Climate Smart Agriculture Sourcebook

Sustainable soil/land management for Climate-Smart Agriculture

Production and Resources


Bergström, L. 1995. Leaching of dichlorprop and nitrate in structured soil. Environmental Pollution, 87: 189- 195.

Bhattacharyya, R., Fullen, M.A., Booth, C.A., Kertesz, A., Toth, A., Szalai, Z., Kozma, K., Jakab, G., Jankauskas, B., Jankauskiene, G., Bühmann, C., Paterson, G., Mulibana, E., Nell, J.P., van der Merwe, G.M.E., Guerra, A.J.T., Mendonça, J.K.S., Guerra, T.T., Sathler, R, Bezerra, J.F.R., Peres, S.M., Yi, Z., Yongmei, L., Li, T., Panomtarachichigul, M. Peukrai, S., Thu, D.C., Cuong, T.H. & Toan, T.T. 2011. Effeciveness of biological geotextiles on soil and water conservation in different agro-environments. Special Issue. Land Degradation and Development: The use of biological geotextiles, 22: 495-504.

Bhattacharyya, R., Fullen, M.A., Davies, K., & Booth, C.A. 2009. Utilizing palm leaf geotextile mats to conserve loamy sand soil in the United Kingdom. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 130: 50-58.

Bhattacharyya, R., Pandey, S.C., Bisht, J.K., Bhatt, J.C., Gupta, H.S., Tuti, M.D., Mahanta, D., Mina, B.L., Singh, R.D., Chandra, S., Srivastva, A.K. & Kundu, S. 2013. Tillage and irrigation effects on soil aggregation and carbon pools in the Indian sub-Himalayas. Agronomy Journal, 105: 101-112.

Bhattacharyya, R., Tuti, M.D., Kundu, S., Bisht, J.K. & Bhatt, J.C. 2012a. Conservation tillage impacts on soil aggregation and carbon pools in a sandy clay loam soil of the Indian Himalayas. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 76: 617-627.

Bhattacharyya, R., Tuti, M.D., Bisht, J.K. Bhatt, J.C. & Gupta, H.S. 2012b. Conservation tillage and fertilization impacts on soil aggregation and carbon pools in the Indian Himalayas under an irrigated rice-wheat rotation. Soil Science, 177: 218-228.

Bhattacharyya, R., Zheng Yi, Li Yongmei, Tang, Li, Panomtarachichigul, M. Peukrai, S., Dao Chau Thu, Tran Huu Cuong, Truong Thi Toan, Jankauskas, B., Jankauskiene, G., Fullen, M.A., Subedi, M. & Booth, C.A. 2012c. Effects of biological geotextiles on aboveground biomass production in selected agro-ecosystems. Field Crops Research, 126: 23-36.

Bot, A. & Benites, J. 2005. The importance of soil organic matter key to drought-resistant soil and sustained food production. FAO Soils Bulletin. No. 80. Rome, FAO.

Brown, S. & Lugo, E. 1990. Tropical secondary forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 6: 1-32.

Cerri, C.E.P., Easter, M., Paustian, K., Killian, K., Coleman, K., Bernoux, M., Falloon, P., Powlson, D.S., Batjes, N.H., Milne, E. & Cerri, C.C. 2007. Predicted soil organic carbon stocks and changes in the Brazilian Amazon between 2000 and 2030. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 122: 58-72.

Charman, P.E.V. & Roper, M.M. 2000. Soil organic matter (SOM). In P.E.V. Charman & B.W. Murphy, eds. Soils: Their Properties and Management. Oxford University Press. pp 260-270.

Cluff, D. & Seis, C. 1997. Should farmers and graziers be garmers and fraziers? In Landcare Best Practice: 22-23. Landcare Changing Australia National Conference, Adelaide.

Corsi, S., Friedrich, T., Kassam, A., Pisante, M. & Sà, J.M. 2012. Soil organic carbon accumulation and carbon budget in conservation agriculture: a review of evidence. Vol. 16. FAO Integrated Crop Management.

Das, T.K., Bhattacharyya, R., Sudhishri, S., Sharma, A.R., Saharawat, Y.S., Bandyopadhyay, K.K., Sepat, S., Bana, R.S., Aggarwal, P., Sharma, R.K., Bhatia, A., Singh, G., Datta, S.P., Kar, A., Singh, B., Parmendra, S., Pathak, H., Vyas, A.K. & Jat, M.L. 2014. Conservation agriculture in an irrigated cotton-wheat system of the western Indo-Gangetic Plains: Crop and water productivity and economic profitability. Field Crops Research, 158: 24-33. 

Davies, D.W., Garwood, T.W.O. & Rochford, A.D.H. 1996. Factors affecting nitrate leaching from a calcareous loam in east Anglia. Journal of Agricultural Science, 126: 75-86.

Eagle, A.J., Olander, L.P., Henry, L.R., Haugen-Kozyra, K., Millar, N. & Robertson, G.P. 2012. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of agricultural land management in the United States: a synthesis of the literature. Technical Working group on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Report. Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Duke University, Durham, USA.

FAO. 2008. Visual soil assessment (VSA). Field Guides for Annual crops, Olive orchards, Orchards, Vineyards and Wheat. Rome.

FAO. 2011. The state of the world’s land and water resources for food and agriculture: managing systems at risk. Rome.

FAO. 2012. LADA local level manual for the assessment of land degradation and sustainable land management (in publication). Rome. 

FAO. 2013. Climate Smart Agriculture Sourcebook. Rome.

FAO. 2014. Towards climate-responsible peatlands management. R. Bianccalani & A. Avagyan, eds. Rome. 

FAO. 2015a. Revised World Soil Charter. Rome. 

FAO. 2015b. Soil functions and services. [website] Rome.

FAO. 2016. Voluntary Guidelines for Sustainable Soil Management. Rome.

FAO. 2017a. Conservation Agriculture - Training Guide for Extension Agents and Farmers in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ПОЧВОЗАЩИТНОЕ И РЕСУРСОСБЕРЕГАЮЩЕЕ ЗЕМЛЕДЕЛИЕ Учебное пособие для консультантов по распространению сельскохозяйственных знаний и фермеров в Восточной Европе и Центральной Азии).

FAO.2017b.Land Resources Planning within an Integrated Landscape Management context. Land and Water Division Working Paper No. 14. Rome. 

FAO & Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils (ITPS). 2015a. Status of the World’s Soil Resources (SWSR) - Main Report. Rome. 

FAO & ITPS. 2015b. Status of the World’s Soil Resources (SWSR) - Technical Summary. Rome.

FAO & Wetlands International. 2012. Peatlands. Guidance for climate change mitigation by conservation, rehabilitation and sustainable use. H. Joosten, M-L Tapio-Biström & S. Tol, eds. Rome.

Fearnside, P.M. & Barbosa, R.I. 1998. Soil carbon changes from conversion of forest to pasture in Brazilian Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management, 108: 147-166.

Fließbach, A. & Mäder, P. 2000. Microbial biomass and size density fractions differ between soils of organic and conventional agricultural systems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32: 757-768.

Gál, A., Vyn, T.J., Michéli, E., Kladivko, E.J. & Mcfee, W.W. 2007. Soil carbon and nitrogen accumulation with long-term no-tillage versus moldboard plowing overestimated with tilled-zone sampling depths. Soil and Tillage Research, 96: 42-51.

Ghosh, B.N., Meena,V.S. Alam, N.M., Dogra, Pradeep, Bhattacharyya, R., Sharma N.K. & Mishra, P.K. 2016. Impact of conservation practices on soil aggregation and the Carbon Management Index after seven years of maize-wheat cropping system in the Indian Himalayas. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 216: 247-257.

Gors, M.J., Howsc, P.W., Lane, P.W., Christian, D.G. & Harris, G.L. 1993. Losses of nitrate-nitrogen in water draining from under autumn-sown crops established by direct drilling or mouldboard ploughing. Journal of Soil Science, 44(1): 35-48. 

Gregorich, E.G., Drury, C.F. & Baldock, J.A. 2001. Changes in soil carbon under long-term maize in monoculture and legume-based rotation. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 81(1): 21-31.

Guo, L.B. & Gifford, R.M. 2002. Soil carbon stocks and land use change: a meta analysis. Global Change Biology, 8(4): 345-360.

Gupta, V.V.S.R., Neate, S.M. & Leonard, E.C. 1997. Life in the soil. Cooperative Research Centre for Soil & Land Management.

Hiederer, R. & Kochy, M. 2011. Global soil organic carbon estimates and the harmonized world soil database, 79 p. JRC Scientific and Technical reports. Publications office of the European Union.

Huggins, D.R., Clapp, C.E., Allmaras, R.R., Lamb, J.A. & Layese, M.F. 1998. Carbon dynamics in corn-soybean sequences as estimated from natural carbon-13 abundance. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 62: 195-203.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007. Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K. and Reisinger, A. (Eds.). IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland. pp 104.  

Jacinthe, P.A., Lal R., & Kimble, J.M. 2002. Carbon dioxide evolution in runoff from simulated rainfall on long-term no-till and plowed soils in southwestern Ohio. Soil Tillage Research, 66(1): 23-33. 

Jiang, Q.Q. & Bakken, L.R. 1999. Comparison of Nitrosospira strains isolated from terrestrial environments. FEMS Microbiol Ecol., 30: 171-186.

Johnson M. S., Weiler M., Couto E. C., Riha S. & Lehmann J. 2007. Storm pulses of dissolved CO2 in a forested headwater Amazonian stream explored using hydrograph separation. Water Resources Research. Vol. 43. Issue 11.

Jones, C.E. 2006a. Soil carbon’s impact on water retention. In, Soil, Carbon and Water blog. Border Rivers- Gwydir CMA, Grain & Graze ‘Practical clues for pasture cropping’ workshops. 

Jones, C.E. 2006b. Aggregate or aggravate? Creating soil carbon. In, Soil and Carbon Credits blog. YLAD Living Soils Seminars. 

Joosten, H. 2009. The global peatland CO2 picture: peatland status and emissions in all countries of the world. Ede, Netherlands, Wetlands International. 10 pp. 

Lal, R. 2004. Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Global Climate Change and Food Security. Science, 304: 1623-1627. 

Lal, R. 2013. Soil carbon management and climate change.  

Lobb, D. & Lindstrom, M.J. 1999. Tillage translocation and tillage erosion. Poster Presentation at Manitoba Soil Science Society Meeting. Winnipeg, Canada.

Lobb, D., Kachanoski, R.G. & Miller, M.H. 1995. Tillage translocation and tillage erosion on shoulder slope landscape positions measured using 137Cs as a tracer. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 75: 211-218.

Macdonald, A.J., Powlson, D.S., Poulton, P.R. & Jenkinson, D.S. 1989. Unused fertiliser nitrogen in arable soils-its contribution to nitrate leaching. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 46: 407-419.

Mohawesh, Y., Taimeh, A., & Ziadat, F. 2015. Effects of land use changes and soil conservation intervention on soil properties as indicators for land degradation under a Mediterranean climate. Solid Earth, 6: 857-868. 

Noellemeyer, E., Frank, F., Alvarez, C., Morazzo, G. & Quiroga, A. 2008. Carbon contents and aggregation related to soil physical and biological properties under a land-use sequence in the semiarid region of Central Argentina. Soil & Tillage Research, 99: 179-190.

Palaniappan, M. & Gleick, P.H. 2009. Peak Water. In P.H. Gleick, eds. The World’s Water 2008-2009. The Biennial Report on Fresh Water Resources. 16 pp.

Prasad, R.N., and Sharma, U.C. 1994. Potential Indigenous farming systems of North eastern Hil region. Published by Director, ICAR RC NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya. 48 pp.

Prommer J., Wanek W., Hofhansl F., Trojan D., Offre P. & Urich T. 2014. Biochar Decelerates Soil Organic Nitrogen Cycling but Stimulates Soil Nitrification in a Temperate Arable Field Trial. PLoS ONE, 9(1): e86388.

Reicosky, D.C., Lindstrom, M.J., Schumacher, T.E., Lobb, D. & Malo, D.D. 2005. Tillage induced CO2 loss across an eroded landscape. Soil and Tillage Research, 81(2): 183-194.

Scharlemann, J. P.W., Edmund, V.J., Tanner, R. H. & Valerie, K.  2014. Global soil carbon: understanding and managing the largest terrestrial carbon pool. Carbon Management, 5:1, 81-91.

Scherr, S.J. & Sthapit, S. 2009b. Sustainable land management in Africa. TerrAfrica Climate Briefs No. 1 & 2. Washington D.C., Ecoagriculture Partners and World Bank.

Six, J., Conant, R.T., Paul, E.A. & Paustian, K. 2002. Stabilization mechanisms of soil organic matter SOM: implications for C-saturation of soils: a review. Plant and Soil, 241: 155-176.

Smith P., Bustamante, M., Ahammad, H., Clark, H., Dong, H., Elsiddig, E.A., Haberl, H., Harper, R., House, J., Jafari, M., Masera, O., Mbow, C., Ravindranath, N.H., Rice, C.W., Robledo Abad, C., Romanovskaya, A., Sperling, F. & Tubiello, F. 2014. Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU). In O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel & J.C. Minx, eds. Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New-York, USA, Cambridge University Press.

Sparkes, J. & Stoutjesdijk, P. 2011. Biochar: implications for agricultural productivity. ABARES technical report, 11.6. Australian Bureau.

Stevenson, F.J. 1986. Cycles of soil. New York, USA, John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Tiessen, H. & Stewart, J.W.B. 1983. Particle-size fractions and their use in studies of soil organic matter: II. Cultivation effects on organic matter composition in size fractions. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 47(3): 509-514.

UN, 1994. Convention on Desertification. Information Program on Sustainable Development, United Nations, New York, NY, USA.

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) & Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRSC). 1998. Soil quality test kit guide. Lincoln and Washington D.C., USA, Soil Quality Institute, NRSC, Agricultural Research Service & USDA. 

Victoria, R., Banwart, S., Black, H., Ingram, J., Joosten, H., Milne, E., Noellemeyer, E. & Bask, Y. 2012. The benefits of soil carbon: managing soil for multiple economic, societal and environmental benefits. UNEP: Yearbook 2012. 

Weil, R., Islam, K., Stine, M., Gruver, J.B. & Samson-Liebig, S. 2003. Estimating active carbon for soil quality assessment: a simplified method for laboratory and field use. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 18(1): 3-17.

Zach, A., Tiessen, H. & Noellemeyer, E. 2006. Carbon turnover and carbon-13 natural abundance under land use change in semiarid Savanna soils of La Pampa, Argentina. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 70(5): 1541-1546.

Ziadat, F. & Bayu, W. 2015. Mitigating Land Degradation and Improving Livelihoods - An Integrated Watershed Approach. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

Ziadat, F., Berrahmouni, N., Grewer, U., Bunning, S., Bockel, L. & Oweis, T. 2015. Reversing land degradation in the drylands: scaling out and monitoring proven sustainable land management options. In Living Land: A co-publication between Tudor Rose and UNCCD for the United Nations Decade for Deserts and the Fight Against Desertification (2010-2020).

Ziadat, F., Mazahreh, S., Haddad, M., Benabdelouahab, T., Attaher, S., Karrou, M., Oweis, T. & Kandakji, T. 2014. Similarity and Suitability Analysis to Assist the Out-Scaling of Sustainable Water and Land Management Practices in West Asia and North Africa. Research Report No. 11. Beirut, Lebanon, ICARDA. 79 pp.