Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) Toolbox

Tool Details

Wastewater use in agriculture: review of impacts and methodological issues in valuing impacts

Author Hussain, I., Raschid, L., Hanjra, M.A., Marikar, F. & van der Hoek, W.
Year of publication 2002
The objective of this paper is to provide a review of the characteristics of wastewater used for irrigation, and the reasoning behind the international guidelines presently used in regulating wastewater reuse for agriculture. This paper presents various systems of wastewater treatment available and discusses their benefits and shortcomings. A selective review of recent empirical studies identifies major impacts both positive and negative impacts of wastewater irrigation. Finally, the paper provides the review of environmental valuation techniques for analyzing impacts of wastewater uses in agriculture, and suggest a framework for application of some of these techniques. An explicit objective of this exercise is to identify areas of concern in the valuation of the impacts of wastewater irrigation and suggest ways to improve these covets. Although there are shortcomings, we believe that this methodological framework, presents the most comprehensive framework for analyzing wastewater use in agriculture in a developing country.
Type of Tool
Guidelines, manual, kits for trainers
Scale of Application
Forest Type
Planted forest
Primary Designated Function
Management Responsibility