Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation in the agriculture sectors

As governments formulate and implement their nationally determined contributions (NDCs), National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) and related strategies, there is increasing recognition of the importance of Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E).

M&E of adaptation in the Paris Agreement and UNFCCC processes

Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) of adaptation is gaining importance at global and national levels. The Paris Agreement put forward a global goal on adaptation, establishing the Enhanced Transparency Framework (ETF) to allow countries to provide clarity and tracking progress towards achieving targets in their NDCs.

At COP24, countries agreed on the Modalities, Procedures and Guidelines (MPGs) for the ETF, and the COP decided that countries should submit their first Biannual Transparency Reports, in accordance with the MPGs, by end of 2024 at latest.

Establishing national M&E systems for adaptation

The UNFCCC Least Developed Countries Expert Group (LEG) NAP Technical Guidelines and the FAO Supplementary Guidelines for Addressing Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in NAPs recommend countries to monitor progress and effectiveness towards the goals and objectives of their NAP process. Establishing such systems can help countries report on progress on adaptation through existing and new reporting channels, including countries’ national communications and submissions.

National-level M&E of adaptation can eventually contribute to reporting national contributions to the UNFCCC, including towards the global goal on adaptation defined under the Paris Agreement. It can also help countries report on their achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in particular SDG 13 on Climate Action, and the Sendai Framework’s targets and indicators.

Guidance Note: Strengthening M&E for adaptation planning in the agriculture sector

The NAP-Ag programme has developed a Guidance Note on how to design a national M&E system for tracking adaptation action, policies and plans, and ultimately report at the international, national and sectoral levels.

Download it here

In addition, the programme has developed an M&E training package composed of several modules, presentations, exercises and case studies for countries to use during a three- to four-day workshop.

The NAP-Ag approach

The NAP-Ag programme supports selected countries to conceptualise M&E frameworks for adaptation. These form a core part of countries’ efforts to design and implement the NAP for the agriculture sectors, and incorporate adaptation tracking into government’s existing M&E systems and indicators. The wide diversity of NAP experiences show that the conceptualisation and operationalisation of an M&E system should be adapted to the country context.

The programme works with the countries to address a range of challenges with directed solutions:

1. Review of national adaptation policy context, targets and objectives, theory of change, and pathway to integrate adaptation in the agriculture sector

2. Define the purpose and scope of the M&E framework

3. Stocktaking of existing national M&E systems relevant to agriculture, adaptation and development

4. Review of existing adaptation indicators related to the management of crop, forestry, fisheries and land, weather, climate, loss and damage, food security, adaptation practices

5. Conduct climate impact and vulnerability assessments in the agriculture sectors to identify types of data and information to populate the M&E framework

6. Draft M&E frameworks in coordination with Ministry of Agriculture, Environment, Finance and Planning

7. Consider potential availability of data, sources and gaps required for each indicator

8. Assess institutional capacity and arrangement for data collection and analysis, as well as mandates for carrying out M&E of adaptation

9. Develop of an M&E operationalization plan, including guidelines for data collection

10. Consult with key users at national and territorial level to pilot, test and tailor the M&E framework

11. Develop the web-based platform

12. Conduct trainings and sensitization of M&E for adaptation, including linking with global adaptation reporting mechanisms.

The programme has also developed an M&E Training Package composed of several modules, presentations, exercises and case studies to be delivered during a three- to four-day workshop.