Climate Smart Agriculture Sourcebook

The role of gender in Climate-Smart Agriculture

Enabling Frameworks


Action Aid, 2013. Unpaid Care Work. Resource Guide, 2017.

Adger, W.N. 2003. Social capital, collective action, and adaptation to climate change. Economic Geography, 79(4): 387-404.

Ali, D., Bowen, D., Deininger, K. & Duponchel, M. 2015. Investigating the gender gap in agricultural productivity: Evidence from Uganda. Policy Research Working Paper, No.7262, The World Bank.

Asfaw, S.; Maggio, G. 2017. Gender, Weather Shocks and Welfare: Evidence from Malawi. The Journal of Development Studies.

Berti, P. R., Krasevec, J., & FitzGerald, S. 2004. A review of the effectiveness of agriculture interventions in improving nutrition outcomes. Public Health Nutrition, 7(5), 599-609.  

Beuchelt, T.D., and L. Badstue. 2013. Gender, Nutrition, and Climate-smart Food Production: Opportunities and Trade-offs. Food Security 5: 709–21.

Bradshaw, S. & Fordham, M. 2013. Women, Girls and Disasters. A review for DFID.

CCAFS. 2014. Gender and Inclusion Toolbox: Participatory Research in Climate Change and Agriculture.

Chipande, G.H.R. 1987. Innovation Adoption among Female headed Households: the case of Malawi. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 18, 315-327.

Climate Policy Initiative. 2015. Global landscape of climate finance 2015.

Doss, C.R. 2001. Designing Agricultural Technology for African Women Farmers: Lessons from 25 Years of Experience. World Development 29(12): 2075–92.

FAO. 2011a. State of Food and Agriculture 2011. Women in Agriculture: Closing the gender gap for development. Rome. 

FAO 2011b. Sustainable Land Management in Practice. Rome. 

FAO. 2013. Climate-smart Agriculture Sourcebook. Rome.

FAO. 2016. Developing gender-sensitive value chains – A guiding framework. Rome

FAO & CCAFS. 2012. Training Guide: Gender and climate change issues in agriculture and food security research and rural development.

Farnworth, C., P. Kristjanson, and E. Rijke. 2013. Climate smart’ Agriculture and Beyond. In Transforming Gender Relations in Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by C. Farnworth, M. Fones Sundell, A. Nzioki, V. Shivutse, and M. Davis. Stockholm: Swedish International Agricultural Network Initiative (SIANI), Stockholm Environment Institute, and SIDA. 

Goh, A. 2012. A literature review of the gender-differentiated impacts of climate change on women’s  and men’s assets and well-being in developing countries CAPRi Working Paper No. 106). Washington, DC.

GSMA Development Fund. 2010. Women & Mobile: A Global Opportunity: A study on the mobile phone gender gap in low and middle-income countries.

Hansen, J. W., S. J. Mason, L. Sun, and A. Tall. 2011. Review of seasonal climate forecasting for agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. Experimental Agriculture 47 (2): 205–240.

IPPC. 2013. Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

Jost, F.,  Kyazze F., Naab J., Neelormi S., Kinyangi J., Zougmore R., Aggarwal P., Bhatta P., Chaudhury M., Tapio-Bistrom M., Nelson S.; Kristjanson P. 2016. Understanding gender dimensions of agriculture and climate change in smallholder farming communities.Climate and Development, 8:2, 133-144.

Kasperson, J.X., Kasperson, R.E. & Turner, B.L. 1995. Regions at Risk: Comparisons of Threatened Environments. Tokyo: United Nations University Press. 

Kilic, Talip, Zezza, Carletto and Savastano. 2013. Missing(ness) in Action: Selectivity Bias in GPS-Based Land Area Measurements. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 6490.

Kilic, T.,  Palacios-Lopez and Goldstein. 2014. Caught in a Productivity Trap: A Distributional Perspective on Gender Differences in Malawian Agriculture. World Development 70: 416-463.

Lambrou, Y. and Nelson, S. 2010. Farmers in a changing climate – Does gender matter? Food security in Andra Bradesh. FAO, Rome.

Lane, R. & McNaught, R. 2009. Building gendered approaches to adaptation in the Pacific. Gender & Development, 17: 67-80.

Lobell D; Lantz C, Hertel T. 2013 Climate adaptation as mitigation: the case of agricultural investments Environmental Research Letters. 8(1): 015012.

Meinzen-Dick, R., Bernier Q. & Haglund, E. 2013. The Six ‘ins’ of Climate-smart Agriculture: Inclusive Institutions for Information, Innovation, Investment, and Insurance. CAPRi Working Paper No. 114. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC.

Njuki, J., E. Kruger, and L. Starr. 2013. Increasing the Productivity and Empowerment of Women Smallholder Farmers: Results of a Baseline Assessment from Six Countries in Africa and Asia. Care USA, Altlanta, GA. 

Momsen, J. H. 2010. Gender and Development (2nd Ed.). London and New York: Routledge

Newsham, A. J. & Thomas, D. S. G. 2011. Knowing, farming and climate change adaptation in North-Central Namibia. Global Environmental Change, 21, 761-770.

OECD-DAC Network on Gender Equality. 2015. Making climate finance work for women: Overview of bilateral ODA to gender and climate change.

Overseas Development Institute (ODI). 2015. Gender and Climate finance brief

Otzelberger, A. 2011. Gender-Responsive Strategies on Climate Change: Recent Progress and Ways Forward for Donors. Institute of Development Studies.

Peterman, A., Behrman, J.A. & Quisumbing, A.R. 2014. A Review of Empirical Evidence on Gender Differences in Nonland Agricultural Inputs, Technology, and Services in Developing Countries. A.R. Quisumbing, R. Meinzen-Dick, T.L. Raney, A. Croppenstedt, J.A. Behrman, A. Peterman (Eds.), Gender in Agriculture, Springer, Netherlands.

Peterson, K. 2007. Reaching Out to Women When Disaster Strikes. Soroptimist White Paper

Quisumbing, A.R., S. McNiven, and M. Godquin. 2012. Shocks, Groups, and Networks in Bukidnon, the Philippines. Chapter 4 in Collective Action and Property Rights for Poverty Reduction: Insights from Africa and Asia, edited by E. Mwangi, H. Markelova, and R. Meinzen-Dick. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Quisumbing, A.R., D. Rubin, C. Manfre, E. Waithanji, M. van den Bold, D. Olney, and N. Johnson. 2015. Gender, Assets, and Market-oriented Agriculture: Learning from High-value Crop and Livestock Projects in Africa and Asia. Agriculture and Human Values. 

Slavchevska, Vanya; Kaaria, Susan; Taivalmaa, Sanna-Liisa. 2016. Feminization of Agriculture in the Context of Rural Transformations : What is the Evidence?. World Bank, Washington, DC.

Sovacool, B.K., Kryman, M. & Smith, T.C. 2014. Energy, poverty, and development: A global review. In Sovacool, B.K. (ed.) Energy, Poverty, and Development, Critical Concepts in Development Studies Series, pp. 1–126. Routledge, London, UK.

Sovacool B., Kryman M. and Smith T. 2015; Scaling and commercializing mobile biogas systems in Kenya: A qualitative pilot study. Renewable Energy, 76: 115-125.

Swanson, B.E., & Rajalahti, R.  2010. Strengthening agricultural extension and advisory systems: procedures for assessing, transforming, and evaluating extension systems. Agriculture and rural Development Discussion Paper 45.

Twyman, J., Green, M., Bernier, Q., Kristjanson, P., Russo, S., Tall, A., Ampaire, E., Nyasimi, M., Mango, J., McKune, S., Mwongera, C. and Ndourba, Y. 2014. Gender and Climate Change Perceptions, Adaptation Strategies, and Information Needs Preliminary Results from four sites in Africa. CCAFS Working Paper no. 83. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Copenhagen, Denmark.

UN Women. 2015. The cost of the gender gap in agricultural productivity in Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda. New York: UN Women, United Nations Development Programme–United Nations Environment Programme Poverty-Environment Initiative (UNDP-UNEP PEI) Africa, and the World Bank.

UN Women & Green Climate Fund. 2016. Leveraging co-benefits between gender equality and climate action for sustainable development.

UN Women & Green Climate Fund. 2017. Mainstreaming Gender in Green Climate Fund Projects.

Warburton, H., R. Blake, S. Coupe, K. Pasteur, and E. Phillips. 2011. Bridging the Gap between Resource-poor Farmers and Extension Services: The Role of Community-Based Extension Systems. Presented at the International Conference on Innovations in Extension and Advisory Services, Nairobi, 15–18 November. 

World Bank. 2009. Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook. Washington, D.C. World Bank.

World Bank, FAO & IFAD. 2015. Gender in climate Smart Agricutlure,. Module 18 of the Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook. World Bank, Washington DC.

World Bank & FAO. 2017. Training Module. How to integrate gender issues in climate-smart agriculture projects.