Climate Smart Agriculture Sourcebook

Managing landscapes for Climate-Smart Agriculture systems



Asquith, N.M. Vargas, M.T. & Wunder, S. 2008. Selling two environmental services: In kind payments for bird habitats and watershed protection in Los Negros, Bolivia. Ecological Economics, 4: 675-684.

Balint, P.J., Stewart, R.E., Desai, A. & Walters, L.C. 2011. Wicked environmental problems: managing uncertainty and conflict. Washington DC (USA): Island Press.

Biancalani, R. & Avagyan, A. 2014. Towards climate-responsible peatlands management. Mitigation of Climate Change in Agriculture Series 9. Rome, FAO.

Bond, I. & Mayers, J. 2010. Fair deals for watershed services: Lessons from a multi-country action-learning project. Natural Resource Issues No. 13. IIED, London.

Carr, E.R. & Thompson, M.C. 2014. Gender and Climate Change Adaptation in Agrarian Settings: Current Thinking, New Directions, and Research Frontiers. Geography Compass, 8 (3): 182-197.

Chang, H. & Bonnette, M.R. 2016. Climate change and water-related ecosystem services: impacts of drought in California, USA. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability, 2(12).

Conant, R. 2009. Challenges and opportunities for carbon sequestration in grassland systems. Technical report. Rome, FAO.

Duguma, L.A, Minang, P.A. & van Noordwijk, V. 2014a. Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in the Land Use Sector: From Complementarity to Synergy. Environmental Management, 54 (3): 420–432.

Duguma, L.A, Minang, P.A., Wambugu, S.W. & van Noordwijk, V. 2014b. A systematic analysis of enabling conditions for synergy between climate change mitigation and adaptation measures in developing countries. Environmental science & policy, 42 138–148.

Engel, S. Pagiola, S. & Wunder, S. 2008. Designing payments for environmental services in theory and practice: An overview of the issues. Ecological Economics, 65: 663-674.

FAO. 2011a. Framework programme on climate-change adaptation. FAO Adapt. Rome. 

FAO. 2011b. LADA methodology and results website. Rome.

FAO. 2012a. Mainstreaming climate-smart agriculture into a broader landscape approach. Background Paper for the Second Global Conference on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change Hanoi, Vietnam, 3-7 September 2012.

FAO. 2012b. Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security. Rome. 

FAO. 2012c. AQUASTAT website. [online] Rome.

FAO. 2013. Climate-smart agriculture sourcebook. Rome. 558 pp.

FAO. 2015. Climate change and food systems: global assessments and implications for food security and trade. Rome. 

FAO. 2016a. Climate change and food security: risks and responses. Rome.

FAO. 2016b. Negotiation, environment and territorial development green negotiated territorial development (GREENTD) more than a methodology- an approach for improving equitable access and sustainable management of territories. Rome.

FAO. 2017a. The charcoal transition: greening the charcoal value chain to mitigate climate change and improve local livelihoods, by J. van Dam. Rome.

FAO. 2017b. Sustainable Land Management (SLM) in Practice in the Kagera Basin: Lessons Learned for Scaling up at Landscape Level. Rome.

FAO-WOCAT. 2011. Questionnaire for mapping land degradation and sustainable land management (QM) v2. Rome.

Fisher, B. Turner, R.K., Burgess, N.D., Swetnam, R.D., Green, J., Green, R., Kajembe, G., Kulindwa, K., Lewis, S.L., Marchant, R., Marshall, A.R., Madoffe, S., Munishi, P.K.T., Morse-Jones, S., Mwakalila, S., Paavola, J., Naidoo, R., Ricketts, T., Rouget, M., Willcock, S., White, S., & Balmford, A. 2011. Measuring, modelling and mapping ecosystem services in the eastern arc mountains of Tanzania. Progress in Phys. Geog., 35: 595-611.

Harvey, C.A., Chacón, M., Donatti, C.I., Garen, E., Hannah, L., Andrade, A., Bede, L., Brown, D., Calle, A., Chará, J., Clement, C., Gray, E., Hoang, M.H., Minang, P., Rodríguez, A.M., Seeberg-Elverfeldt, C., Semroc, B., Shames, S., Smukler, S., Somarriba, E., Torquebiau, E., van Etten, J. & Wollenberg, E. 2014. Climate-Smart Landscapes: Opportunities and Challenges for Integrating Adaptation and Mitigation in Tropical Agriculture. Conservation Letters, 7: 77–90.

Holmgren, P. 2012. Landscapes for sustainable development. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) Forests News Blog.

Hsiang, M.S., Burke, M. & Miguel, E. 2013. Quantifying the influence of climate on human conflict. Science, 341 (6151): 1235367.

IPCC. 2014. Summary for policymakers. In Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B., V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 1-32.

Jeanes, K., Van Noordwijk, M., Joshi, L., Widayati, A., Farida, Leimona, B. 2006. Rapid Hydrological Appraisal in the context of environmental service rewards. World Agroforestry Centre - ICRAF SEA Regional Office, Bogor.

LPFN. 2016. Landscape for people, food and nature [online]. [19 September 2016]. 

MacLeod, M., Gerber, P., Mottet, A., Tempio, G., Falcucci, A., Opio, C., Vellinga, T., Henderson, B. & Steinfeld, H. 2013. Greenhouse gas emissions from pig and chicken supply chains – A global life cycle assessment. Rome, FAO.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA). 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Washington D.C., Island Press. 155 pp.

Minang, P.A., van Noordwijk, M., Freeman, O.E., Mbow, C., de Leeuw, J. & Catacutan, D., eds. 2015. Climate-smart landscapes: multifunctionality in practice. Nairobi, Kenya: World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF). 444 pp. (available at 

Nyssen, J., Poesen, J., Gebremichael, D., Vancampenhout, K., D’aes, M., Yindego, G., Govers, G., Leirs, H., Moeyersons, J., Naudts, J., Haregeeweyn, N., Haile, M. & Deckers, J. 2007. Interdisciplinary on-site evaluation of stone bunds to control soil erosion on cropland in Northern Ethiopia. Soil & Tillage Research, 94: 151-163.

Ponette-Gonzalez, A.G., Brauman, K.A., Marin-Spiotta, E., Farley, K.A., Weathers, K.C., Young, K.R. & Curran, L.M. 2014. Managing water services in tropical regions: from land cover proxies to hydrological fluxes. Ambio, 44(5): 367-375.

Porras, I., Alyward, B. & Dengel, J. 2013. IIED, London. 36 pp.

Reij, C., Tappan, G. & Smale, M. 2009. Re-greening the Sahel: farmer-led innovation in Burkina Faso and Niger.

Rio Rural. 2016. Integrated climate approach of RIO RURAL programme to family based agriculture in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Preliminary version 18th of February 2016. 

Sangha Group. 2008. The ‘Sangha guidelines’ for landscape approaches. Learning from Landscapes: The IUCN Forest Conservation Programme 2008. IUCN & Ecoagriculture Partners. Arborvitaespecial.

Sayer, J., Sunderland, T., Ghazoul, J., Pfund, J.L., Sheil, D., Meijaard, E., Ventera, M.,  Boedhihartonoa, A.G., Dayb, M., Garciab, C., van Oosten, C. & Buck, L.E. 2013. Ten principles for a landscape approach to reconciling agriculture, conservation, and other competing land uses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110 (21): 8349-8356.

Shames, S., Scherr, S.J., Wallace, C., Hatcher, J. 2011. Integrating Agendas for Forests, Agriculture and Climate Change Mitigation: Rationale and Recommendations for Landscape Strategies, National Policy and International Climate Action. Ecoagriculture Discussion Paper no. 7. EcoAgriculture Partners, Washington, DC.

Scherr, S. 2013. Food Security and Sustainable Resource Use: Comments. Food security futures. Dublin, Ireland.

Scherr, S.J., Shames, S. & Friedman, R. 2012. From climate-smart agriculture to climate-smart landscapes. Agriculture & Food Security, 1: 1–12.

Scherr, S., Shames, S.J. & Friedman, R. 2013. Defining integrated landscape management for policy makers. Ecoagriculture Policy Focus, No. 10. EcoAgriculture Partners, Washington, DC.

Smith, S., Rowcroft, P., Everard, M., Couldrick, L., Reed, M., Rogers, H., Quick, T., Eves, C. & Whicte, C. 2013. Payments for ecosystem services: a best practice guide. DEFRA, London. 85 pp.

Sunderland, T. 2012. Landscape guidelines and principles. Presentation at conference. Bogor, Indonesia, CI-FOR. 

Sunderland, T. 2014. ‘Landscape approach’ defies simple definition — and that’s good. Bogor, Indonesia, CI-FOR.

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). 2015. Reconciling resource uses in transboundary basins: assessment of the water-food-energy-ecosystems nexus

Unger-Shayesteh, K., Vorogushyn, S., Farinotti, D., Gafurov, A., Duethmann, D., Mandychev, A. & Merz, B. 2013. What do we know about past changes in the water cycle of Central Asian headwaters? A review. Global and Planetary Change, 110 (A) : 4-25.

Van Ginkel, M., Sayer, J., Sinclair, F., Aw-Hassan, A., Bossio, D., Craufurd, P., El Mourid, M., Haddad, N., Hoisington, D., Johnson, N., Velarde, C.L., Mares, V., Mude, A., Nefzaoui, A., Noble, A., Rao, K.P.C., Serraj, R., Tarawali, S., Vodouhe, R. & Ortiz, R. 2013. An integrated agro-ecosystem and livelihood systems approach for the poor and vulnerable in dry areas. Food Security, 5(6): 751-767.

Van Oosten, C. 2015. The landscape puzzle: An introduction to the landscape approach. Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR.

World Bank. 2011. Climate-smart agriculture: increased productivity and food security, enhancing resilience and reduced carbon emissions for sustainable development, opportunities and challenges for a converging agenda: country examples. Washington D.C.

Wunder, S. 2015. Revisiting the concept of payments for environmental services. Ecological Economics, 117: 234-243.