Climate Smart Agriculture Sourcebook

Climate-smart forestry

Production and Resources


Aragão, L. E. O. C., Malhi, Y., Barbier, N., Lima, A., Shimabukuro, Y., Anderson, L. & Saatchi, S. 2008. Interactions between rainfall, deforestation and fires during recent years in the Brazilian Amazonia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363(1498): 1779-1785.

Arneth, A., Harrison, S. P., Zaehle, S., Tsigaridis, K., Menon, S., Bartlein, P. J., Feichter, J., Korhola, A., Kulmala, M., O'Donnell, D., Schurgers, G., Sorvari, S. & Vesala, T. 2010. Terrestrial biogeochemical feedbacks in the climate system. Nature Geoscience 3, 525 - 532

Barona, E., Ramankutty, N., Hyman, G. & Coomes, O.T. 2010. The role of pasture and soybean in deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon. Environmental Research Letters, 5 (2): 9.

Bauer, Z., Trnka, M., Bauerova, J., Mozny, M., Stepanek, P., Bartosova, L. & Zalud, Z. 2010. Changing climate and the phenological response of great tit and collared flycatcher populations in floodplain forest ecosystems in Central Europe. International Journal of Biometeorology 54 (1): 99-111.

Berkes, F. 2008. Sacred ecology. Second edition. Routledge, New York.

Blanke, M. & Kunz, A. 2009. Einfluss rezenter Klimaveränderungen auf die Phänologie bei Kernobst am Standort Klein-Altendorf - anhand 50-jähriger Aufzeichnungen. Erwerbs-Obstbau 51(3): 101-114.

Boscolo, M., Snook, L.K. & Quevedo, L. 2009. Adoption of sustainable forest management practices in Bolivian timber concessions: a quantitative assessment. International Forestry Review, 11(4): 514-523. 

Breshears, D. D., Huxman, T. E., Adams, H.D., Zou, C.B. & Davison, J.E. 2008. Vegetation synchronously leans upslope as climate warms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(33): 11591-11592.

Burton, P.J., Bergeron, Y., Bogdansky, B.E.C., Juday, G.P., Kuuluvainen, T., McAfee, B.J., Ogden, A., Teplyakov, V.K., Alfaro, R.I., Francis, D.A., Gauthier, S. & Hantula, J. 2010. Sustainability of boreal forests and forestry in a changing environment. In: Mery, G., Katila, P., Galloway, G., Alfaro, R., Kanninen, M., Lobovikov, M., Varjo, J., (eds) 2010. Forests and society - responding to global drivers of change. IUFRO World Series Vol. 25. Pp 249-282.

Cattaneo, A. 2005. Inter-regional innovation in Brazilian agriculture and deforestation in the Amazon: income and environment in the balance. Environment and Development Economics, 10(04): 485-511. 

Cattaneo, A. 2008. Regional comparative advantage, location of agriculture, and deforestation in Brazil. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 27(1-2): 25-42. Chakraborty et al., 2008.

CIFOR. Undated. Forests and climate change. Webpage (available at Accessed June 2017. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).

Clark, D.A., Piper, S.C., Keeling, C.D. & Clark, D.B. 2003. Tropical rain forest tree growth and atmospheric carbon dynamics linked to interannual temperature variation during 1984-2000. PNAS 100 (10): 5852-5857.

Cohn, A.S., Mosnier, A., Havlík, P., Valin, H., Herrero, M., Schmid, E., O’Hare, M. & Obersteiner, M. 2014. Cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by sparing land from deforestation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(20): 7236-7241.

Cardona, O.D., M.K. van Aalst, J. Birkmann, M. Fordham, G. McGregor, R. Perez, R.S. Pulwarty, E.L.F. Schipper, and B.T. Sinh, 2012: Determinants of risk: exposure and vulnerability. In: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation [Field, C.B., V. Barros, T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, D.J. Dokken, K.L. Ebi, M.D. Mastrandrea, K.J. Mach, G.-K. Plattner, S.K. Allen, M. Tignor, and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA, pp. 65-108.

FAO. 2007. Fire management : global assessment 2006 : a thematic study prepared in the framework of the Global forest resources assessment 2005. Rome.

FAO. 2009. Situación de los bosques del mundo 2009. Rome.

FAO. 2010. Global forest resources assessment 2010:full report. FAO Forestry Paper 163. Rome.

FAO. 2011. Forests for improved nutrition and food security. Rome.

FAO. 2012. Roles of forests in climate change. Webpage. Accessed June 2017. 

FAO. 2013. Climate change guidelines for forest managers. FAO Forestry Paper No. 172. Rome.

FAO. 2014. State of the World’s Forests: Enhancing the socioeconomic benefits from forests. Rome.

Feeley, K.J., Wright, S.J., Nur Supardi, M.N., Kassim, A.R. & Davies, S.J. 2007. Decelerating growth in tropical forest trees. Ecology Letters 10: 461-469.

Fischlin, A., Ayres, M., Karnosky, D., Kellomäki, S., Louman, B., Ong, C., Plattner, C., Santoso, H., Thompson, I, Booth, T., Marcar, N., Scholes, B., Swanston, C. & Zamolodchikov, D. 2009. Future environmental impacts and vulnerabilities. In: Seppala, R., Buck, A. & Katila, P. 2009. Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. IUFRO World Series 22. Geist and Lambin, 2002.

Geist, H. J., Lambin, E. F. 2002. Proximate causes and underlying driving forces of tropical deforestation: tropical forests are disappearing as the result of many pressures, both local and regional, acting in various combinations in different geographical locations. Bioscience, 52: 143-150.

Gibson, L., Lee, T. M., Koh, L. P., Brook, B. W., Gardner, T. A., Barlow, J., Peres, C. A., Bradshaw, C. J. A., Laurance, W. F., Lovejoy, T. E. & Sodhi, N. S. 2011. Primary forests are irreplaceable for sustaining tropical biodiversity. Nature 478, 378-381.

Girardin, M. P., Raulier, F., Bernier, P.Y. & Tardif, J.C. 2008. Response of tree growth to a changing climate in boreal central Canada: A comparison of empirical, process-based, and hybrid modelling approaches. Ecological Modelling 213(2): 209-228.

Gordo, O. & Sanz, J.J. 2010. Impact of climate change on plant phenology in Mediterranean ecosystems. Global Change Biology 16 (3): 1082-1106.

Held, I. M., T. L. Delworth, J. Lu, K. L. Findell, and T. R. Knutson., 2005. Simulation of Sahel drought in the 20th and 21st centuries. Proc. Nat. Acad. Science, 102, 17891-17896.

Helms, J. A., 1998. The Dictionary of Forestry. Society of American Foresters.

Hosonuma, N.M., Herold, V., De Sy, R.S., De Fries, M., Brockhaus, L., Verchot, A., Angelsen, E. & Romijn, E. 2012. An assessment of deforestation and forest degradation drivers in developing countries. Environmental Research Letters, 7: 044009.

Innes, J., Joyce, L.A., Kellomäki, S., Louman, B., Ogden, A., Parrotta, J., Thompson, I., Ayres, M., Ong, C., Santoso, H., Sohngen, B. & Wreford, A. 2009. Management for adapatation. In: Seppala, R., Buck, A. & Katila, P. 2009. Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. IUFRO World Series 22. 

Jepsen, J. U., Hagen, S. B., Ims, R.A. & Yoccoz, N.G. 2008. Climate change and outbreaks of the geometrids Operophtera brumata and Epirrita autumnata in subarctic birch forest: evidence of a recent outbreak range expansion. Journal of Animal Ecology 77 (2): 257-264

Ræbild, A., Larsen, A. S., Jensen, J. S., Ouedraogo, M., De Groote, S., Van Damme, P., Bayala, J., Diallo, B.O., Sanou, H., Kallinganire, A. & Kjær, E. D. 2011. Advances in domestication of indigenous fruit trees in the West African Sahel. New Forests, 41(3), 297-315

Jimenez, M., Finegan, B., Herrera, B., Imbach, P. & Delgado, D. 2009. Resiliencia de las zonas de vida de Costa Rica al cambio climático. Presentación XIII World Forestry Congress, Argentina, 18-23 October 2009. 

Kaimowitz, D. 2001. Cuatro medio verdades: la relación bosques y agua en Centroamérica. Revista Forestal Centroamericana (33): 6-10.

Keenan T.F., Gray, J., Friedl, M., Toomey, M., Bohrer, G., Hollinger, D.Y., Munger, J.W., O'Keefe, J., Schmid, H.P., Sue Wing, I., Yang, B., Richardson, A.D. 2014. Net carbon uptake has increased through warming-induced changes in temperate forest phenology. Nature Climate Change, 4, 598-604. 

Kurz, W. A., Stinson, G., Rampley, G.J., Dymond, C.C. & Neilson, E.T. 2008. Risk of natural disturbances makes future contribution of Canada's forests to the global carbon cycle highly uncertain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (5): 1551-1555

Lapola, D., Schaldach, R., Alcamo, J., Bondeau, A., Koch, J., Kölking, C. & Priess, J. 2010. Indirect land-use changes can overcome carbon savings by biofuels in Brazil. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 107: 3388-3393.

LeBauer, D. S. & Treseder, K. K. 2008. Nitrogen limitation of net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems is globally distributed. Ecology 89 (2): 371-379

Locatelli, B., Brockhaus, M., Buck, A., Thompson, I., Bahamondez, C., Murdock, T., Roberts, G. & Webbe, J. 2010. Forests and adaptation to climate change: challenges and opportunities. In: Mery, G., Katila, P., Galloway, G., Alfaro, R., Kanninen, M., Lobovikov, M., Varjo, J. eds. 2010. Forests and society - responding to global drivers of change. IUFRO World Series Vol. 25. 

Lucier, A., Ayres, M., Karnosky, D., Thompson, I., Loehle, C., Percy, K. & Sohngen, B. 2009. Forest responses and vulnerabilities to recent climate change. In: Seppala, R., Buck, A. & Katila, P. 2009. Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. IUFRO World Series 22. 

Malhi, Y., Timmons Roberts, J., Betts, R.A., Killeen, T.J., Li, W. & Nobre, C.A. 2008. Climate change, deforestation, and the fate of the Amazon. Science 319(5860): 169-172.

Mayle, F. E. & Power, M. J. 2008. Impact of a drier early-mid Holocene climate upon Amazonian forests. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Biological Sciences 363(1498): 1829-1838.

McMillan, A. M. S., Winston, G. C. & Goulden, M.L. 2008. Age-dependent response of boreal forest to temperature and rainfall variability. Global Change Biology 14 (8): 1904-1916.

Nepstad, D. C., Stickler, C. M., Soares-Filho, B. & Merry, F. 2008. Interactions among Amazon land use, forests and climate: prospects for a near-term forest tipping point. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Biological Sciences 363 (1498): 1737-1746. 

Nkem, J., Kalame, F.B., Idinoba, M., Somorin, O.A., Ndoye, O., Awono, A., 2010. Shaping forest safety nets with markets: adaptation to climate change under changing roles of tropical forests in Congo Basin. Environmental Science and Policy 13, 498-508.

Ollinger, S., C. Goodale, Hayhoe, K. & Jenkins, J.P. 2008. Potential effects of climate change and rising CO2 on ecosystem processes in northeastern U.S. forests. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 13 (5): 467-485.Osman-Elasha et al., 2009.

Osman-Elasha, B., Parrotta, J., Adger, N., Brockhaus, M., Pierce Colfer, C.J., Sohngen, B., Dafalla, T., Joyce, L.A., Nkem, J. & Robledo, C. 2009. Future socioeconomic impacts and vulnerabilities. In: Seppala, R., Buck, A. & Katila, P. Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. IUFRO World Series 22.

Pacheco P., Aguilar-Støen, M., Börner, J., Etter, A., Putzel, L. & Vera Diaz, M.C. 2011. Landscape transformation in tropical Latin America: assessing trends and policy implications for REDD+. Forests, 2: 1-29

Parrotta, J., Youn Y.-C. & Camacho, L.D. 2016. Traditional knowledge for sustainable forest management and provision of ecosystem services. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, 12(1-2): 1-4.

Peterson, D.J., Resetar, S., Brower, J. & Diver, R. 1999. Forest monitoring and remote sensing. A survey of accomplishments and opportunities for the future. RAND Science and technology Policy Institute, Washington DC

Phillips, O.L., Lewis, S.L., Baker, T.R., Chao, K-J. & Higuchi, N. 2008. The changing Amazon forest. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363 (1498): 1819-1827.

Pielke, R. A., Pitman, A., Niyogi, D., Mahmood, R., McAlpine, C., Hossain, F., Goldewijk, K. K., Nair ,U., Betts, R., Fall, S., Reichstein, M., Kabat, P. & de Noblet-Ducoudré, N. 2011. Land use/land cover changes and climate: modeling analysis and observational evidence. WIREs Climate Change, Vol 2; Issue 6; pp. 828-850

Postel, S.L. & Thompson, B.H. 2005. Watershed protection: capturing the benefits of nature's water supply services. Natural Resources Forum 29(2):98-108. 

Rametsteiner, E. & Whiteman, A. 2014. The socioeconomic benefits of forests. Tropical Forest Update, 23(2): 3-6.

Ravindranath, N.H. 2007. Mitigation and adaptation synergy in forest sector. Global Change 12: 843. 

Reich, P. B. & Oleksyn, J. 2008. Climate warming will reduce growth and survival of Scots pine except in the far north. Ecology Letters 11 (6): 588-597

Rosenzweig, C., Casassa, G., Karoly, D.J., Imeson, A., Liu, C., Menzel, A., Rawlins, S., Root, T.L., Seguin, B. & Tryjanowski, P. 2007. Assessment of observed changes and responses in natural and managed systems. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Saigusa, N., Yamamoto, S., Hirata, R., Ohtani, Y., Ide, R., Asanuma, J., Gamo, M., Hirano, T., Kondo, H., Kosugi, Y., Li, S-G., Nakai, Y., Takagi, K., Tani, M. & Wang, H. 2008. Temporal and spatial variations in the seasonal patterns of CO2 flux in boreal, temperate, and tropical forests in East Asia. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 148 (5): 700-713.

Sánchez Chávez, O. 2009. El pago por servicios ambientales del Fondo Nacional de Financiamiento Forestal (FONAFIFO), un mecanismo para lograr la adaptación al cambio climático en Costa Rica. In: Sepúlveda, C. & Ibrahim, M. eds. Políticas y sistemas de incentivos para el fomento y adopción de buenas prácticas agrícolas, como una medida de adaptación al cambio climático en América Central. Serie técnica No. 37, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.

Shanahan, T.M., Overpeck, J.T., Anchukaitis, K.J., Beck, J.W., Cole, J.E., Dettman, D.L., Peck, J.A., Scholz, C.A. & King, J.W. 2009. Atlantic forcing of persistent drought in West Africa. Science 324 # 5925, pp. 377-380. 

Skutsch, M., van Laake, P., Zahabu, E., Karky, B.S. & Phartiyal, P. 2009. Community monitoring in REDD+. In: Angelsen, A. ed. Realising REDD: national strategy and options. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia. 

Stadtmüller, T. 1994. El impacto hidrológico del manejo forestal de bosques naturales tropicales: medidas para mitigarlo. Una revisión bibliográfica. Serie técnica, informe técnico No. 240, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. 

UNFCCC. 2015. Adoption of the Paris Agreement. FCCC/CP/2015/L.9. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Van de Sand, I., J. K. Mwangi, and S. Namirembe. 2014. Can payments for ecosystem services contribute to adaptation to climate change? Insights from a watershed in Kenya. Ecology and Society 19(1): 47.

Weber, J.C., Larwanou, M., Abasse, T.A., Kalinganire, A. 2008. Growth and survival of Prosopis africana provenances tested in Niger and related to rainfall gradients in the West African Sahel. Forest Ecology and Management, 256:585-592.