Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) Toolbox

Forest Certification

The Forest Certification Module provides basic and more detailed information on forest certification as a third-party voluntary, market-based mechanism to promote the sustainable use of forest resources. The module explains what forest certification is, differentiates between forest management certification and chain-of-custody certification, sets out the benefits and costs, and describes the steps that a forest manager must take to acquire it. It also provides links to tools and case studies to foster access to, compliance with and use of forest certification.

Auld, G., Gulbrandsen, H.L. & McDermott, L.C. 2008. Certification schemes and the impacts on forests and forestry. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 33: 187–211.

Bass, S. 1997. Introducing forest certification – A report prepared by the Forest Certification Advisory Group (FCAG) for DGVIII of the European CommissionDiscussion paper 1. IIED, London, UK.

Brown, N.R., Noss, F.R., Diamond, D.D. and Myers, N.M. 2001. Conservation biology and forest certification: working together toward ecological sustainability. Journal of Forestry, 99: 18–25.

Cashore, B., Gale, F., Meidinger, E. & Newsom, D. (eds.) 2006. Confronting sustainability: forest certification in developing and transitioning countries. Yale University Faculty of Environmental Studies Publication Series, New Haven, USA,  

CEPT. 2008. Review of forest certification schemes: results. Copenhagen, European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations.

Clark, M.R. & Kozar, J.S. 2011. Comparing sustainable forest management certifications standards: a meta-analysis. Ecology and Society, 16(1): 3. 

Dingwerth, K. 2008. North–South parity in global governance: the affirmative procedures of the Forest Stewardship Council. Global Governance, 14: 53–71.

FSC. 2005. FSC Guidelines for certification bodies.

Kruedener, B.V. 2000. FSC forest certification - Enhancing social forestry developments? Forests, Trees and People Newsletter No. 43

Molnar, A. 2003. La certificación forestal y las comunidades: mirando hacia la siguiente década. Forest Trend, Washington DC.

Nussbaum, R. & Simula, M. 2005. The forest certification handbook. Second edition. London, Earthscan.

Nussbaum, R. 2000. A practical guide to developing a group scheme for FSC-accredited certification of forests. PROFOREST.

Oliver, R. 2004. Forest certification matrix: finding your way through forest certification schemes. Brussels, Confederation of European Paper Industries.

Ozinga, S. & Krul, L. 2004. Footprints in the forest: current practice and future challenges in forest certification. Moreton-in-Marsh, UK, Forests and the European Resource Network.

Pokorny, B. & Adams, M. 2003. What do criteria and indicators assess? An analysis of five C&I sets relevant for forest management in the Brazilian Amazon. International Forestry Review, 5(1): 20-28(9). 

Romero, C., Putz, FE., Guariguata, M.R., Sills, E.O., Cerutti, P.O. & Lescuyer, G. 2013. An overview of current knowledge about the impacts of forest management certification: a proposed framework for its evaluation. Occasional Paper 91. Bogor, Indonesia, Center for International Forestry Research. 

Sheil, D., Putz, F.E. & Zagt, R.J. (eds.) 2010. Biodiversity conservation in certified forests. Wageningen, the Netherlands, Tropenbos International. 

Vallejo, N. & Hauselmann, P.  2001. PEFC An analysis. Discussion paper. The World Wide Fund For Nature, European Forest Team.

Van Dam, C. 2001. La Economía de la Certificación Forestal: ¿desarrollo sostenible para quien? – Universidad Nacional de Salta, Argentina.

Van Kuijk, M., Zagt, R.J & Putz, F.E. 2009. Effects of certification on forest biodiversity. Report commissioned by Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. Wageningen, the Netherlands, Tropenbos International. 

Wingate, K.G. & McFarlane, N.P. 2005. Chain of custody and eco-labelling of forest products: a review of the requirements of the major forest certification schemes. International Forestry Review, 7: 342–347.