Climate Smart Agriculture Sourcebook

The theory of change for CSA: a guide to evidence-based national implementation

Enabling Frameworks


Africa Agriculture Status Report (AASR). 2016. Africa Agriculture Status Report: Progress Towards Agricultural Transformation

Andrieu, N., Vayssières, J., Corbeels, M., Blanchard, M., Vall, E. & Tittonell, P. 2015. From farm scale synergies to village scale trade-offs: Cereal crop residues use in an agro-pastoral system of the Sudanian zone of Burkina Faso. Agricultural Systems, 134: 84-96.

Arslan, A., Belotti, F. & Lipper, L. 2016. Smallholder productivity and weather shocks: Adoption and impact of widely promoted agricultural practices in Tanzania. CEIS Research Paper, 14(10) (388) (Revise & resubmit in Food Policy).

Arslan, A., McCarthy, N., Lipper, L., Asfaw, S. & Cattaneo, A. 2014a. Adoption and Intensity of adoption of conservation agriculture in Zambia. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment, 187: 72–86.

Arslan, A., Asfaw, S., Branca, G., Cattaneo, A., Cavatassi, R., Grewer, U., Kokwe, M., Linh, N.V., Lipper, L., Mann, W., McCarthy, N., Paolantonio, A., Phiri, G. & Spairani, A. 2014b. How do we actually change the business as usual management of agricultural systems? A methodology for building Climate-smart agriculture. FAO, Rome.

Arslan, A., McCarthy, N., Lipper, L., Asfaw, S., Cattaneo, A. & Kokwe, M. 2015. Climate Smart Agriculture? Assessing the Adaptation Implications in Zambia. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 66(3): 753–780.

Asfaw, S., Coromaldi, M. & Lipper, L. 2015. Adaptation to climate change and food security: Evidence from smallholder farmers in Ethiopia. EPIC Working Paper, Rome, FAO.

Asfaw, S., Di Battista, F. & Lipper, L. 2016. Agricultural technology adoption under climate change in the Sahel: micro-evidence from Niger. Journal of African Economies, 25(5): 637-669.  

Asfaw, S., McCarthy, N., Lipper, L., Arslan, A. & Cattaneo, A. 2016. Climate variability, adaptation strategies and food security in rural Malawi. Food Security, Vol. 8(3): 643–664.

Baudron, F., Delmotte, S., Corbeels, M., Herrera, J.M. & Tittonell, P. 2015. Multi-scale trade-off analysis of cereal residue use for livestock feeding vs. soil mulching in the Mid-Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe. Agricultural Systems, 134: 97-106.

Bernoux, M., Branca, G., Carro, A., Lipper, L., Smith, G. & Bockel, L. 2010. Ex-ante greenhouse gas balance of agriculture and forestry development programs. Scientia Agricola, 67(1): 31-40.

Bockel, L., Grewer, U., Fernandez, C. & Bernoux, M. 2013. EX-ACT user manual: estimating and targeting greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture. FAO, Rome. 

Bondeau, A., Smith, P., Zaehle, S., Schaphoff, S., Lucht, W., Cramer, W., Gerten, D., Lotze-Campen, H., Müller, C., Reichstein, M. & Smith, B. 2007. Modelling the role of agriculture for the 20th century global terrestrial carbon balance. Global Change Biology, 13: 679-706.

Branca, G., Arslan, A., Paolantonio, A., Cavatassi, R., VanLinh, N. & Lipper, L. 2017. Economic analysis of improved smallholder paddy and maize production in Northern Viet Nam and implications for Climate-smart agriculture. In L. Lipper, D. Zilberman, N. McCarthy, S. Asfaw, G. Branca, eds. Climate Smart Agriculture: Building Resilience to Climate Change. New York: Springer, 2017.

Branca, G. et al. Forthcoming. Benefit-costs of Climate-smart agriculture Options in Malawi and Zambia. Economics and Policy Innovation for Climate-smart agriculture (EPIC). FAO, Rome. 

Branca, G. Forthcoming. Cost-benefit analysis for climate change adaptation policies and investments in the agricultural sector. Briefing note n.2. Integrating Agriculture in National Adaptation Plans (NAP-Ag). FAO, Rome. 

Coleman, K. & Jenkinson, D.S. 1996. RothC-26.3--A model for the turnover of carbon in soil. In: D.S. Powlson, P. Smith, J.U. Smith, J.U. (eds.). Evaluation of Soil Organic Matter Models Using Existing Long-Term Datasets. NATO ASI Series I, Vol. 38, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, pp. 237-246.

Del Grosso, S.J., Parton W.J., Adler, P.R., Davis, S.C., Keough C. & Marx E. 2002. DayCent Model Simulations for Estimating Soil Carbon Dynamics and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Agricultural Production Systems, In M.A Liebig, A.J. Franzluebbers and R.F. Follett (eds). Managing Agricultural Greenhouse Gases. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 241-250.

Di Falco, S., Veronesi, M. & Yesuf, M. 2011. Does Adaptation to Climate Change provides Food Security? A Micro Perspective from Ethiopia. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 93(3): 829-846.

FAO. 2014. Building a common vision for sustainable food and agriculture – Principles and approaches. Rome. 

FAO. 2015. Livelihood diversification and vulnerability to poverty in rural Malawi, by Asfaw, S., McCarthy, N., Paolantonio, A., Cavatassi, R., Amare, M. & Lipper, L. ESA Working Paper 15-02. Rome. 

FAO. 2016a. Smallholder productivity under climatic variability: Adoption and impact of widely promoted agricultural practices in Tanzania, by A. Arslan, F. Belotti, & L. Lipper, ESA Working Paper No. 16–03. Rome.

FAO. 2016b. Diversification under climate variability as part of a Climate-Smart Agriculture strategy in rural Zambia, by Aslihan Arslan, Romina Cavatassi, Nancy McCarthy, Leslie Lipper, Federica Alfani and Misael, Kokwe. ESA Working Paper No. 16-07. Rome.

FAO. 2016c. Global livestock environmental assessment model. Rome.

FAO. 2016d. The State of Food and Agriculture: Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security. Rome. 

Feder, G., Just, R. & Zilberman, D. 1985. Adoption of Agricultural Innovations in Developing Countries: A Survey. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 33(2): 255–298.

Fernández, F.J. & Blanco, M. 2015. Modelling the economic impacts of climate change on global and European agriculture: Review of economic structural approaches. Economics: The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, 9(10): 1–53. 

Grewer, U., Bockel, L. & Bernoux, M. 2013. EX-ACT quick guidance. Estimating and targeting greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture. FAO, Rome. 

Hillier, J., Walter, C., Malin, D., Garcia-Suarez, T., Mila-i-Canals, L. & Smith, P. 2011. A farm-focused calculator for emissions from crop and livestock production. Environmental Modelling & Software, 26: 1070-1078.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2006. IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. In: H.S. Eggleston, L. Buendia, K. Miwa, T. Ngara, K. Tanabe (eds). Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use. 4: IGES, Japan.

Islam, S. Cenacchi, N., Sulser, T. B., Gbegbelegbe, S. Hareau, G., Kleinwechter, U., Mason-D'Croz, D., Nedumaran, S., Robertson, R., Robinson, S. & Wiebe, K. 2016. Structural approaches to modeling the impact of climate change and adaptation technologies on crop yields and food security. Global Food Security, 10: 63-70.

Jones, J.W., Hoogenboom, G., Porter, C.H., Boote, K.J., Batchelor, W.D., Hunt, L.A., Wilkens, P.W., Singh, U., Gijsman, A.J. & Ritchie, J.T. 2003. The DSSAT cropping system model. Eur. J. Agron, 18(3-4): 235-265.

Kanyanga, J., Thomas, T.S., Hachigonta, S. & Sibanda, L.M. 2013. Zambia Southern African agriculture and climate change: A comprehensive analysis. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, D.C., pp 255-287. 

Kassie, M., Zikhali, P., Pender, J. & Köhlin, G. 2010. The Economics of Sustainable Land Management Practices in the Ethiopian Highlands. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 61: 605-627. 

Kassie, M., Teklewold, H., Marenya, P., Jaleta, J. & Erenstein, O. 2015. Production Risks and Food Security under Alternative Technology Choices in Malawi:  Application of a Multinomial Endogenous Switching Regression. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 66 (3): 640-659. 

Keating, B.A., Carberry, P.S., Hammer, G.L., Probert, M.E., Robertson, M.J., Holzworth, D., Huth, N.I., Hargreaves, J.N.G., Meinke, H., Hochman, Z., McLean, G., Verburg, K., Snow, V., Dimes, J.P., Silburn, M., Wang, E., Brown, S., Bristow, K.L., Asseng, S., Chapman, S., McCown, R.L., Freebairn, D.M. & Smith, C.J. 2003. An overview of APSIM, a model designed for farming systems simulation. Europ. J. Agronomy, 18:267-288.

Klapwijk, C.J., van Wijk, M.T., Rosenstock, T.S., van Asten, P.J.A., Thornton, P.K. & Giller, K.E. 2014.  Analysis of trade-offs in agricultural systems: current status and way forward. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 6:110-115.

Li, C., Frolking, S. & Frolking, T.A. 1992. A model of nitrous oxide evolution from soil driven by rainfall events: I model structure and sensitivity. J. Geophys. Res., 97: 9759–9776.

Lipper, L. & Zilberman, D. 2017. A short history of the evolution of the climate smart agriculture approach and its links to climate change and sustainable agriculture debates. In L. Lipper, N. McCarthy, D. Zilberman, S. Asfaw and G. Branca (eds). Climate Smart Agriculture - Building Resilience to Climate Change. New York: Springer, 2017.

Markanday, A., Cabot-Venton, C. & Beucher, O. 2015. Economic assessment of the impacts of climate change in Uganda. Final Study Report. Uganda, Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN). 

McCarthy, N. 2011. Understanding Agricultural Households' Adaptation to Climate Change and Implications for Mitigation: Land Management and Investment Options. LEAD Analytics, Inc. Washington DC.

Milne, E., Paustian, K., Easter, M., Batjes, N.H., Cerri, C.E.P., Kamoni, P., P. Gicheru, Oladipo, E.O., Minxia, M., Stocking, M., Hartman, M., McKeown, B., Peterson, K., Selby, D., Swan, A. & Williams, S. 2010. Estimating the carbon benefits of sustainable land management projects: the carbon benefits project component A. In: Proceedings of the 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World. International Union of Soil Sciences, 1–6 August, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 73–75.

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD). 2011. Action Plan on Climate change response of agriculture and rural development sector in the period 2011-2015 and vision to 2050. Hanoi, Viet Nam.

Nelson, G.C., Valin, H., Sands, R.D., Havlik, P., Ahammad, H., Deryng, D. & van Meijl, H. 2014a. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks. PNAS, 111(9): 3274-3279.

Nelson, G.C., van der Mensbrugghe, D., Ahammad, H., Blanc, E., Calvin, K., Hasegawa, T., Havlik, P., Heyhoe, E., Kyle, P., Lotze-Campen, H., von Lampe, M., Mason d'Croz, D., Müller, C., Reilly, J., Robertson, R., Sands, R.D., Schmitz, C., Tabeau, A., Takahashi, K., Valin, H., Willenbockel, D. & van Meijl H. 2014b. Agriculture and climate change in global scenarios: why don’t the models agree. Agricultural Economics, 45: 85-101.

Pansu, M., Sarmiento, L. & Bottner, P. 2009. Micro-Organismes et Matière Organique du Sol (modèle MOMOS). Bilan de 20 ans de modélisation basée sur le traçage isotopique in situ. Etude et Gestion des Sols, 16(2): 113-132.

Pierce, D.W., Barnett, T.P., Santer, B.D & Gleckler, P.J. 2009. Selecting global climate models for regional climate change studies. PNAS, 106(21): 8441-8446. 

Rosenstock, T.S., Lamanna, C., Chesterman, S., Bell, P., Arslan, A., Richards, M., Rioux, J. et al. 2015. The scientific basis of climate-smart agriculture: A systematic review protocol (CCAFS Working Paper No. 136). Copenhagen, Denmark: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security.

Stehfest, E. & Bouwman, L. 2006. N2O and NO emission from agricultural fields and soils under natural vegetation: summarizing available measurement data and modeling of global annual emissions. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosystems, 74: 207-228.

Van Wijk, M.T., Tittonell, P., Rufino, M.C., Herrero, M., Pacini, C., de Ridder, N. & Giller, K.E. 2009. Identifying key entry points for strategic management of smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa using the dynamic farm scale simulation model NUANCES-FARMSIM. Agricultural Systems, 102: 89-101.

Williams, J.R. 1990. The Erosion-Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) Model: A Case History. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 329(1255): 421-428.

Winrock International. 2013. The AFOLU Carbon Calculator. User Manual.

Wooldridge, J.M. 2002. Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

World Bank. 2010. The Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change: Vietnam Country Study, World Bank, Washington D.C. 

World Resources Institute (WRI). 2007. Weathering the Storm: Options for Framing Adaptation and Development. World Resources Institute Report by H. McGray, A. Hammill, and R. Bradley. Washington DC.