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ASF situation in Asia & Pacific update

25 November 2021, 08:30 hours; Rome

The next issue will be distributed on 09 December 2021.

Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added since the last ASF China situation update appears in red. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Local governments and international sources (World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]), as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

 

 Overview

Hazard: African swine fever (ASF) is a viral disease affecting pigs and wild boar with up to 100% case fatality rate.

ASF reported administrative areas since August 2018:
China: Anhui, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Yunnan, Hunan, Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Fujian, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Qinghai, Guangdong, Gansu, Shandong and Hainan Provinces, Tianjin, Chongqing, Shanghai and Beijing Municipalities, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia Hui, Guangxi Zhuang, Xinjiang Uygur and Tibet (Xizang) Autonomous Regions and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR).
Mongolia: Bulgan, Darkhan-Uul, Dundgovi, Orkhon, Selenge, Töv Provinces and Ulaanbaatar.
Viet Nam: All provinces and municipalities.
Cambodia: Ratanakiri, Tboung Khmum, Svay Rieng, Takeo and Kandal Provinces.
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: Chagang-Do.
Lao People’s Democratic Republic: All provinces and municipality.
Myanmar: Shan, Kachin, Kayah States and Sagaing Region.
The Philippines: Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Albay, Apayao, Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Catanduanes, Cavite, Davao de Oro, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Occidental, Davao Oriental, Eastern Samar, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Kalinga, La Union, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Leyte, Marinduque, Masbate, Misamis Oriental, Mountain province, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Samar, Sarangani, Southern Leyte, Sorsogon, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tarlac, Zambales Provinces and Metro Manila (Caloocan, Malabon and Quezon Cities).
Republic of Korea: Gyeonggi-do, Gangwon-do and Incheon City, and Chungcheongbuk-do.
Timor-Leste: All districts.
Indonesia: North Sumatra, Riau, West Sumatra, South Sumatra, Lampung, West Java, Central Java, Yogyakarta, Bali, and East Nusa Tenggara and West Kalimantan Provinces.
Papua New Guinea: Southern Highlands, Enga, Hela, Western Highlands, Jiwaka, and Simbu Provinces.
India: Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland States.
Disputed territory: Arunachal Pradesh.
Malaysia: Sabah State.
Bhutan: Chhukha District.

Map 1. ASF situation in Asia (for the past 10 weeks)

ASF situation in Asia (for the past 10 weeks)
Click to enlarge - Source: China: MARA, Viet Nam: WAHIS & media information, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Indonesia, Timor-Leste: WAHIS and government websites, Other: WAHIS.

 

 Situation update

Mongolia

Since its first report on 15 January 2019, 11 outbreaks in 6 provinces and in Ulaanbaatar have been reported, involving 105 farms/households. More than 10 percent of the total pig population (3 115 pigs) in Mongolia, have died/been destroyed due to the ASF outbreaks [reference].

 

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

The Ministry of Agriculture confirmed the occurrence of the first ASF outbreak in Chagang-do on 23 May 2019 [reference].

 

Republic of Korea

Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) confirmed the first ASF outbreak on 17 September 2019, ASF was detected in 21 domestic pig farms: Gyeonggi-do (9), Incheon City (5), and Gangwon-do (7). ASF was confirmed for the first time in Chungcheongbuk-do on 19 November in a wild boar carcass found in Woraksan National Park, Danyang-gun. The location is about 38 kilometers southwest of Kimsatgat-myeon, Yeongwol-gun, Gangwon-do, where ASF has been confirmed [reference1]. According to media, wild boar carcasses were also found in Jecheon-si, tested positive with ASFV [reference2]. As of 25 November 2021, a total of 1 718 ASFV infected wild boars were confirmed in: Gyonggi-do: Paju (100), Yeoncheon (418), Pocheon (93), Gapyeong (41); Gangwon-do: Cheorwon (36),  Hwacheon (423), Chuncheon (176), Yanggu (79), Goseong (11), Inje (151), Yeongwol (25), Yangyang (34), Gangneung (16), Hongcheon (28), Pyeongchang (27), Sockho (1), Jeongseon (46), Hoengseong (3), Samcheok (2); Chungcheongbuk-do: Danyang (3) and Jecheon (4) [reference3].

 

China

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) confirmed the first outbreak in Liaoning Province on 3 August 2018, ASF were detected in 32 Provinces/Autonomous Regions/Municipalities/Special Administrative Region. According to MARA, from the beginning of 2021, 11 ASF outbreaks were reported from 8 provinces so far, a total of 2 216 pigs have been destroyed [reference1]. On 9 November, ASF was reported in a pig farm in Taiyang Village, Liji Township, Hainan Island [reference2].

Figure 1. Live pig prices in China, Viet Nam, Cambodia and the Philippines (USD/kg)

Live pig prices in China, Viet Nam, and Cambodia (USD/kg)
Click to enlarge - Source: link1, link2, link3, link4.

 

The Philippines

Since the Department of Agriculture (DA) confirmed the first outbreak started on July 2019, ASF spread to 50 provinces [reference1]. On 31 October, ASF was confirmed for the first time in Dampulan barangay, Torrijos town, Marinduque province, according to media [reference2, reference3, reference4]. In November, DA confirmed ASF detection in M’lang (North Cotabato province) [reference5], and in Maigo and Bacolod town (Lanao del Norte province), both on Mindanao Island; 234 pigs were culled in two infected towns of Lanao del Norte [reference6].

 

Malaysia

Malaysia confirmed the first ASF outbreaks in February 2021 in Sabah State at the the northern part of Borneo Island [reference1]. So far, 46 outbreaks has been officially confirmed in the country, only in Sabah State [reference2]. Media reported that ASF cases were detected in three districts in south-eastern side of Sabah State [reference3].

 

Indonesia

Since the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) reported an ASF outbreak in North Sumatra Province in 2019 [reference1, reference2], as of February 2021, ASF has officially confirmed its spread to 10 out of 34 provinces [reference3]. Media reported that wild boars were found dead in several national parks on Sumatra, North Bengkulu Regency and on Borneo Islands [reference4, reference5, reference6]. In domestic pigs, previously media reported pig deaths in East Kalimantan province [reference7, reference8], Central Kalimantan province [reference9, reference10]. Pig deaths were reported in Kapuas Hulu and Sintang districts, West Kalimantan province, tested positive for ASFV [reference11].

 

Timor-Leste

The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries announced the confirmation of ASF outbreak on 27 September 2019 [reference1]. Since then, ASF has caused the loss of 100 thousand pigs, according to media [reference2].

 

Papua New Guinea

The National Agriculture Quarantine and Inspection Authority (NAQIA) confirmed four ASF outbreaks in Mendi Munihu District, Southern Highlands Province (SHP) in March 2020 [reference1, reference2]. To prevent further spread of the disease, the entire Highlands region and Morobe province have been declared as “Disease Area”, although Morobe province remains ASF-free status.

 

Viet Nam

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) confirmed its first ASF outbreak on 19 February 2019, all 63 provinces/cities experienced outbreaks. From January to October 2021, more than 100 000 pigs were destroyed due to ASF, more than double the figure in 2020 (Year over Year), according to media quoting the Head of the Department of Animal Health [reference].

 

Lao People’s Democratic Republic

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry confirmed the first ASF outbreak in Salavan Province on 20 June 2019, ASF outbreaks were reported in all 18 provinces between May and November 2019. The second round started from June 2020, ASF was detected in 15 districts in 7 provinces [reference]. On 19 November 2021, 10 diagnostic specimens collected from sick pigs at Dongkha village, Xanakham district, Vientiane province tested positive for ASF.

 

Cambodia

Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) confirmed the first ASF outbreak in Ratanakiri Province in April 2019, ASF outbreaks were detected in five provinces [reference1]. Recently, media reported that ASF was detected in illegally transported pigs intercepted at two border checkpoints in Banteay Meanchey and Takeo Provinces  [reference2].

 

Myanmar

Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation confirmed the first ASF outbreak on 1 August 2019, a total of 11 ASF outbreaks were reported including seven in Shan State, two in Sagaing Region and one each in Kachin and Kayah States [reference].

 

Bhutan

On 13 May, the first ASF outbreak was confirmed in Phentshogling town, Chhukha district, Bhutan, where is bordering with West Bengal State of India [reference1, reference2]. Since then, a total of
2 035 pigs has been infected with ASF in the country [reference3].

 

India

Since the first ASF outbreak occurred in Assam State in January-April 2020 [reference1], ASF were also confirmed in Mizoram, Meghalaya and Nagaland States [reference2, reference3, reference4]. According to media, ASF was suspected in Thoubal and Imphal East District, Manipur State [reference5, reference6], and North Tripura district, Tripura State [reference7].

 

Disputed territory (Arunachal Pradesh)

ASF outbreaks in domestic pigs occurred between January and April 2020 in East Siang and Papum Pare Districts [reference1]. Media reported deaths of wild boars in East Siang and Upper Siang Districts [reference2]; a paper reported dead wild boars in the rivulets in Pasighat region [reference3].

 

 

Actions taken by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

 

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea developed the National Strategy for ASF prevention and control during 2020-2025 (issued in May 2021).

 

Actions taken by the Republic of Korea

 

On 19 November, MAFRA announced the plan for additional designation of ASF Key Control Areas; besides the existing ASF key control areas designated in November 2020, a total of 17 cities and counties in Gangwon-do, Gyeonggi-do, Chungcheongbuk-do, and Gyeongsangbuk-do were additionally selected based on the risk factors of ASF spread including geographic factors, movement of transmitters, topography, and migration of contaminant along the water system [reference1, reference2]. In response to the first confirmation of ASF in Chungcheongbuk-do, The Ministry of Environment, together with related organizations, took emergency measures such as intensive search for carcass within a 10-kilometer radius for two weeks from 20 November (including weekends) and urgent installation of fences, nets, warning lights to prevent ASF spreading into nearby areas and infecting pig farms [reference3].

 

Actions taken by China

 

In August 2020, MARA released “Technical Guidelines for Normalized Prevention and Control of African Swine Fever (Trial version)" which include detail guidance on pig production, transportation, slaughter, and self-testing [reference1]. On 21 April, MARA issued the "Work Plan for Regional Prevention and Control of African Swine Fever and Other Major Animal Diseases (Trial)" to further improve the animal disease prevention and control system. The plan divided the whole country into five regions, and pig movement is restricted only within the region from 1 May 2021. Within the regions, ASF-free zones are created, only pigs from the free zones, breeding pigs and piglets are allowed to move beyond their respective regions [reference2, reference3]. All five regions [South-Central Region, Eastern Region, Northern Region, South-West Region, North-West Region] signed the Framework Agreements to implement the above “Work Plan”.

Figure 2. Number of ASF reported village* by region by onset month in China

Number of ASF reported village by region by onset month* in China
Click to enlarge - * Including detection in live pigs in intercepted vehicles. For cases with unknown onset date, confirmation date or reporting date was used.
Source: Veterinary bureau, MARA, China.

 

Actions taken by the Philippines

 

The President has placed the country under a state of calamity for a period of one year due to the African swine fever (ASF) outbreak effective 10 May 2021 [reference1], and increased the minimum access volume (MAV) of pork meat from 54 210 metric tons (MT) to 254 210 MT in 2021 [reference2, reference3]. The local authorities in the Philippines are mandated to strictly follow the National Zoning implementation and movement plan depending on the level of ASF risks [reference4]. Beside providing ASF indeminification, DA has provided financial and technical supports to ASF-affected farms through the twin pig repopulation program, called Integrated National Swine Production Initiatives for Recovery and Expansion (INSPIRE) and “Bantay ASF sa Barangay” (BABay ASF).  A total amount of 42.8 billion Peso (845 million USD) was allocated for lending to pig farmers in ASF-free areas through the Land Bank of the Philippines, Development Bank of the Philippines, and the DA’s Agricultural Credit Policy Council (ACPC). Under the pig repopulation program, so far, more than 8 000 sentinel pigs have been distributed to 3 061 farmers in 312 ASF-free barangays. The DA is also encouraging backyard and commercial pig raisers to have their animal stocks insured with the Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation (PCIC) to avail of insurance coverage of up to P10 000 for fatteners and P14 500 for breeders, respectively [reference5]. On Mindanao island, following the ASF dectetion in M’lang, North Cotabato province, the authority of South Cotabato blocked all possible entry points in the borders to prohibit unauthorized shipment of live pigs and pork products coming from ASF-infected areas [reference6].

 

Actions taken by Malaysia

 

After the first confirmed outbreak in Sabah State, the pigs tested postive for ASF, and pigs within 50 km from the affected area have been culled [reference1]. Although ASF has been only reported in Sabah State, surveillence has been intensified in the whole country [reference2]. The authority of Sarawak State is enforcing its import ban on pig, pork and pork products, tightened inspections at all entrances throughout Sarawak [reference3]. According to media, Papar, Kota Kinabalu and Tenom districts were declared as disease areas, following the ASF detections in these districts. Control measures have been implemented such as controlling pig and pork movements, isolating ASF-infected pigs; conducting an awareness campaign and monitoring farm activities [reference4].

 

Actions taken by Indonesia

 

In December 2019, Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) recommended the public the application of biosecurity and good management of pig farms as the main strategic steps to prevent ASF, as well as strict and intensive monitoring of high-risk areas [reference1], and the Livestock and Animal Health Services (DG PKH) formed Emergency Posts with Rapid Response Teams at all levels [reference2]. Media reported that a cross–agency coordination meeting was held on 4 November to tackle the potential spread of ASF, especially to implement and increase awareness of all issues related to pig farming [reference3]. Various actions to raise awareness (publishing alert letters, campaigns, etc.) and control movements (transportation restrictions, movement certificate request, etc.) were also implemented by each province such as West Papua [reference4, reference5], East Nusa Tenggara [reference6, reference7, reference8], North Kalimantan [reference9, reference10], Central Kalimantan [reference11, reference12], and West Kalimantan provinces [reference13, reference14], according to media.

 

Actions taken by Timor-Leste

 

After the first ASF outbreak in Timor-Leste, the government formed a taskforce team from the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAP), Customs, Quarantine, Border Patrol Police, Immigration, and the Food Safety Authority (AIFAESA) and implemented a movement ban of pig and pork products between Municipalities [reference1]. Media reported that the MAP prohibited slaughtering ASF infected pigs for their own and other animal’s consumption or for selling [reference2]. Currently, drivers to transport pigs are requested to have pig transportation’s license; pigs must be tested negative with ASFV before departure; and everybody are encouraged to follow biosecurity measures, according to media [reference3].

 

Actions taken by Papua New Guinea

 

©AIQIANAQIA stepped up its ASF national risk communications and awareness campaign; enhanced advocacy on ASF with communities, district and provincial administrations; responded work for affected provinces and preparedness activities for non-infected provinces along the highway. Farmers are urged to practice the biosecurity measures. NAQIA is considering at ways to upscale small household piggeries into commercial farming, with assistance from commercial players in the pig industry and provincial governments [reference1]. To control the movements of pigs and pork products in Highland region, four containment zones have been declared based on their infection status [reference2, reference3]; these zones are also designated as “Quarantine Areas” [reference4]; and five checkpoints at strategic points are set up. ASF Meeting on Movement of Live Pigs and Pork Products, Zoning, and Value Chain Resilience Strategy was held on 23 June [reference5], a workshop on pig value chain was held on 12 and 13 August [reference6]. Stock Inspector trainings were conducted in four regions to strengthen field capacities for ASF detection and emergency response. Consultative workshops on the Biosecurity Policy were conducted in Port Moresby and Lae. NAQIA is encouraging all provinces to develop their own ASF preparedness and response plans. ASF strategies were developed in Hela and Morobe provinces.

 

Actions taken by Viet Nam

 

The "National Plan for the Prevention and Control of African Swine Fever for the period of 2020 - 2025" was endorsed on 7 July (972/QD-TTg) set goals for ASF control, pig farm biosecurity application and laboratory capacity development to be achieved; defined restocking conditions, sampling requirements, surveillance, conditions for culling and moving-to-slaughter.

Figure 3. Cumulative number of affected communes since January 2020 in Viet Nam

Cumulative number of  affected communes since January 2020 in Viet  Nam

 

Actions taken by Lao People’s Democratic Republic

 

After ASF outbreaks confirmed in 2019, The Ministry designates Red Area around an outbreak, to control the movement of pig and pork products, and prohibits pork consumption; and yellow Area (3 km radius from the red areas) as designated surveillance zones. When ASF reemerged in June 2020, the Government has declared red zones and is implementing movement control of animals and their products, destruction, disinfection, active surveillance, etc. As of December 2020, all zones have been lifted.

 

Actions taken by Cambodia

 

Cambodia implemented movement control of live pigs, pork and pork products, stamping out, disposal and disinfection in affected villages [reference1]. According to media, to prevent the spread of ASF from neighboring countries, MAFF requested border provinces to stop illegal pig transportation into the country [reference2]; the General Directorate of Animal Health and Production (GDAHP) is implementing ASF screening test on imported pigs using ‘Portable PCR’ at border quarantine stations according to media [reference3]. Media also reported that Ministry of Agriculture has decided to gradually reduce the live pig import to stop the disease transmission and encourage local breeding [reference4]. To enhance animal health officers capacity to detect and respond to ASF, FAO and GDAHP organized trainings on investigation and emergency response for ASF in Kandal, Tboung Khmum and Ratanakiri provinces [reference5]. And, to raise awareness on ASF, its prevention and control in villages, ASF community forum has been organized in five ASF-infected provinces since 22 November 2021.

 

Actions taken by Myanmar

 

Various control measures have been implemented including movement control, surveillance within containment and protection zone, official disposal of carcasses etc., disinfestation, disinfection, and raised awareness on good animal husbandry practices [reference].

 

Actions taken by Bhutan

 

The authority has implemented 3D (Depopulation, Disposal and Disinfection) operation, surveillance in the infection and protection zones, quarantine and movement control, and sensitization and awareness raising [reference1].  Bhutan also imposed import ban and encouraged farmers’ to adopt good pig farming practices (e.g heighten farm biosecurity, properly cooked kitchen wastes before feeding pigs, etc.) [reference2].

 

Actions taken by India

 

The Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying (DAHD) released the Disease Control Strategy Plan in June 2020 as guidance for State / UT Governments for ASF prevention, control and containment [reference1]. According to media, Manipur State Veterinary Department has formed its ASF task force, while Thoubal and Imphal East District administrations have banned sales and movement of pigs/pork, feeds and related items from the control/contaminated areas [reference2, reference3]; Mizoram State restricted the procurement and supply of pigs from and to Lungsen village as a response to the outbreak [reference4]; in Assam State, the Darrang District suspended pig rearing and sales in infected areas until further notice, according to media [reference5].

 

 FAO’s recommendations

ASF virus can be transmitted through pork and pork products (raw/frozen/dried/under-cooked) in which the virus can survive for a long time. Warning signs should be placed clearly at the border/customs entry including airports and sea ports, stating the consequences of bringing pork and pork products from ASF-infected countries/regions, and instructing passengers to discard pork products in designated disposal places or to hand over to the customs personnel.

 

Countries of the region

  • Animal disease containment in its broadest sense should be prioritized within the highest levels of governments.
  • Application of strict biosecurity measures specific to the different swine producing sectors including frequent cleaning and disinfection of farms, transport vehicles, and improved husbandry practices and production systems.
  • Strengthening surveillance and monitoring of transport of live pigs as well as pork products.
  • Communication to public is to be in place to avoid the rumours leading to food safety perceptions and consumption disruption.
  • Prohibition of swill feeding where feasible; highly regulated where not.
  • Strengthening proper disposal of food waste (food services, airports, seaports), which may contain uncooked pork products.

National Considerations, Inter-Regional Collaboration and Solidarity

  • Strengthening intraregional networks on disease management and diagnostic protocols.
  • Understanding pig and pork value chains within the country and with neighbouring countries is essential for improved risk management...[and more]

 

 FAO’s actions

  • FAO ECTAD Cambodia and GDAHP is organizing ASF community forum from 22 November to 17 December 2021 in Tboung Khmum, Rattanakiri, Takeo, Svay Rieng and Kandal Provinces.
  • FAO released the new Global Animal Disease Information System - EMPRES-i + [link].
  • FAORAP launched the 3-week ASF virtual training for the Pacific Island Countries on 12 October 2021 through Virtual Learning Centre.
  • FAO ECTAD Cambodia and GDAHP organized series of trainings at provincial level on investigation and emergency response in Kandal (22-23 September), Tboung Khum (29-30 September), and Ratanakiri (12-13 October) [link]
  • FAORAP organized a virtual workshop on development of ASF tabletop simulation exercises for Asia.
  • FAO Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean (RLC) launched the ASF website. [link]
  • FAO and OIE co-organised the Standing Group of Experts for African Swine Fever (SGE-ASF) for Asia and the Pacific, held online on 2 November 2021.
  • FAO co-organised the Standing Group of Experts for African Swine Fever (SGE-ASF) for Asia and the Pacific, together with the OIE, held online on 7 September 2021
  • FAO, IUCN and OIE issued a joint communique encouraging members to increase efforts to address ASF. [link] A joint article was published in a Newsletter of the IUCN SSC Wild, Peccary and Hippo Specialist Group.
  • Third Regional GF-TADs Coordination Meeting on ASF on 25 August. [link]
  • FAO is organized a Virtual Regional Training on Value Chain Analysis for Animal Disease Risk Management, using ASF as a model. [link]
  • FAO supported NAQIA in organizing the Pig Value Chain Workshop organized in Papua New Guinea on 12-13 August 2021 in collaboration with PHAMA Plus, DFAT and NFAT. [link]
  • GF-TADs virtual meeting: Stop ASF: Public and private partnering for success. [link - meeting report]
  • FAORAP organized the third regional training of trainers on ASF detection and emergency response engaging animal health officials from Lao PDR, the Philippines and Thailand (15-26 March 2021). [meeting report]
  • FAORAP organised a 2-day virtual regional consultation workshop on ASF preparedness and response for Asia & Pacific (9-10 March 2021).

...[and more]

 

Useful links

...[and more]

 

New articles

  • Stay alert: probability of African Swine Fever introduction from Eastern Asia is almost as high as from Eastern Europe. [link]
  • Dynamical analysis of the spread of African swine fever with the live pig price in China. [link]
  • The effectiveness of community-led initiatives in livestock disease control: a case of African swine fever in rural areas of Uganda. [link]
  • Development Real-Time PCR Assays to Genetically Differentiate Vaccinated Pigs From Infected Pigs With the Eurasian Strain of African Swine Fever Virus. [link]
  • Differential antibody responses in sows and finishing pigs naturally infected with African swine fever virus under field conditions. [link]