The Right to Food around the Globe

  Brazil

The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil explicitly guarantees the right to adequate food.

The Federative Republic of Brazil has become a State party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) in 1992 by way of accession.

CONSTITUTIONAL RECOGNITIONS OF THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD

Explicit protection of the right to adequate food

Article 6: “Education, health, food, work, housing, transportation, leisure, security, social security, protection of motherhood and childhood, and assistance to the destitute are social rights, as set forth by this Constitution.”

Art. 6º: "São direitos sociais a educação, a saúde, a alimentação, o trabalho, a moradia, o transporte, o lazer, a segurança, a previdência social, a proteção à maternidade e à infância, a assistência aos desamparados, na forma desta Constituição."

Directive principles of state policy

Article 208: “The National Government's duty towards education shall be effectuated through the guarantees of (…) VII. educational assistance in all stages of basic education by means of supplemental programs of school books, teaching materials, transportation, nutrition and health care."

Art 208: “O dever do Estado com a educação será efetivado mediante a garantia de:[...] VII - atendimento ao educando, em todas as etapas da educação básica, por meio de programas suplementares de material didáticoescolar, transporte, alimentação e assistência à saúde."

 

Article 227: “It is the duty of the family, the society and the Government to assure children and adolescents, with absolute priority, the rights to life, health, nourishment, education, leisure, professional training, culture, dignity, respect, liberty and family and community harmony, in addition to safeguarding them against all forms of negligence, discrimination, exploitation, violence, cruelty and oppression.”

Art. 227:  "É dever da família, da sociedade e do Estado assegurar à criança, ao adolescente e ao jovem, com absoluta prioridade, o direito à vida, à saúde, à alimentação, à educação, ao lazer, à profissionalização, à cultura, à dignidade, ao respeito, à liberdade e à convivência familiar e comunitária, além de colocá-los a salvo de toda forma de negligência, discriminação, exploração, violência, crueldade e opressão."

National status of international obligations

Article 5: ". The rules defining fundamental rights and guarantees apply immediately. . The rights and guarantees established in this Constitution do not exclude others derived from the regime and principles adopted by it, or from international treaties to which the Federative Republic of Brazil is a party. International treaties and conventions on human rights approved by both houses of the National Congress, in two different voting sessions, by three-fifths votes of their respective members, shall be equivalent to Constitutional Amendments."

Art. 5: "1°. As normas definidoras dos direitos e garantias fundamentais têm aplicação imediata. Os direitos e garantias expressos nesta Constituição não excluem outros decorrentes do regime e dos princípios por ela adotados, ou dos tratados internacionais em que a República Federativa do Brasil seja parte.  Os tratados e convenções internacionais sobre direitos humanos que forem aprovados, em cada Casa do Congresso Nacional, em dois turnos, por três quintos dos votos dos respectivos membros, serão equivalentes às emendas constitucionais."

Other pertinent provisions for the realization of the right to adequate food

Article 7: “The following are rights of urban and rural workers, among others that aim to improve their social conditions: 
IV – nationally unified minimum monthly wage, established by law, capable of satisfying their basic living needs and those of their families with housing, food, education, health, leisure, clothing, hygiene, transportation, and social security, with periodical adjustments to maintain its purchasing power, it being forbidden to use it as an index for any purpose;”

Art. 7º: “São direitos dos trabalhadores urbanos e rurais, além de outros que visem à melhoria de sua condição social: IV - salário mínimo , fixado em lei, nacionalmente unificado, capaz de atender a suas necessidades vitais básicas e às de sua família com moradia, alimentação, educação, saúde, lazer, vestuário, higiene, transporte e previdência social, com reajustes periódicos que lhe preservem o poder aquisitivo, sendo vedada sua vinculação para qualquer fim;"

INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) – 1948

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) – 1966

Status: Accession (1992)

Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) – 1979

Status: Ratification (1984)

Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) – 1989

Status: Ratification (1990)

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) – 2006

Status: Ratification (2008)

Legislation and policies recognizing the right to adequate food

Guidance on how to progressively realise the human right to adequate food in contexts of national food security has been provided by the Right to Food Guidelines, adopted by the FAO Council and endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security.

Considering that the human right to adequate food can be implemented through a variety of legal and policy actions, we invite you to visit the FAOLEX Country Profile database for a wide-ranging collection of measures that have been taken at national level. Some of the documents you may find are legislation and policies that touch on a number of relevant Guidelines, such as those on Access to resources and assets (Guideline 8), Food safety and consumer protection (Guideline 9), Support for vulnerable groups (Guideline 13) and Natural and human-made disasters (Guideline 16).

Here below you can find policies and legislation that explicitly mention the right to food

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