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ARCHIVE LATEST ASF situation in Asia update

27 December 2019, 09:00 hours; Rome

Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added since the last ASF China situation update appears in red. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Local governments and international sources (World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]), as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

 

 Overview

Hazard: African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal animal disease affecting pigs and wild boars with up to 100% case fatality rate.

 

Affected provinces:
China: Anhui, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Yunnan, Hunan and Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Fujian, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Qinghai, Guangdong, Gansu, Shandong and Hainan Provinces, Tianjin, Chongqing, Shanghai and Beijing Municipalities, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia Hui, Guangxi Zhuang, Xinjiang Uygur and Tibet (Xizang) Autonomous Regions and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR).

Mongolia: Bulgan, Darkhan-Uul, Dundgovi, Orkhon, Selenge, Töv Provinces and Ulaanbaatar.

Viet Nam: All provinces and municipalities.

Cambodia: Ratanakiri, Tboung Khmum, Svay Rieng, Takeo and Kandal Provinces.

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: Chagang-Do.

Lao People’s Democratic Republic: All provinces and municipality.

Myanmar: Shan State.

The Philippines: Rizal, Bulacan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Cavite Provinces, and Metro Manila (Caloocan, Malabon and Quezon Cities).

Republic of Korea: Gyeonggi-do, Gangwon-do* and Incheon City (* wild boar only)

Timor-Leste: Dili City.

Indonesia: North Sumatra Province.

Map 1. ASF situation in Asia (August 2018 to date)

ASF situation in China (August 2018 to date
Click to enlarge - Source: China: MARA, Viet Nam: WAHIS & media information, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Indonesia: WAHIS and government websites, Other: WAHIS.

 

 Situation update

Mongolia

Since its first report on 15 January 2019, 11 outbreaks in 6 provinces and in Ulaanbaatar have been reported, involving 105 farms/households. More than 3,115 pigs, more than 10 percent of the total pig population in Mongolia, have died/been destroyed due to the ASF outbreaks.

 

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

The Ministry of Agriculture confirmed the occurrence of the first ASF outbreak in Chagang-do on 23 May 2019 [reference].

 

Republic of Korea

Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) confirmed the first ASF outbreak on 17 September 2019, ASF was detected in domestic pigs in 14 farms (Gyeonggi-do (9), Incheon City (5)); and in 52 wild pigs from Gyeonggi-do (36) and Gangwon-do (16) [reference].

 

China

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) confirmed its first ASF outbreak in Liaoning Province on 3 August 2018, 165 outbreaks detected in 32 Provinces / Autonomous Regions / Municipalities / Special Administrative Region, about 1,193,000 pigs have been culled [reference].

 

Sichuan Province: 3 vehicles with illegally transported pigs from another province were intercepted at an animal health checkpoint on the G321 highway in Xuyong County, Luzhou City on 20 December; 15 of 435 pigs in the vehicles were dead at the time of inspection. Samples tested positive for ASF [reference2, reference3].

 

The Philippines

Since the Department of Agriculture confirmed the first ASF outbreak started on 25 July 2019, there have been a total of 24 ASF outbreaks in nine provinces/cities on Luzon Island. As of 30 November, 497 barangays are said to be affected, with 136,770 pigs are said to be depopulated [reference].

 

Viet Nam

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) confirmed its first ASF outbreak on 19 February 2019, all 63 provinces/cities reported outbreaks, about 5,960,000 pigs have been culled. As of 18 December 2019, a total of 6020 communes (71%) in 412 districts, 56 provinces/cities have passed 30 days after the last outbreak without recurrence [reference].

 

Lao People’s Democratic Republic

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry confirmed the first ASF outbreak in Salavan Province on 20 June 2019, more than 165 ASF outbreaks were reported, in all 18 Provinces / city; 39,000 pigs have died or been destroyed due to the ASF.

 

Cambodia

Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) confirmed the first ASF outbreak in Ratanakiri Province on 2 April 2019, ASF outbreaks were detected in 5 Provinces.

 

Myanmar

Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation confirmed the first ASF outbreak on 1 August 2019, a total of 4 ASF outbreaks were reported in Shan State.

 

Indonesia

 The Ministry of Agriculture has confirmed an ASF outbreak in Indonesia; Since the ASF outbreak started on 4 September 2019 in Dairi Regency, North Sumatra Province, 28,136 pigs have been lost [reference1]. As of 19 December, 16 regencies/cities in North Sumatra Province are affected: Dairi, Humbang Hasundutan, Deli Serdang, Karo, Toba Samosir, North Tapanuli, Central Tapanuli, South Tapanuli, Samosir, Simalungun, Pakpak Bharat, Langkat, Tebing Tinggi, Pematang Siantar, and Medan [reference2].

 

Timor-Leste

The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries announced the confirmation of ASF outbreak on 27 September 2019. The disease started on 9 September, a total of 100 outbreaks in smallholder pig farms has been recorded in the Capital City, Dili [reference1, reference2].

 

Actions taken by China

 

MARA released the 2019 edition of the ‘ASF Epidemic Emergency Implementation Plan’ [reference1]. MARA updated regulations on pig slaughterhouses: It task pig slaughter enterprises to conduct self-inspection by using PCR. If ASF is detected, the slaughtering enterprise should stop production for 48 hours, then apply for evaluation to resume production [reference2]. MARA released a comprehensive “Technical guideline for restocking of the African swine fever affected pig farms” on 10 September 2019 [reference3]. MARA released the “three-year action plan to accelerate the recovery and development of pig production” on 4 December. The plan aims to stabilise pork market and to recover production capacity. It differentiate areas into a) Production area, b) Consumption area, c) Megacities, and d) balanced area, and promote implementation of the most appropriate method for the area [reference4, reference5].

Figure 1. Number of ASF reported village by region by onset month* in China

Number of ASF reported village by region by onset month* in China
Click to enlarge - * Including detection in live pigs in intercepted vehicles. For cases with unknown onset date, detection date, confirmation date or reporting date was used.

Source: Veterinary Bureau, MARA, China.

 

Actions taken by the Republic of Korea

 

To prevent ASF spread to southern parts of the country, MAFRA set a buffer zone (outside the 10km radius of affected farms) that is separating the affected zone from southern free zone; controlling the traffic of feed vehicles between zones [reference1]. On 27 October, an enhanced emergency measure reinforcement plan was released; including installation of wide-area fence from west to east side of the country and the use of firearms in the buffer zone to drive wild boars [reference2]. Currently a joint public-military intensive surveillance is going on within the newly developed fences [reference3].

Figure 2. Cumulative number of affected communes/week in Viet Nam

Newly affected communes/week in Viet Nam including estimated number of communes affected anytime in the past
(Calculated figure)

 

Actions taken by Viet Nam

 

Viet Nam has implemented movement control of pigs and pig products from affected communes. The Central Committee of the Communist Party issued the Directive (No.34-CT/TW, 20 May) to strengthen their leadership and operational instructions for effective ASF response, control and prevention. National Steering Committee for ASF prevention and control requested National Steering Committee against smuggling and People's Committees of provinces to conduct measures to prevent, promptly detect and strictly handle cases of smuggling, illegal transportation, trafficking of animals, animal products, especially pigs and pig products into Viet Nam (No.10/BCDDTLCP, 16 October). On 19 December 2019, MARD released 3 notices concerning restocking procedure (No.13/BCĐDTLCP), transport procedure for breeding pigs and well processed pork products (No.14/BCĐDTLCP), and promoting pig production and biosafety, as well as production other animals, poultry and aquaculture (No.9523/BNN-TY), and a letter to livestock producers (No.9524/BNN-TY) recommending 1. minimize the risk of disease recurrence in accordance with current regulations and No.13/BCĐDTLCP on restocking; 2. strict application of biosecurity, 3. avoid hoarding to ensure price stability; 4. not be involved in illegal trading of pigs or slaughtered pigs across the Vietnam border [reference].

 

Actions taken by Cambodia

 

Cambodia implemented movement control of live pigs, pork and pork products, stamping out, disposal and disinfection in affected villages. Further investigations have been carried out in neighbouring areas. The authorities are strengthening farm biosecurity and testing animals at slaughterhouses [reference].

 

Actions taken by Lao People’s Democratic Republic

 

The Ministry designates Red Area around an outbreak, to control the movement of pig and pork products, and prohibits pork consumption; and yellow Area (3 km radius from the red areas) as designated surveillance zones.

 

Actions taken by the Philippines

 

The Philippines has been implementing its 1-7-10 protocol to manage, contain and control the spread of the disease i.e. all pigs within 1-kilometer radius of infected farms will be culled; limit animal movement and swine farms will be under strict surveillance and testing within a 7-kilometer radius; swine farms within a 10-kilometer radius will be required to submit a mandatory report on the disease [reference1]. The country has started zoning, is divided into Free Zone and Containment Zone (the Containment Zone is further divided into infected zones, buffer zones, surveillance zones, and protected zones [refrence2].

 

Actions taken by Indonesia

 

On 19 December, the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) recommended the public to: isolate sick animals and equipment, and de-stock pig pens for 2 months; put pigs that died from ASF in a bag which must be buried immediately by officials; refrain from selling/consuming pigs/carcasses affected by ASF; and concluded that the main strategic steps to prevent ASF from occurring are through the application of biosecurity and good management of pig farms, as well as strict and intensive monitoring of high-risk areas. It advised provinces with high pig populations e.g. Nusa Tenggara Timur, North Sulawesi, West Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, Bali, Central Java, Central Sulawesi, Riau Islands, and Papua to be alert to the possibility of ASF disease. MoA suggested enhancing awareness raising with farmers and advocacy to local leaders regarding the ASF threat [reference1]. The Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health Services (DG PKH) has formed 102 Emergency Posts with Rapid Response Teams at all levels, in response to the Minister of Agriculture Decree (No.820/Kpts/PK.32/M/12/2019, 12 December). ASF control in North Sumatra has been carried out in an integrated manner by a Joint Team involving regional agencies (the Rapid Response Team, the Medan Veterinary Service, the Provincial Food Safety and Livestock Service, the Office of Public Works, the Health Service and the Police) [reference2].

 

 FAO’s recommendations

ASF virus can be transmitted through pork and pork products (raw/frozen/dried/under-cooked) in which the virus can survive for a long time. Intensive customs control of passengers’ luggage is recommended during the high risk period from the end of December 2019 to the beginning of February 2020, covering Christmas, New Year, Lunar New Year holidays. Warning signs should be placed clearly at the border/customs entry including air ports and sea ports, stating the consequences of bringing pork and pork products from ASF-infected countries/regions, and instructing passengers to discard pork products in designated disposal places or to hand over to the customs personnel.

 

Countries of the region

  • Animal disease containment in its broadest sense should be prioritized within the highest levels of governments.
  • Preparedness (e.g. contingency planning, standard operating procedures— SOPs, secured financial support) for improved early warning, detection and notification, early reaction, and coordination needs to be in place and reviewed periodically in relation to changing disease situation.
  • Application of strict biosecurity measures specific to the different swine producing sectors including frequent cleaning and disinfection of farms, transport vehicles, and improved husbandry practices and production systems.
  • Strengthening surveillance and monitoring of transport of live pigs as well as pork products.
  • Good communication and coordination with swine producing commercial sector and swine famers are essential to strengthen cooperation in ASF prevention, detection, and control. Awareness and training of all stakeholders, from veterinarians to farmers, intermediaries and other value chain actors is needed.
  • Communication to public is to be in place to avoid the rumours leading to food safety perceptions and consumption disruption.
  • Farm registries, animal identification and censuses are essential to enable animal health interventions.
  • Prohibition of swill feeding where feasible; highly regulated where not.
  • Strengthening proper disposal of food waste (food services, airports, seaports), which may contain uncooked pork products.
  • Outbreak control strategies must be in place. The strategies need to be developed in consultation with the private sector (pig producers and allied industries, such as transport, feed operators) for improved disease management options and compliance.

National Considerations, Inter-Regional Collaboration and Solidarity

  • Strengthening intraregional networks on disease management and diagnostic protocols.
  • Understanding pig and pork value chains within the country and with neighbouring countries is essential for improved risk management.

 

 FAO’s actions

  • FAO EMC-AH mission to Timor-Leste to assess ASF situation and response strategy (December 2019)
  • First cohort of trainees have completed the FAO tutored e-learning course on ASF (December 2019) and plans to offer this in 2020 to multiple regions developed.
  • The 2019 Annual Coordination meeting of the Project Steering Committee for the FAO-China South-South Cooperation project was held in Kunming City, China, including discussion on ‘ASF prevention and control’ (December 2019).
  • ECTAD/FAO co-organized the 3rd Meeting of the GF-TADs standing group of experts on African swine fever (SGE-ASF) for Asia and 4th regional workshop on swine disease control in Asia (November 2019) [reference].
  • The Regional Laboratory Coordinator undertook a mission to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to provide laboratory equipment, reagents and training on ASF diagnostic methodologies (4-8 November 2019).
  • FAO EMC-AH mission to Papua New Guinea to assess ASF preparedness and response strategy (October) [reference]
  • ECTAD Viet Nam uploaded a video clip to YouTube on technical advice [reference].
  • Inception Workshop for the Regional Technical Cooperation Programme on African Swine Fever Emergency Preparedness and Response in East and Southeast Asia was held in Bangkok (August 2019) [reference].
  • ECTAD/FAO Regional office for Asia and the Pacific attended the 2nd standing group of experts on African swine fever (SGE-ASF) meeting for Asia held in Tokyo, Japan (July 2019) [reference].
  • FAO deployed an EMC-AH mission to Lao PDR to assess the ASF situation and preparedness and response strategy (June 2019).
  • FAO and World Bank joint presentation at the G7 CVO meeting (May 2019).
  • OIE and FAO delivered a joint presentation on ASF at the 87th OIE General Session, OIE, Paris (May 2019).
  • FAO deployed an EMC-AH mission to Cambodia from 27 May to assess the ASF situation and response strategy (May 2019).
  • In Cambodia, the private sector organized an awareness-training program entitled "Breeding pigs under ASF threat", at which FAO ECTAD Cambodia presented the regional ASF situation (May 2019).
  • FAO project on ASF Emergency Preparedness and Response in East and Southeast Asia” started (April 2019).
  • Beijing International Symposium on ASF was jointly organized by MARA, FAO and OIE in Beijing (APRIL 2019).
  • The GF-TADS Standing Group of Experts (SGE) on ASF for Asia was held in Beijing, hosted by MARA (April 2019).
  • FAO in collaboration with the General Directorate of Animal Health and Production (GDAHP), Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cambodia, organized a National Consultative Workshop on the Development of ASF Preparedness and Response Plan (ASF-CPRP) in Cambodia (April 2019).
  • FAO organized a workshop on ASF Preparedness & Response Plan and portable PCR in Cambodia (April 2019)....[and more]

Useful links

  • African swine fever (ASF) detection and diagnosis. A manual for veterinarians (2017) [English, Русский, 中文]
  • Carcass management for small- and medium-scale livestock farms [Link]
  • African Swine Fever in wild boar - Ecology and biosecurity [Link]
  • FAO FOOD OUTLOOK [May’19, ASF special report from p65; Nov’19]
  • Presentations of the 2nd Standing Group of Experts on African Swine Fever (SGE-ASF) for Asia [Link]
  • Presentations of the 1st Standing Group of Experts on African Swine Fever (SGE-ASF) for Asia are available here
  • Presentations of the International Symposium on Prevention and Control of ASF also available Part 1: Strategy, Part 2: Eradication, Part 3: Control measures, Part 4: Diagnosis and vaccines.
  • Regional strategy for the control of ASF in Africa (FAO, AU-IBAR and ILRI, 2017) [Link]
  • Manual on the preparation of African swine fever contingency plans (2001) [Link]
  • Rapid risk assessment of ASF introduction into China (Mar 2018) [Link]
  • Good Emergency Management Practice: The Essentials [Link]
  • Good practices for biosecurity in the pig sector (2010) [Link
  • ASF awareness video [Link]
  • OIE disease card [Link], OIE Manual (2012) [Link], OIE Code [Link], OIE biweekly ASF situation reports [Link]
  • Global ASF Research Alliance [Link
  • Official map of ASF detection in Russian Federation in far-eastern Siberia 2007-2019 [Link]