Генетика животных

На этой странице разъясняется, почему генетическое разнообразие домашних животных является общемировым общественным благом. Рассказывается о Глобальном плане действий в области генетических ресурсов животных и описывается роль ФАО в координации международного сотрудничества при его выполнении.

Глобальная политика

Animal genetic resources for food and agriculture encompass the variability of genes, traits and breeds of the different animal species that play a role in food and agriculture. This unique part of biodiversity is one of the cornerstones resources for agricultural development and the global fight against hunger.

The wide pool of animal genetic resources available in the world today is the result of millennia of environmental adaptation and domestication, selection and exchange by livestock keepers across the world. It provides us with crucial options to develop and adapt our food systems to ever changing circumstances like changing demographics, consumer demands and global environmental challenges like climate change. However, these very same circumstances are among the drivers of a rapid ongoing erosion of animal genetic resources. This loss of diversity is a global challenge.

In order to preserve animal genetic resources and put them to their best possible use, countries need to work together. They are inter-dependent on each other’s animal genetic resources for finding livestock-keeping and breeding solutions. Moreover, the ongoing erosion of animal genetic resources is caused by factors that transcend countries and regions.

In order to meet this challenge, FAO’s member countries developed and adopted the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources, in 2007. Aiming to preserve animal genetic resources worldwide and ensure their wise use, it contains measures to address the needs for: Characterization, inventory and monitoring of trends and associated risks; Sustainable use and development; Conservation and Policies, institutions and capacity-building.

The main responsibility for implementing the Global Plan of Action rests with countries. FAO plays a coordinating role. It monitors its implementation and the status of and trends in animal genetic resources worldwide. It organizes regular intergovernmental meetings for discussion and decision-making. It helps mobilize funding, raises awareness, provides technical support and training to countries, facilitates regional and global networks, coordinates with other international organizations, and provides further policy guidance through its governing bodies.