, especially on in-kind transfers and social assistance programs.