Boîte à outils pour l’homologation des pesticides

Terms and definitions E

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Study of the toxic effects of chemical and physical agents on all living organisms, especially on populations and communities within defined ecosystems; it includes transfer pathways of these agents and their interactions with the environment. [Source: IUPAC]

Effective concentration (EC):

Concentration of a substance that causes a defined magnitude of response in a given system. Note: EC50 is the median concentration that causes 50 % of maximal response. [Source: IUPAC]

Effective dose (ED):

Dose of a substance that causes a defined magnitude of response in a given system. Note: ED50 is the median dose that causes 50 % of maximal response. [Source: IUPAC]

Efficacy evaluation:

Assessment of the effectiveness of a plant protection product, against the target pest, which may include an assessment of its agronomic sustainability and economic benefits. [Source: FAO Efficacy guidelines]


Pertaining to hormones or to the glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. [Source: IUPAC]

Endocrine disrupter:

Exogenous chemical that alters function(s) of the endocrine system and consequently causes adverse health effects in an intact organism, its progeny, or (sub)populations. [Source: IUPAC]


Measurable physico-chemical, ecological or toxicological characteristic or parameter of the test system (usually an organism) that is chosen as the most relevant assessment criterion (e.g. temperature of decomposition, death in an acute test or tumour incidence in a chronic study). [Source: JMPS]


Surroundings, including water, air, soil and their interrelationship as well as all relationships between them and any living organisms. [Source: International Code of Conduct]

Environmental fate:

Destiny of a chemical or biological pollutant after release into the natural environment. [Source: IUPAC]


Determination of the similarity of the impurity and toxicological profile, as well as of the physical and chemical properties, presented by supposedly similar technical material originating from different manufacturers, in order to assess whether they present similar levels of risk. [Source: International Code of Conduct]

Estimated Environmental Concentration (EEC):

See Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC).

Excess lifetime risk:

Additional or excess risk incurred over the lifetime of an individual by exposure to a toxic substance. [Source: IUPAC]


Discharge or elimination of an absorbed or endogenous substance, or of a waste product, and (or) its metabolites, through some tissue of the body and its appearance in urine, faeces, or other products normally leaving the body. Note: Excretion does not include the passing of a substance through the intestines without absorption. [Source: IUPAC]


Concentration or amount of a particular agent that reaches a target organism, system, or (sub)population in a specific frequency for a defined duration. [Source: IPCS/OECD]

Exposure assessment:

Evaluation of the exposure of an organism, system, or (sub)population to an agent (and its derivatives). Exposure assessment is the third step in the process of risk assessment. [Source: IPCS/OECD]

Exposure duration:

Length of time over which continuous or intermittent contacts occur between an agent and a target. For example, if an individual is in contact with an agent for 10 min per day for 300 days over a 1-year time period, the exposure duration is 1 year. [Source: IPCS]

Exposure model:

Conceptual or mathematical representation of the exposure process. [Source: IPCS]

Exposure route:

Way in which an agent enters a target after contact (e.g., by ingestion, inhalation, or dermal absorption). [Source: IPCS]

Exposure scenario:

Set of conditions or assumptions about sources, exposure pathways, amounts or concentrations of agent(s)involved, and exposed organism, system, or (sub)population (i.e., numbers, characteristics, habits) used to aid in the evaluation and quantification of exposure(s) in a given situation. Source: IPCS/OECD]

Extraneous Maximum Residue Limit (EMRL):

Pesticide residue or a contaminant arising from environmental sources (including former agricultural uses) other than the use of the pesticide or contaminant substance directly or indirectly on the commodity. It is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue that is legally permitted or recognized as acceptable in or on a food, agricultural commodity or animal feed. The concentration is expressed in milligrams of pesticide residue or contaminant per kilogram. of the commodity [Source: JMPR].

Eye irritation:

Production of changes in the eye following the application of test substance to the anterior surface of the eye, which are fully reversible within 21 days of application. [Source: GHS]