Le droit à l’alimentation autour du globe

  Brésil

La Constitution de la République fédérative du Brésil protège de manière explicite le droit à une alimentation adéquate.

La République fédérative du Brésil est devenue un État partie au Pacte international relatif aux droits économiques, sociaux et culturels en 1992 par adhésion.

CONSTITUTIONAL RECOGNITIONS OF THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD

Explicit protection of the right to adequate food

Article 6: “Education, health, food, work, housing, transportation, leisure, security, social security, protection of motherhood and childhood, and assistance to the destitute are social rights, as set forth by this Constitution.”

Art. 6º: "São direitos sociais a educação, a saúde, a alimentação, o trabalho, a moradia, o transporte, o lazer, a segurança, a previdência social, a proteção à maternidade e à infância, a assistência aos desamparados, na forma desta Constituição."

Directive principles of state policy

Article 208: “The National Government's duty towards education shall be effectuated through the guarantees of (…) VII. educational assistance in all stages of basic education by means of supplemental programs of school books, teaching materials, transportation, nutrition and health care."

Art 208: “O dever do Estado com a educação será efetivado mediante a garantia de:[...] VII - atendimento ao educando, em todas as etapas da educação básica, por meio de programas suplementares de material didáticoescolar, transporte, alimentação e assistência à saúde."

 

Article 227: “It is the duty of the family, the society and the Government to assure children and adolescents, with absolute priority, the rights to life, health, nourishment, education, leisure, professional training, culture, dignity, respect, liberty and family and community harmony, in addition to safeguarding them against all forms of negligence, discrimination, exploitation, violence, cruelty and oppression.”

Art. 227:  "É dever da família, da sociedade e do Estado assegurar à criança, ao adolescente e ao jovem, com absoluta prioridade, o direito à vida, à saúde, à alimentação, à educação, ao lazer, à profissionalização, à cultura, à dignidade, ao respeito, à liberdade e à convivência familiar e comunitária, além de colocá-los a salvo de toda forma de negligência, discriminação, exploração, violência, crueldade e opressão."

National status of international obligations

Article 5: ". The rules defining fundamental rights and guarantees apply immediately. . The rights and guarantees established in this Constitution do not exclude others derived from the regime and principles adopted by it, or from international treaties to which the Federative Republic of Brazil is a party.  International treaties and conventions on human rights approved by both houses of the National Congress, in two different voting sessions, by three-fifths votes of their respective members, shall be equivalent to Constitutional Amendments."

Art. 5: "1°. As normas definidoras dos direitos e garantias fundamentais têm aplicação imediata.  Os direitos e garantias expressos nesta Constituição não excluem outros decorrentes do regime e dos princípios por ela adotados, ou dos tratados internacionais em que a República Federativa do Brasil seja parte.  Os tratados e convenções internacionais sobre direitos humanos que forem aprovados, em cada Casa do Congresso Nacional, em dois turnos, por três quintos dos votos dos respectivos membros, serão equivalentes às emendas constitucionais."

Other pertinent provisions for the realization of the right to adequate food

Article 7: “The following are rights of urban and rural workers, among others that aim to improve their social conditions: 
IV – nationally unified minimum monthly wage, established by law, capable of satisfying their basic living needs and those of their families with housing, food, education, health, leisure, clothing, hygiene, transportation, and social security, with periodical adjustments to maintain its purchasing power, it being forbidden to use it as an index for any purpose;”

Art. 7º: “São direitos dos trabalhadores urbanos e rurais, além de outros que visem à melhoria de sua condição social: IV - salário mínimo , fixado em lei, nacionalmente unificado, capaz de atender a suas necessidades vitais básicas e às de sua família com moradia, alimentação, educação, saúde, lazer, vestuário, higiene, transporte e previdência social, com reajustes periódicos que lhe preservem o poder aquisitivo, sendo vedada sua vinculação para qualquer fim;"

INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) – 1948

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) – 1966

Status: Adhésion (1992)

Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) – 1979

Status: Ratification (1984)

Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) – 1989

Status: Ratification (1990)

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) – 2006

Status: Ratification (2008)

Législation et politiques qui reconnaissent le droit à une alimentation adéquate

Les Directives sur le droit à l’alimentation, validées par le Comité de la sécurité alimentaire mondiale et adoptées par le Conseil de la FAO, fournissent des orientations pour la réalisation progressive du droit à une alimentation adéquate dans le contexte de la sécurité alimentaire nationale

Étant donné que le droit humain à une alimentation adéquate peut être mis en œuvre par le biais de plusieurs actions juridiques et politiques, nous vous invitons à visiter les Profils par pays sur FAOLEX pour accéder à la collection complète des mesures adoptées au niveau national. Parmi les différents documents disponibles, vous trouverez la législation et les politiques qui font référence à certaines Directives pertinentes, telles que la Directive 8 sur l' Accès aux ressources et aux moyens de production, la Directive 9 sur la Sécurité sanitaire des aliments et protection des consommateurs, la Directive 13 sur l’Appui aux groupes vulnérables, et la Directive 16 sur les Catastrophes naturelles et anthropiques.

Vous trouverez ci-dessous les politiques et législations qui mentionnent explicitement le droit à l\'alimentation.

Partagez