Climate Smart Agriculture Sourcebook

Climate-smart crop production

Production and Resources


Al-Kaisi, M., Kruse, M. & Sawyer, J. 2008. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Growing Season Soil CO2 Emission in a Corn-Soybean Rotation. Journal of Environmental Quality, 37: 325-332.

Allara, M., Kugbei, S., Dusunceli, F. & Gbehounou, G. 2012. Coping with changes in cropping systems: plant pests and seeds. FAO/OECD Workshop on Building Resilience for Adaptation to Climate Change in the Agriculture Sector (23-24 April 2012).

Amundson, R. 2001. The carbon budget in soils. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 29: 535-562

Babiker, A.G.T. 2007. Striga: The spreading scourge in Africa. Regulation of Plant Growth and Development, 42: 74-87.

Batello, C., Wade, L., Cox, S., Pogna, N., Bozzini, A. & Choptiany, J. 2013. Perennial crops for food security: Proceedings of the FAO expert workshop. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

Batjes, N.H. & Sombroek, W.G. 1997. Possibilities for carbon sequestration in tropical and subtropical soils. Global Change Biology, 3: 161-173.

Bebber, D.P., Ramotowski, M.A.T. & Gurr, S.J. 2013. Crop pests and pathogens move polewards in a warming world. Nature Climate Change, 3: 985-988.

Blowfield, M. 1993. The Allocation of Labour to Perennial Crops, 1993.

Bouman, B.A.M., Lampayan, R.M. & Tuong, T.P. 2007. Water management in irrigated rice: coping with water scarcity. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Baños, Philippines.

Bullock, P., Houerou, Le., Hoffman, M. T., Rounsevell, M., Sehgal, J. & Varallay, G. 1995. Land degradation and desertification: Climate Change 1995. Impacts, adaptations and mitigation of climate change: scientific-technical analyses. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. ed. R. T. Watson, M. C. Zinyowera, R. H. Moss & D. J. Dokken. Cambridge University Press, 1996. pp 171-190.

Bunce, J.A., & Ziska, L.H. 2000. Crop ecosystem responses to climatic change: crop/weed interactions. In Reddy, K.R., Hodges, H.F., eds. Climate change and global crop productivity. pp 333-348. CABI, New York. 

Corsi, S., Friedrich, T., Kassam, A., Pisante, M. & De Moraes S. 2012. Soil Organic Carbon accumulation and carbon budget in Conservation Agriculture: a review of evidence. FAO Integrated Crop Management. Vol. 16.

Cotter M., de la Pena-Lavander R. & Sauerborn J. 2012. Understanding the present distribution of the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica and predicting its potential future geographic distribution in the light of climate change. Julius Kühn Arch. 0, 630 10.5073/jka.2012.434.082.

Craufurd, P.Q. & Wheeler, T.R. 2009. Climate change and the flowering time of annual crops. Journal of Experimental Botany, 60: 2529-2539. 

Deng, L., Sweeney, S. & Shangguan, Z. 2013. Long-term effects of natural enclosure: Carbon stocks, sequestration rates and potential for grassland ecosystems in the Loess Plateau. Clean - Soil, Air, Water, 42: 617-625.

Deutsch, C.A., Tewksbury, J.J., Huey, R.B., Sheldon, K.S., Ghalambor, C.K., Haak, D.C. & Martin, P.R. 2008. Impacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude. Proceedings of the National Academy pf Sciences of the United States of America, 105: 6668-6672. 

Devi, S. 2006. Employment of Labour and Rural Development. 160 pp. 

Doets, C.E.M., Best, G., & Friedrich, T. 2000. Energy and Conservation Agriculture. Internal FAO paper, Rome.

Dukes, J.S., Mooney, H.A. 2000. Does global change increase the success of biological invaders? Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 14: 135-139.

Ejeta, G. 2007. The Striga scourge in Africa: a growing pandemic. In Ejeta, G. & Gressel, J., eds. Integrating new technologies for Striga control: Towards ending the witch-hunt. 3-16 pp. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Company PTE LTD.

Eplee, R.E. 1992. Witchweed (Striga asiatica): an overview of management strategies in the USA. Crop Protection, 11(1): 3-7.

Fader, M., Gerten, D., Krause, M., Lucht, W. & Cramer, W. 2013. Spatial decoupling of agricultural production and consumption: quantifying dependences of countries on food imports due to domestic land and water constraints. Environment Research Letters. Vol. 8. No. 1.

FAO. 2003. Weed management for developing countries, R. Labrada, ed. Rome. 

FAO. 2008b. Progress on farmer training in parasitic weed management

FAO. 2011. Save and grow, a policymaker’s guide to the sustainable intensification of smallholder crop production. Rome

FAO. 2015. The Bioenergy and Food Security Rapid Appraisal - natural Resources. Module.

FAO. 2016a. Save and Grow in practice: maize, rice, wheat. A guide to sustainable cereal production. ISBN 978-92-5-108519-6 

FAO. 2016b. The state of food and agriculture - climate change, agriculture and food security

FAOSTAT. 2014. FAO statistical yearbook - FAOSTAT.

FAO & INRA. 2016. Innovative markets for sustainable agriculture – How innovations in market institutions encourage sustainable agriculture in developing countries. In A. Loconto, A.S. Poisot & P. Santacoloma, eds. Rome, Italy.

Faurès, J.M., Bernardi, M. & Gommes, R. 2010. There is no such thing as an average: how farmers manage uncertainty related to climate and other factors. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 26 (4): 523-542.

Fischer, E., Darbyshire, I. Cheek, M. 2011. Striga magnibracteata (Orobanchaceae) a new species from Guinée and Mali. Kew Bulletin, 66: 441-445.

Fisher, M.J., Rao, I.M., Ayarza, M.A., Lascano, C.E., Sanz, J.I., Thomas, R.J. & Vera, R.R. 1994. Carbon storage by introduced deep-rooted grasses in the South American savannas. Nature, 371: 236-238.

Folke. 2006. Resilience: the emergence of a perspective for social ecological systems analyses. Global Environmental Change, 16: 253-267.

Fontaine, S., Bardoux, G., Abbadie, L., Mariotti, A. 2004. Carbon input to soil may decrease soil carbon content. Ecology Letters (2004), 7: 314-320.

Fontaine, S. 2007. Stability of organic carbon in deep soil layers controlled by fresh carbon supply. Nature, 450: 277-280.

Gál, A., Vyn, T.J., Michéli, E., Kladivko, E.J. & Mcfee, W.W. 2007. Soil carbon and nitrogen accumulation with long-term no-till versus moldboard plowing overestimated with tilled-zone sampling depths. Soil and Tillage Research, 96: 42-51.

Glover, J. D., Reganold, J. P., Bell, L. W., Borevitz, J., Brummer, E.C., Buckler, E.S., Cox, C.M., Cox, T.S., Crews, T.E., Culman, S.W., DeHaan, L.R., Eriksson, D., Gill, B.S., Holland, J., Hu, F., Hulke, B.S., Ibrahim, A.M.H., Jackson, W., Jones, S.S., Murray, S.C., Paterson, A. H., Ploschuk, E., Sacks, E.J., Snapp, S., Tao, D., Van Tassel, D. L., Wade, L. J.,  Wyse, D. L. & Xu, Y. 2010. Increased food and ecosystem security via perennial grains. Science, 328: 1638-1639.

Gommes, R., Acunzo, M., Baas, S., Bernardi, M., Jost, S., Mukhala, E. & Ramasamy, S. 2010. Communication approaches in applied agrometeorology, In K. Stigter, eds. Applied Agrometeorology. Heidelberg, Springer. pp 263–287.

Grandy, A.S., Robertson, G.P. & Thelen, K.D. 2006. Do productivity and environmental trade-offs justify periodically cultivating no-till cropping systems? Agronomy Journal, 98: 1377-1383. 

Gourdji, S.M., Sibley, A.M & Lobell, D.B. 2013. Global crop exposure to critical high temperatures in the reproductive period: historial trends and future projections. Environmental Research Letters. Vol. 8. No. 2.

Hatfield, J.L. & Prueger, J.H. 2015. Temperature extremes: Effect on plant growth and development. Weather and Climate Extremes. Vol. 10. Part A. pp 4-10.

Hatfield, J.L., Boote, K.J., Kimball, B.A., Ziska, L.H., Izaurralde, R.C., Ort, D., Thomson, A.M. & Wolfe, D.W. 2011. Climate impacts on agriculture: Implications for crop production. Agronomy Journal, 103: 351-370.

Hilmi, M. 2016a. Developing greener food value chains: environmentally friendly tomato post-harvest operations in four cities. Food chain. Vol. 6. No. 1

Hilmi, M. 2016b. Fostering green growth by developing green food value chains: A bottom of the pyramid perspective, Green Growth Knowledge Platform 4th Annual conference on transforming development through inclusive green growth, Jeju Island, Republic of Korea, 6th-7th September 2016

Hussner, A., Van de Weyer, K., Gross, E.M. & Hilt, S. 2010. Comments on increasing number and abundance of non-indigenous aquatic macrophyte species in Germany. Weed Research, 50: 519-526.

Hyvonen, T., Glemnitz, M., Radics, L. & Hoffmann, J. 2010. Impact of climate and land use type on the distribution of finish casual arable weeds in Europe. Weed research, 51: 201-208.

International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD). 2009. Agriculture as a crossroad. Volume V. In B.D. McIntyre, H.R. Herren, J. Wakhungu & R.T. Watson, eds. Washington D.C. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) report.

Intergovernmental Panal on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007. Technical Summary. In Climate change 2007: mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge, UK, and New-York, USA, Cambridge University Press.

IPCC. 2012. Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation

Jarecki, M.K. & Lal, R. 2003. Crop management for soil carbon sequestration. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 22: 471-502.

Kathiresan, R.M. 2006a. Problems posed by the introduction of Prosopis spp. In selected countries. In FAO. Invasion of Prosopis juliflora in India. pp 3-10. FAO Plant Production and Protection Division. 

Kjøhl, M., Nielson, A. & Stenseth, N.C. 2011. Potential effects of climate change on crop pollination. Rome, FAO.

Kriticos, D.J., Sutherst, R.W., Brown, J.R., Adkins, S.W. & Maywald, G.F. 2003. Climate change and the potential distribution of an invasive alien plant: Acacia nilotica spp. indica in Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology, 40: 111-124.

Krupnik, T.J., Shennan, C, Settle, W.H., Demont, M., Ndiayee, A.B. & Rodenburg, J. 2012. Improving irrigated rice production in the Senegal River Valley through experiential learning and innovation

Kuzyakov, Y., Friedel, J.K. & Stahr, K. 2000. Review of mechanisms and quantification of priming effects. Soil Biol Biochemistry, 32: 1485-1498. 

Lal, R. 2003. Carbon emission from farm operations. Environment International, 30(7): 981-90.

Lal, R. 2004. Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. Science, 304(5677): 1623-7.

Lal, R. 2016. A system approach to conservation agriculture. Soil and Water Conservation Society, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 70(4):82A-88A. (available at doi:10.2489/jswc.70.4.82A). 

Lejeune, K.R., Griffin, J.L., Reynolds, D.B. & Saxton, A.M. 1994. Itch grass (Rottboellia cochinchinensis) interference in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technology, 8: 733-737.

Lencse, R.J & Griffin, J.L. 1991. Itchgrass (Rottboellia cochinchinensis) interference in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.). Weed Technology, 5: 396-399.

Linderholm, H.W. 2005. Growing season changes in the last century. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 137(2006): 1-14. Science direct.

Lipiec, J., Doussan, C., Nosalewicz, A. & Kondracka, K. 2013. Effect of drought and heat stresses on plant growth and yield: A review. Institute of Agrophysics, 2017(27): 463-477.

Liu, C. & Allan R.P. 2013. Observed and simulated precipation responses in wet and dry region 1850-2100. Environmental Research Letters. Vol. 8. No. 3.

Loladze I. 2017. Hidden shift of the ionome of plants exposed to elevated CO2 depletes minerals at the base of human nutrition. Life, 3, e02245, 2014.

Lobb, et al., D., Kachanoski, R.G., Miller, M.H. 1995. Tillage translocation and tillage erosion on shoulder slope landscape positions measured using 137Cs as a tracer. Canada Journal of Soil Science, 75: 211-218.

Lobb, D. & Lindstrom, M.J. 1999. Tillage translocation and tillage erosion. Poster Presentation at Manitoba Soil Science Society Meeting Winnipeg, Manitoba, February 1-2 1999.

Lobell, D.B. & Field, C.B. 2007. Global scale climate-crop yield relationships and the impacts of recent warming. Environmental Research Letters, 2: 7.

Malcom, J.R., Markham, A., Neilson, R.P. & Garaci, M. 2002. Estimated migration rates under scenarios of global climate change. Journal of Biogeography, 29: 835-849.

Mohamed, K., Bolin, J., Musselman, L. & Peterson, A. 2007. Genetic diversity of Striga and implications for control and modeling future distributions. In Ejeta, G. & Gressel, J., eds. Integrating new technologies for Striga control: Towards ending the witch-hunt. pp 71-84. Singapore, World Scientific Publishing Company PTE LTD. 

Nepstad, D.C, Uhl, C., Serrao, E.S. 1991. Recuperation of a degraded Amazonian landscape: Forest recovery and agricultural restoration. Ambio, 20: 248-255.

Olivier, J.G.J., Thomas, R., Brandes, L.J., Peters, J.A.H.W. & Coenen, P.W.H.G. 2002. Greenhouse gas emissions in the Netherlands. 1990-2000. National Inventory Report 2002. RIVM Report 773201 006/2002, Bilthoven.

Patterson, D, T., Meyer, C.R., Flint, E.P. & Quimby, P.C. 1979. Temperature responses and potential distribution of itchgrass (Rottboellia exaltata) in the United States. Weed Science, 27: 77-82.

Patterson, D.T. 1993. Implications of global climate change for impact of weeds, insects and plant diseases. International crop science, 1: 273-280.

Patterson, D.T. 1995a. Weeds in a changing climate. Weed Science, 43: 685-701.

Patterson, D.T., Westbrook, J.K., Joyce, R.J.C., Lingren, P.D. & Rogasik, J. 1999. Weeds, insects and diseases. Climate Change, 43: 711-727.

Pimentel, D. 2006. Soil Erosion: A Food and Environmental Threat. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 8: 119-137. 

Reicosky D.C, et al., Lindstrom, M.J., Schumacher, T.E., Lobb, D. & Malo, D.D. 2005. Tillage induced CO2 loss across an eroded landscape. Soil and Tillage Research, 81(2): 183-194.

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Sasek, T.W. & Strain, B.R. 1990. Implications of atmospheric CO2 enrichment and climatic change for the geographical distribution of two introduced vines in the USA. Climate Change, 16: 31-51.

Sauerborn, J. 1991. The economic importance of the phytoparasites Orobanche and Striga. In Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Parasitic Weeds. pp 137-143. Nairobi, Kenya. 

Sharma, H.C. 2014. Climate Change Effects on Insects: Implications for Crop Protection and Food Security. Journal of Crop Improvement. Vol. 28. Issue 2.

Schuch, H., Taube, F., Lausen, P., Techow, E. & Herrmann, A. 2013. Grassland root biomass and carbon sequestration response to phosphorous and potassium supply. Grassland Science in Europe, 18: 114-116.

Schuman, G.E., Janzen, H.H. & Herrick, J.E. 2002. Soil carbon dynamics and potential carbon sequestration by rangelands. Environmental Pollution, 116: 391-396.

Sisti, et al., C.P.J., dos Santos, H.P., Kohhann, R., Alves, B.J.R., Urquiaga, S. & Boddey, R.M. 2004. Change in carbon and nitrogen stocks in soil under 13 years of conventional or zero tillage in southern Brazil. Soil and Tillage Research, 76: 39-58.

Simpson, B.M. 2017. Preparing Smallholder Farm Families to Adapt to Climate Change. Pocket Guide 2: Managing crop resources. Catholic Relief Services: Baltimore, MD, USA.

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Taub, D., Miller B., Allen H. 2008. Effects of elevated CO2 on the protein concentration of food crops: a meta-analysis. Global Change Biology 14, 565-575.

Thakur, A.K., Rath S., Patil D. & Kumar A. 2011. Effects on rice plant morphology and physiology of water and associated management practices of the system of rice intensification and their implications for crop performance. Paddy and Water Environment. 9:13-24.

Thomson, A.M., Izaurralde, R.C., Smith, S.J. & Clarke, L.E. 2010. Integrated estimates of global terrestrial carbon sequestration. Global Environmental Change, 18: 192-203.

Tubiello, F.N., Soussana, J.F., Howden M. & Easterling, W. 2007. Crop and pasture response to climate change; fundamental processes. In W. Easterling, eds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104: 19686-19690. 

Tubiello, F.N. & van der Velde, M. 2010. SOLAW background thematic report - tr04a. Land and water use options for climate change adaptation and mitigation in agriculture. GET-Carbon. New York, USA.

Wageningen University. 2016. Farm DESIGN Manual - Version 4.16.0. Farming Systems Ecology Group, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. 

Wahid, A., Gelani, S., Ashraf, M. & Foolad, M. 2007. Heat tolerance in plants: an overview. Environmental and Experimental body. Vol. 61. Issue 3. pp 199-223.

Weber, C.L. & Matthews, H.S. 2008. Food-miles and the relative climate impacts of food choices in the United States. Environmental Science & Technology, 42: 3508−3513.

Xu, J., Peng, S., Yang, S. & Wang, W. 2012. Ammonia volatilization losses from a rice paddy with different irrigation and nitrogen managements. Agricultural Water Management, 104: 184-192.

Ziska, L.H. & Reunion, G.B. 2007. Future weed, pest and disease problems for plants. In P.C.D Newton, A. Carran, G.R. Edwards, P.A. Niklaus, eds. Agro-ecosystems in a changing climate. pp 262-279. Boston, CRC. 

Ziska, L.H., Blumenthal, D.M., Brett Runion, G., Raymond Hunt, E. & Hilda Diaz-Soltero. 2010. Invasive species and climate change: an agronomic perspective. Climatic Change, 105(1-2): 13-42.