Climate Smart Agriculture Sourcebook

Integrated production systems

Production and Resources


Ahmed, N., Bunting, S.W., Rahman, S. & Garforth, C.J. 2014. Community‐based climate change adaptation strategies for integrated prawn-fish-rice farming in Bangladesh to promote social-ecological resilience. Reviews in Aquaculture, 6(1): 20-35.

Alao, J.S. & Shuaibu, R.B. 2013. Agroforestry practices and concepts in sustainable land use systems in Nigeria. Journal of horticulture and forestry, 5(10): 156-159.

Albrecht, A. & Kandji, S.T. 2003. Carbon sequestration in tropical agroforestry systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 99: 15-27.

Andrade, H.J. 1999. Dinámica productiva de sistemas silvopastoriles con Acacia mangium y Eucalyptus deglupta en el trópico húmedo. Turrialba, Costa Rica, CATIE. 70 pp. (M.Sc. thesis).

Andrade, H.J, Segura, M.A., Canal, D.S., Feria, M., Alvarado, J.J., Marín, L.M., Pachón, D. & Gómez, M.J. 2014. The carbon footprint of coffee production chains in Tolima, Colombia. In M. Oelbermann, ed. Sustainable agrosystems in climate change mitigation

Antle, J.M., Stoorvogel, J.J. & Valdivia, R.O. 2007. Assessing the economic impacts of agricultural carbon sequestration: Terraces and agroforestry in the Peruvian Andes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 122: 435-445. 

Attwood, S.J. Park, S.E., Loos, J. Phillips, M., Mills, D. & McDougall, C. 2017. Does sustainable intensification offer a pathway to improved food security for aquatic agricultural system-dependent communities? In I. Oborn, B. Vanlauwe, M. Phillips, R. Thomas, W. Brooijmans, K. Atta-Krah, eds. Sustainable Intensification in Smallholder Agriculture: An Integrated Systems Research Approach. Earthscan, Routledge.

Bélanger, J. & Johns, T. 2008. Biological diversity, dietary diversity, and eye health in developing country populations: establishing the evidence-base. EcoHealth, 5: 244-256. 

BFAR. 2017. Documentation of practical innovative approaches on impacts of climate change. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Aquaculture Technology Bulletin Series. 24 pp. 

Blanchard, M., Vayssières, J., Dugué, P. & Vall, E. 2013. Local technical knowledge and efficiency of organic fertilizer production in South Mali: diversity of practices. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 37(6): 672-699.

Blümmel, M., Anandan, S. & Prasad, C.S. 2009. Potential and limitations of byproduct based feeding system to mitigate green house gases for improved livestock productivity. In Proceedings of 13th biennial conference of Animal Nutrition Society of India. pp 68-74. Bangalore.

Bogdanski, A. & Roth, C. 2012. Integrated food-energy systems: growing fuel wood on farm in Malawi. Nature & Faune, 26(2):57-62.

Bogdanski, A., Dubois, O., Jamieson, C. & Krell, R. 2010. Making Integrated Food-Energy Systems Work for People and Climate - An Overview.

Bolívar, D., Ibrahim, M., Kass, D., Jiménez, F. & Camargo, J.C. 1999. Productividad y calidad forrajera de Brachiaria humidicola en monocultivo y en asocio con Acacia mangium en un suelo ácido en el trópico húmedo. Agroforestería en las Américas, 6(23): 48–50.

Burgess, S.S.O., Adams, M.A., Turner, N.C. & Ong, C.K. 1998. The redistribution of soil water by tree root systems. Oecologia, 115: 306-311.

Burgess, S.S.O., Adams, M.A., Turner, N.C., White, D.A. & Ong, C.K. 2001. Tree roots: conduits for deep recharge of soil water. Oecologia, 126: 158-165.

Bustamanate, J., Ibrahim, M. & Beer, J. 1998. Evaluación agronómica de ocho gramíneas mejoradas en un sistema silvopastoril con poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) en el trópico húmedo de Turrialba. Agroforestería en las Américas, 5(19): 11–16.

Carney, J.A. & Elias, M. 2016. Revealing gendered landscapes: Female knowledge and agroforestry of African shea.

Catacutan, D. & Naz, F. 2015. Gender roles, decision-making and challenges to agroforestry adoption in Northwest Vietnam. International Forestry Review, 17(4): 22-32. 

Choudhury, K. & Janssen, L.J.M., eds. 1999. Terminology for Integrated Resources Management and Planning. Rome, FAO & UNEP.

Craparo, A.C.W., van Asten, P.J.A, Läderach, P, Jassogne, L.T.P. & Grab, S.W. 2015. Coffea Arabica yields decline in Tanzania due to climate change; Global implications. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 207: 1-10.

Datta, A., Nayak, D.R., Sinhababu, D.P. & T.K Adyha. 2009. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from an integrated rainfed rice-fish farming system of Eastern India. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 129(1-3): 228-237. 

Dawson, T.E. 1996. Determining water use by trees and forests from isotopic, energy balance and transpiration analyses: the roles of tree size and hydraulic lift. Tree Physiol, 16: 263-272.

Descheemaeker K., Oosting, S.J. & Homann-Kee Tui, S. 2016. Climate change adaptation and mitigation in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa: a call for integrated impact assessments. Reg Environ Change, 16: 2331.

DeSouza, H.N., DeGoede, R.G.M., Brussaard, L., Cardoso, I.M., Duarte, E.M.G., Fernandes, R.B.A., Gomes, L.C. & Pulleman, M.M. 2012. Protective shade, tree diversity and soil properties in coffee agroforestry systems in the Atlantic Rainforest biome. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 146: 179-196.

Devendra, C. & Ibrahim, M. 2004. Silvopasotral systems as a strategy for diversification and productivity enhancement rom livestock in the tropics.>

Dixon, J. L., Stringer, L. C. & Challinor, A. J. 2014. Farming system evolution and adaptive capacity: Insights for adaptation support. Resources, (3): 182-214. 

Dixon, R.K. 1995. Agroforestry systems: sources or sinks of greenhouse gases? Agroforest Syst, 31: 99-116.

Fanzo, J., Hunter, D., Borelli, T. & Mattei, F. 2013. Diversifying food and diets: using agricultural biodiversity to improve nutrition and health. Routledge.

FAO. 2010a. Importance of silvopastoral systems for mitigation of climate change and harnessing of environmental benefits.

FAO. 2010b. An international consultation on integrated crop-livestock systems for development. The Way Forward for Sustainable Production Intensification. FAO Integrated Crop Management. Vol. 13. Rome.

FAO. 2012a. Soil Organic Carbon Accumulation and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions from Conservation Agriculture: Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions from Conservation Agriculture: A literature review. FAO Integrated Crop Management Vol. 16–2012. Rome.

FAO. 2012b. State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture. 209 pp. Rome. 

FAO. 2012c. Save and Grow. Rome.

FAO. 2012d. Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security. Rome.

FAO. 2014a. Assessing and promoting trees outside forests (TOF) in Asian rice production landscapes. Rome.

FAO. 2014b. Climate change adaptation in fisheries and aquaculture. Compilation of initial examples. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular. No. 1088. Rome.

FAO. 2014c. Evidence-based assessment of the sustainability and replicability of integrated food-energy systems - A guidance document. Environment and Taural Resources, Working paper 57.

FAO. 2015a. Save and Grow in practice maize · rice · wheat. A Guide to sustainable cereal production. Rome.

FAO. 2015b. GLEAM [online]. Rome. [19 May 2017].

FAO. 2015c. The economic lives of smallholder farmers: an analysis based on household data from nine countries. Rome.

FAO. 2015d. Save and Grow Farming Systems. Fact Sheet 8. Rome.

FAO. 2015e. Save and Grow Farming Systems. Fact Sheet 9. Rome. 

FAO. 2015f. Save and grow farming systems. Fact Sheet 5. Rome.

FAO. 2016a. Save and Grow in practice: maize, rice, wheat. A guide to sustainable cereal production.

FAO. 2016b. Planning, implementing and evaluating climate-smart agriculture in smallholder farming systems. The experience of the MICCA pilot projects in Kenya and the United Republic of Tanzania. Rome. 

FAO. 2017a. Agroforestry in rice-production landscapes in Southeast Asia a practical manual. Rome.

FAO. 2017b. Study on small-scale family farming in the Near East and North African region. Synthesis. Rome.

FAO. 2017c. How to manage integrated crop-livestock systems? [online]. Rome. [2 August 2017].

Farnworth, C.R., Stirling, C., Sapkota, T.B., Jat, M.L., Misiko, M. & Attwood, S. 2017. Gender and inorganic nitrogen: what are the implications of moving towards a more balanced use of nitrogen fertilizer in the tropics?. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability: 1-17.

Garrity, D.P., Akinnifesi, F.K., Ajayi, O.C, Weldesemayat, S.G, Mowo, J.G., Kalinganire, A., Larwanou, M. & Bayala, J. 2010. Evergreen agriculture: a robust approach to sustainable food security in Africa. Food Security, 2: 197-214.

Gerber, P.J., Steinfeld, H., Henderson, B., Mottet, A., Opio, C., Dijkman, J., Falcucci, A., Tempio, G. 2013. Tackling climate change through livestock - A global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities. Rome, FAO.

Global Water Institute. 2016. Challenges of Rice-Shrimp Farming in the Mekong Delta. UNSW, Sydney.

Government of India. 2014. National Agroforestry Policy. New Delhi.

Hajjar, R., Jarvis, D.I. & Gemmill-Herren, B. 2008. The utility of crop genetic diversity in maintaining ecosystem services. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 123(4): 261-270.

Hall, N.M., Bocary, K., Janet, D., Ute, S., Amadou, N. & Tobo, R. 2006. Effect of improved fallow on crop productivity, soil fertility and climate-forcing gas emissions in semi-arid conditions. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 42: 224-230.

Halwart, M. 1994. Fish as biocontrol agents in rice: the potential of common carp Cyprinus carpio and Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Margraf Verlag, Weikersheim, Germany. 169 pp.

Halwart, M. & Gupta, M.V., eds. 2004. Culture of fish in rice fields. FAO and The World Fish Center. 83 pp.

Hansen, J.W., Mason, S., Sun, L. & Tall, A. 2011. Review of seasonal climate forecasting for agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. Experimental Agriculture, 47(2): 205-240.

Haverhals, M., Ingram, V., Elias, M., Sijapati Basnett, B. and Petersen, S. 2016. Exploring gender and forest, tree and agroforestry value chains: Evidence and lessons from a systematic review. No. CIFOR Infobrief no. 161, p. 6. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia.

Henderson, B. B., Gerber, P. J., Hilinski, T. E., Falcucci, A., Ojima, D. S., Salvatore, M., & Conant, R. T. 2015. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of the world’s grazing lands: modeling soil carbon and nitrogen fluxes of mitigation practices. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 207: 91-100.

Horton, J. & Hart, S.C. 1998. Hydraulic lift: a potentially important ecosystem process. Tree, 13(6).

Hu, Z., Wu, S., Ji, S., Zou, J., Zhou, Q. & Liu, S. 2016. A comparison of methane emissions following rice paddies conversion to crab-fish farming wetlands in southeast China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(2): 1505-15.

Huang, Y-B, Wen, B-Q, Tang, J-Y, Liu, Z-Z. 2001. Effect of rice-azolla-fish system on soil environment of rice field. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 9(1): 74-76 (in Chinese with English Abstract).

Ibrahim, M., Chacón, M., Cuartas, C., Naranjo, J.F., Ponce, G., Vega, P., Casasola, F. & Rojas, J. 2007. Almacenamiento de carbono en el suelo y la biomasa arbóreaen diferentes sistemas de usos de la tierra en Colombia, Costa Rica y Nicaragua. Agroforestería en las Américas, 45: 27-36.

Intergovernemental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2000. Land-use, land-use change and forestry. Special report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, UK. 375 pp.

Jarvis, D.I., Brown, A.H.D., Imbruce, V., Ochoa, J., Sadiki, M., Karamura, E., Trutmann, P. & Finckh, M.R. 2007. Managing Crop Disease in Traditional Agroecosystems. Managing biodiversity in agricultural ecosystems. 292 pp.

Kamp, K. & Gregory, R. 1994. Fish cultivation as a means to increase profi tability from rice fi elds: implications for integrated pest management. In C.R. De la Cruz, ed. Role of fish in enhancing rice field ecology and in integrated pest management. Summary report of the Third Asian Regional Rice-Fish Farming Research and Development Workshop, 6-11 June 1993. West Java, Indonesia, Sukamandi Research Institute for Food Crops. 50 pp.

Kenmore, P. & Halwart, M. 1998. Functional agrobiodiversity, Integrated Pest Management, and aquatic life management in rice. In Proceedings of the FAO/CBD International Workshop on Opportunities, Incentives, and Approaches for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in Agricultural Ecosystems and Production Systems. Rome, FAO.

Lin, B.B. 2007. Agroforestry management as an adaptive strategy against potential microclimate extremes in coffee agriculture. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 144: 85-94. 

Lin, B.B. 2010. The role of agroforestry in reducing water loss through soil evaporation and crop transpiration in coffee agroecosystems. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 150: 510-518.

López, M., Schlönvoigt, A.A., Ibrahim, M., Kleinn, C. & Kanninen, M. 1999. Cuantificación del carbono almacenado en el suelo de un sistema silvopastoril en la zona Atlántica de Costa Rica. Agroforestería en las Américas, 6(23): 51-53.

Lu, J. & Xia, L. 2006. Review of rice-fish-farming systems in China—one of the globally important ingenious agricultural heritage systems (GIAHS). Aquaculture, 260(1): 106-113.

Luedeling, E., Roeland, K., Huth, N.I. & Koening, K. 2014. Agroforestry systems in a changing climate — challenges in projecting future performance. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 6: 1-7.

McCarthy, N., Lipper, N. & Branca, G. 2011. Climate Smart Agriculture: Smallholder Adoption and Implications for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation. Working paper. Rome, FAO.

Méndez, V.E., Bacon, C.M., Olson, M., Morris, K.S. & Shattuck, A.K. 2010. Agrobiodiversity and shade coffee smallholder livelihoods: A review and synthesis of ten years of research in Central America. Special Focus Section on Geographic Contributions to Agrobiodiversity Research. Professional Geographer, 62: 357-376.

Miao, W.M. 2010. Recent developments in rice-fish culture in China: a holistic approach for livelihood improvement in rural areas. In S.S. De Silva & F.B. Davy, eds. Success stories in Asian aquaculture. Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London & New York, Springer. pp 15-40.

Mottet, A., Henderson, B., Opio, C., Falcucci, A., Tempio, G., Silvestri, S., Chestermsan, S. & Gerber, P. J. 2016. Climate change mitigation and productivity gains in livestock supply chains: insights from regional case studies. Regional Environmental Change. pp 1-13.

Murgueito, E. & Ibrahim, M. 2008. Ganadería y medio ambiente en América Latina. In E. Murgueitio, C. Cuartas, J.F. Naranjo, eds. Ganadería del futuro: investigación para el desarrollo. Cali, Colombia, CIPAV. pp 19-40. 

Murgueito, E., Calle, Z., Uribe, F., Calle, A., Solorio, B. 2011. Native trees and shrubs for the productive rehabilitation of tropical cattle ranching lands. Forestry Ecology and Management, 261(10).

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Seo, S.N. 2010. Is an integrated farm more resilient against climate change? A micro-econometric analysis of portfolio diversification in African agriculture. Food Policy, 35(1): 32-40.

Sileshi, G.W., Mafongoya, P. L., Akinnifesi, F.K., Phiri, E., Chirwa, P., Beedy, T., Makumba, W., George, N., Njoloma, J., Wuta, M., Nyamugafata, P. & Jiri, O. 2014. Agroforestry: Fertilizer Trees. Encyclopedia of agriculture and food systems, 1: 222-234.

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Soussana, J.F., Dumont, B. & Lecomte, P. 2015. Integration with livestock. Agroecology for food security and nutrition. Proceedings of the FAO Intenational Symposium, 18-19 September 2014. pp 225-249. Rome, FAO.

Tamang, B., Andreu, M.G. & Rockwood, D.L. 2010. Microclimate patters on the leeside of singlerow tree windbreaks during different weather conditions in Florida farms: implications for improved crop production. Agroforestry Systems, 79: 111-122.

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Thornton, P.K. & Herrero, M. 2015. Adapting to climate change in the mixed crop and livestock farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Nature Climate Change, 5: 830-836. 

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