Climate Smart Agriculture Sourcebook

Genetic resources for Climate-Smart Agriculture Production

Production and Resources


Abi-Ghanem, R., Bodah, E.T., Wood, M. & Braunwart, K. 2013. Potential breeding for high nitrogen fixation in Pisum sativum L.: germplasm phenotypic characterization and genetic investigation. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 4(8): 1597-1600.

Ahloowalia B.S., Maluszynski M. & Nichterlein, K. 2004. Global impact of mutation derived varieties. Euphytica, 135(2): 187-204.

Aitken, S.N., Yeaman, S., Holliday, J.A, Wang, T. & Curtis-McLane, S. 2008. Adaptation, migration or extirpation: climate change outcomes for tree populations. Evolutionary Applications, 1(1): 95-111.

Alercia, A., Diulgheroff, S. & Mackay, M. 2015. FAO/Bioversity Multi-Crop Passport Descriptors (MCPD V.2.1). Rome, FAO and Bioversity International.

Alfaro, R.I., Fady, B., Vendramin, G.G., Dawson, I.D., Fleming, R.A., Sáenz-Romero, C., Lindig-Cisneros, R.A., Murdock, T., Vinceti, B., Navarro, C.M., Skrøppa, T., Baldinelli, G., El-Kassaby, Y. & Loo, J. 2014. The role of forest genetic resources in responding to biotic and abiotic factors in the context of anthropogenic climate change. Forest Ecology and Management, 333: 76-87.

Andrews, J.D. 1973. Effects of tropical storm Agnes on epifaunal invertebrates in Virginia estuaries. Chesapeake Science, 14: 223−234.

AQUALEX. 1998. Multilingual glossary of aquaculture terms / Glossaire multilingue relatif aux termes utilisés en aquaculture. CD ROM, John Wiley & Sons Ltd. & Praxis Publ., UK.

Aravanopoulos, F.A., Tollefsrud, M.M., Graudal, L., Koskela, J., Kätzel, R., Soto, A., Nagy, L., Pilipovic, A., Zhelev, P., Bozic, G. & Bozzano, M. 2015. Development of genetic monitoring methods for genetic conservation units of forest trees in Europe. Rome, Bioversity International. 

Art, H.W. (eds.) 1993. The dictionary of ecology and environmental science. New York, Henry Holt & Co. 632p. 

Ashby, J.A. 2009. The impact of participatory plant breeding. In S. Ceccarelli, E.P. Guimaraes, E. Weltzien, eds. Plant breeding and farmer participation, pp. 649-671. Rome, FAO.

Balon, E.K. 1995. Origin and domestication of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swimming flowers. Aquaculture, 129: 3-48.

Barros, E., Grimaldi, M., Sarrazin, M., Chauvel, M., Mitja, D., Desjardins, T. & Lavelle, P. 2004. Soil physical degradation and changes in macrofaunal communities in Central Amazon. Applied Soil Ecology, 26(2): 157-168.

Bartley, D. & M. Halwart. 2017. Aquatic genetic resources in aquaculture. In: D. Hunter, L. Guarino, C. Spillane and P. McKeown (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Agricultural Biodiversity, pp. 86-98.  Routledge.

Bates, B.C., Kundzewicz, Z.W., Wu, S. & Palutikof, J.P. (eds.). 2008. Climate change and water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC Secretariat, Geneva.

Beed, F., Benedetti, A., Cardinali, G., Chakraborty, S., Dubois, T., Garrett, K. & Halewood, M. 2011. Climate change and micro-organism genetic resources for food and agriculture: state of knowledge, risks and opportunities. CGRFA Background Study Paper No. 57. Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome, FAO

Bellon, M. R., Hodson, D., & Hellin, J. 2011. Assessing the vulnerability of traditional maize seed systems in Mexico to climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(33): 13432-13437.

Bellon M.R. & van Etten, J. 2014. Climate change and on-farm conservation of crop landraces in centres of civersity In M. Jackson, B. Ford-Lloyd & M. Parry, eds. Plant genetic resources and climate change, pp. 137-150.

Benjelloun B., Streeter I., Boyer F., Coissac E., Stucki S., BenBati M., Ibnelbachyr M., Chentouf M., Bechchari A. & Leempoel K. 2015. Characterizing neutral genomic diversity and selection signatures in indigenous populations of Moroccan goats (Capra hircus) using WGS data. Frontiers in Genetics, 6:107. 

Botanical Gardens Conservation International (BGCI). 2017. Global Tree Search database. Accessed 24 Apr 2017. Kew, UK.

Boettcher, P.J., Hoffmann, I., Baumung, R., Drucker, A.G., McManus, C., Berg, P., Stella, A., Nilsen, L.B., Moran, D., Naves, M. & Thompson, M.C. 2014. Genetic resources and genomics for adaptation of livestock to climate change. Frontiers in Genetics, 5:461.

Bozzano, M., Jalonen, R., Thomas, E., Boshier, D., Gallo, L., Cavers, S., Bordács, S., Smith, P. & Loo, J. (Eds). 2014. Genetic considerations in ecosystem restoration using native tree species. State of the World’s Forest Genetic Resources - Thematic Study. FAO and Bioversity International, Rome.

Briones, M.J.I., Ostle, N.J., McNamara, N.P. & Poskitt, J. 2009. Functional shifts of grassland soil communities in response to soil warming. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 41(2): 315-322.

Brozynska, M., Furtado, A., & Henry, R.J. 2015. Genomics of crop wild relatives: expanding the gene pool for crop improvement. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 14(4): 1070-1085.

Burns, A., Gleadow, R., Cliff, J., Zacarias, A., & Cavagnaro, T. 2010. Cassava: the drought, war and famine crop in a changing world. Sustainability, 2(11): 3572-3607.

Cannon, R.J.C. 1998. The implications of predicted climate change for insect pests in the UK, with emphasis on non-indigenous species. Global Change Biology, 4(7): 785-796. 

Capper, J.L., Cady, R.A. & Bauman, D.E. 2009. The environmental impact of dairy production: 1944 compared with 2007. Journal of Animal Science, 87(6): 2160-2167.

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). 2017. Why is Taxonomy Important? [Online]. Accessed on 7 June 2017.

Cernay, C., Pelzer, E. & Makowski, D. 2016. A global experimental dataset for assessing grain legume production. Scientific Data, 3: 160084.

Cock, M.J.W., Biesmeijer, J.C., Cannon, R.J.C., Gerard, P.J., Gillespie, D., Jiménez, J.J., Lavelle, P.M. & Raina, S.K. 2011. Climate change and invertebrate genetic resources for food and agriculture: state of knowledge, risks and opportunities. CGRFA Background Study Paper No. 54. Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome, FAO.

Cook, D.R. 2014. Ecological Genomics at Chickpea's Center of Origin: Mining Wild Crop Relatives for Climate Resilience and Nitrogen Fixation for Crop Improvement in the Developing World. Plant and Animal Genome XXII Conference, 11-15 January 2014, San Diego, USA.

De Casablanca, M.-L., Laugier, T. & Marinho-Soriano, E. 1997. Seasonal changes of nutrients in water and sediment in a Mediterranean lagoon with shellfish farming  activity  (Thua Lagoon, France). ICES Journal of Marine Science, 54: 905−916.

De Jong, G. 2005. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity: patterns of plasticity and the emergence of ecotypes. New Phytologist, 166(1): 101-118.

Di Cagno, R., Surico, R.F., Minervini, G., De Angelis, M., Rizzello, C.G. & Gobbetti, M. 2009. Use of autochthonous starters to ferment red and yellow peppers (Capsicum annum L.) to be stored at room temperature. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 130(2): 108-116.

Dwivedi, S.L., Stalker, H.T., Blair, M.W., Bertioli, D.J., Upadhyaya, H., Nielen, S. & Ortiz, R. 2008. Enhancing crop gene pools with beneficial traits using wild relatives. Plant Breeding Reviews, 30: 179-230.

Ebert, A.W. 2014. Potential of underutilized traditional vegetables and legume crops to contribute to food and nutritional security, income and more sustainable production systems. Sustainability, 6(1): 319-335.

Efisue, A., Tongoona, P., Derera, J., Langyintuo, A., Laing, M. & Ubi, B. 2008. Farmers’ perceptions on rice varieties in Sikasso region of Mali and their implications for rice breeding. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 194(5): 393-400.

El-Sharkawy, M.A. 2016. Prospects of photosynthetic research for increasing agricultural productivity, with emphasis on the tropical C4 Amaranthus and the cassava C3-C4 crops. Photosynthetica, 54(2): 161-184.

Eriksson, G., Namkoong, G. & Roberds, J.H. 1993. Dynamic gene conservation for uncertain futures. Forest Ecology and Management, 62(1-4): 15-37.

FAO. 1999. The global strategy for the management of farm animal genetic resources. Executive Brief. Rome. 

FAO. 2004. Preliminary review of biotechnology in forestry, including genetic modification. Forest Genetic Resources Working Paper FGR/59E. Rome. 

FAO. 2007.  Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources and the Interlaken Declaration. Adopted by the International Technical Conference on Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Interlaken, Switzerland, 3-7 September 2007. Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome.

FAO. 2010. The Second Report on The State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources For Food And Agriculture. Rome, FAO. 

FAO. 2011a. Second Global Plan of Action for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Adopted by the FAO Council, Rome, Italy, 29 November 2011. Rome. 

FAO. 2011b. Pre-breeding for Effective Use of Plant Genetic Resources: E-learning course

FAO. 2013a. Climate-Smart Agriculture Sourcebook. Rome.

FAO. 2013b. Fish identification tools for biodiversity and fisheries assessments: review and guidance for decision-makers. Edited by Fischer, J. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 585. Rome, FAO. 2013. 107 pp.

FAO. 2014a. Genebank Standards for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rev. ed. Rome.

FAO. 2014b. The State of the World’s Forest Genetic Resources. Rome.

FAO. 2014c. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2014. Opportunities and challenges. Rome.

FAO. 2015a. Voluntary Guidelines to Support the Integration of Genetic Diversity into National Climate Change Adaptation Planning. Rome.

FAO. 2015b. Coping with climate change - the roles of genetic resources for food and agriculture. Rome.

FAO. 2015c. Voluntary Guide for National Seed Policy Formulation. Rome.

FAO. 2015d. The Second Report on the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome. 

FAO. 2016a. Climate change and food security: risks and responses. Rome.

FAO. 2016b. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015. How are the world’s forests changing? Second edition. Rome. 

FAO. 2016c. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2016. Contributing to food security and nutrition for all. Rome.

FAO. 2016d. The State of the World’s Aquatic Genetic Resources For Food And Agriculture - Draft Report. Rome. 

FAO. 2017a. FAOSTAT Database on Agriculture

FAO. 2017b. FAO Databases.

FAO. (in press). Voluntary Guidelines for the National Level Conservation of Crop Wild Relatives and Wild Food Plants [endorsed by the Commission on Genetic Resources at its Sixteenth Regular Session].

FAO, DFSC & IPGRI. 2001. Forest genetic resources conservation and management. Vol. 2: In managed natural forests and protected areas (in situ). Rome, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.

FAO, FLD & IPGRI. 2004a. Forest genetic resources conservation and management. Vol. 1: Overview, concepts and some systematic approaches. Rome, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.

FAO, FLD & IPGRI. 2004b. Forest genetic resources conservation and management. Vol. 3: In plantations and genebanks (ex situ). Rome, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.

FAOSTAT. 2016. FAOSTAT [online]. Rome. [cited 10 July 2017]. 

Ficke, A., Myrick, C.A. & Hansen, L.J. 2007. Potential impacts of global climate change on freshwater fisheries. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 17: 581-613.

Flint, R.W. 1985. Coastal ecosystem dynamics: relevance of benthic processes. Mar. Chem., 16: 351−367.

Foresight. 2011. The Future of Food and Farming. Final Project Report. London, The Government Office for Science. 

Fuhrer, J. 2003. Agroecosystem responses to combinations of elevated CO2, ozone, and global climate change. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 97(1-3): 1-20.

Gjedrem T., Robinson, N. & Rye, M. 2012. The importance of selective breeding in aquaculture to meet future demands for animal protein: A review. Aquaculture, 350: 117-129.

Glaszmann, J.C., Kilian, B., Upadhyaya, H.D. & Varshney, R.K. 2010. Accessing genetic diversity for crop improvement. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 13(2): 167-173.

Gorkhali, N.A., Dong, K., Yang, M., Song, S., Kader, A., Shrestha, B.S., He, X., Zhao, Q., Pu, Y., Li, X., Kijas, J., Guan, W., Han, J., Jiang, L. & Ma, Y. 2016. Genomic analysis identified a potential novel molecular mechanism for high-altitude adaptation in sheep at the Himalayas. Scientific Reports, 6: 29963.

Govindaraj, M., Vetriventhan, M. & Srinivasan, M. 2015. Importance of genetic diversity assessment in crop plants and its recent advances: an overview of its analytical perspectives. Genetics research international, 2015: 431487.

Graudal, L. & Lillesø, J.-P.B. 2007. Experiences and future prospects for tree seed supply in agricultural development support: based on lessons learnt in Danida supported programmes 1965-2005. Copenhagen, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. Danida. 

Grace, D., Bett, B., Lindahl, J. & Robinson T. 2015. Climate and livestock disease: assessing the vulnerability of agricultural systems to livestock pests under climate change scenarios. CCAFS Working Paper no. 116. Copenhagen, Denmark: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).

Gresshoff, P.M., Hayashi, S., Biswas, B., Mirzaei, S., Indrasumunar, A., Reid, D., Samuel, S., Tollenaere, A., van Hameren, B., Hastwell, A. & Scott, P. 2015. The value of biodiversity in legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nodulation for biofuel and food production. Journal of Plant Physiology, 172: 128-136.

Groeneveld, L.F., Lenstra, J.A., Eding, H., Toro, M.A., Scherf, B., Pilling, D., Negrini, R., Finlay, E.K., Jianlin, H., Groeneveld, E., Weigend, S. & The GLOBALDIV Consortium. 2010. Genetic diversity in farm animals-a review. Animal Genetics, 41(s1): 6-31.

Guinotte, J.M & Fabry, V. 2008. Ocean acidification and its potential effects on marine ecosystems. The Year in Ecology and Conservation Biology, 1134: 320-342.

Hamrick, J.L. 2004. Response of forest trees to global environmental changes. Forest Ecology and Management, 197(1-3): 323-335.

Harvey, B., Soto, D., Carolsfeld, J., Beveridge, M. & Bartley, D.M. (eds). 2017. Planning for aquaculture diversification: the importance of climate change and other drivers. FAO Technical Workshop, 23-25 June 2016, FAO Rome. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Proceedings No. 47. Rome, FAO. 154 pp.

Hatfield, J., Boote, K., Fay, P., Hahn, L., Izaurralde, C., Kimball, B.A., Mader, T., Morgan, J., Ort, D., Polley, W., Thomson, A., & Wolfe, D. 2008. Agriculture. In CCSP, ed. The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. Washington, DC.

Hoffmann, I. 2010a. Climate Change in Context: Implications for Livestock Production and Diversity. In N.E. Odongo, M. Garcia & G.J. Viljoen, eds. Sustainable improvement of animal production and health, pp. 33-44. Vienna, FAO/IAEA. 

Hoffmann, I. 2010b. Climate change and the characterization, breeding and conservation of animal genetic resources. Animal Genetics, 41(s1): 32-46.

Hubert, J. & Cottrell, J. 2007. The role of forest genetic resources in helping British forests respond to climate change. Forestry Commission Information Note FCIN086. Edinburgh, Forestry Commission.

Jarvis, A., Lane, A. & Hijmans, R. 2008. The effect of climate change on crop wild relatives. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 126(1-2): 13-23.

Jarvis, A., Upadhyaya, H.D., Gowda, C.L.L., Agrawal, P.K., Fujisaka, S. & Anderson, B. 2008. Climate change and its effect on conservation and use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and associated biodiversity for food security. Thematic Background Study. Rome, FAO.

Jensen, E.S., Peoples, M.B., Boddey, R.M., Gresshoff, P.M., Hauggaard-Nielsen, H., Alves, B.J.R. & Morrison, M.J. 2012. Legumes for mitigation of climate change and the provision of feedstock for biofuels and biorefineries. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 32(2): 329-364.

Johnson, S.N., Staley, J.T., McLeod, F.A.L. & Hartley, S.E. 2011. Plantmediated effects of soil invertebrates and summer drought on above-ground multitrophic interactions. Journal of Ecology, 99(1): 57-65.

Jones, T.H., Thompson, L.J., Lawton, J.H., Bezemer, T.M., Bardgett, R.D., Blackburn, T.M., Bruce, K.D., Cannon, P.F., Hall, G.S., Hartley, S.E., Howson, G., Jones, C.G., Kampichler, C., Kandeler, E. & Ritchie, D.A. 1998. Impacts of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide on model terrestrial ecosystems. Science, 280(5362): 441-443.

Kahane, R., Hodgkin, T., Jaenicke, H., Hoogendoorn, C., Hermann, M., Hughes, J.D.A., Padulosi, S. & Looney, N. 2013. Agrobiodiversity for food security, health and income. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 33(4): 671-693.

Kelleher, C. T., de Vries, S.M.G., Baliuckas, V., Bozzano, M., Frydl, J., Gonzalez Goicoechea, P., Ivankovic, M., Kandemir, G., Koskela, J., Kozioł, C., Liesebach, M., Rudow, A., Vietto, L. & Zhelev Stoyanov P. 2015. Approaches to the Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources in Europe in the Context of Climate Change. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme (EUFORGEN). Rome, Bioversity International.

König, A.O. 2005. Provenance research: evaluating the spatial pattern of genetic variation. In T. Geburek, J. Turok, eds. Conservation and Management of Forest Genetic Resources in Europe, pp. 275-333. Zvolen, Slovakia, Arbora Publishers.

Konnert, M., Maurer, W., Degen, B. & Kätzel, R. 2011. Genetic monitoring in forests - early warning and controlling system for ecosystemic changes. iForest, 4:77-81.

Koskela, J., Vinceti, B., Dvorak, W., Bush, D., Dawson, I., Loo, J., Kjær, E.D., Navarro, C., Padolina, C., Bordács, S., Jamnadass, R., Graudal, L. & Ramamonjisoa, L. 2014. Use and transfer of forest genetic resources: A global review. Forest Ecology and Management, 333: 22-34.

Lande, R. & Barrowclough, G. 1987. Effective population size, genetic variation, and their use in population management. In M.E. Soulé, ed. Viable Populations for Conservation, pp. 87-123. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.

Lane, A. & Jarvis, A. 2007. Changes in climate will modify the geography of crop suitability: agricultural biodiversity can help with adaptation. Paper presented at ICRISAT/CGIAR 35th Anniversary Symposium “Climate-Proofing Innovation for Poverty Reduction and Food Security”, 22-24 November 2007, ICRISAT, Patancheru, India. Accessed 8 March 2010. 12 pp.

Lara, M.V. & Andreo, C.S. 2011. C4 plants adaptation to high levels of CO2 and to drought environments. In A. Shanker & B. Venkateswarlu, eds. Abiotic Stress in Plants-Mechanisms and Adaptations, pp.415-428. Rijeka, Croatia, InTech.

Lawrence, E. 1995. Henderson's dictionary of biological terms. New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc. 693p. 11th ed.

Leroy, G., Besbes, B., Boettcher, P., Hoffmann, I., Capitan, A., & Baumung, R. 2015. Rare phenotypes in domestic animals: unique resources for multiple applications. Animal Genetics, 47(2): 141-153.

Lobell, D.B., Schlenker, W. & Costa-Roberts, J. 2011. Climate trends and global crop production since 1980. Science, 333(6042): 616−620.

Lopes, M.S., El-Basyoni, I.,  Baenziger, P.S., Singh, S., Royo, C., Ozbek, K., Aktas, H., Ozer, E., Ozdemir, F., Manickavelu, A., Ban, T., & Vikram, P. 2015.  Exploiting genetic diversity from landraces in wheat breeding for adaptation to climate change. Journal of Experimental Botany, 66(12): 3477-3486.

Lorenzen, K, Beveridge, M.C.M. & Mangel, M. 2012. Cultured fish: integrative biology and management of domestication and interactions with wild fish. Biological Reviews, 87: 639-660. 

Louwaars, N.P.L., & de Boef, W.S. 2012. Integrated seed sector development in Africa: a conceptual framework for creating coherence between practices, programs and policies. Journal of Crop Improvement, 26(1): 39-59.

Luedeling, E., Steinmann, K.P., Zhang, M., Brown, P.H., Grant, J. & Girvetz, E.H. 2011. Climate change effects on walnut pests in California. Global Change Biology, 17(1): 228-238.

Malcolm, J.R., Markham, A., Neilson, R.P. & Garaci, M. 2002. Estimated migration rates under scenarios of global climate change. Journal of Biogeography, 29(7): 835-849.

Maluszynski, M., Nichterlein, K., Van Zanten, L. & Ahloowalia, B.S. 2000. Officially Released Mutant Varieties - The FAO/IAEA Database. Plant Breeding and Genetics Section, Joint FAO-IAEA Division. Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency.

Mapope, N. & Dakora, F.D. 2016. N 2 fixation, carbon accumulation, and plant water relations in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) varieties sampled from farmers’ fields in South Africa, measured using 15 N and 13 C natural abundance. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 221: 174-186.

Martynov, S.P. & Dobrotvorskaya, T.V. 2006. Genealogical analysis of diversity of Russian winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 53(2): 386-386.

Mátyás, C. 2007. What do field trials tell us about the future use of forest reproductive material? In Koskela, J., Buck, A. and Teissier du Cros, E. (Eds), Climate change and forest genetic diversity: implications for sustainable forest management in Europe, pp. 53-69. Bioversity International, Rome.

Maxted, N., Ford-Lloyd, B.V., Kell, S.P., Iriondo, J.M., Dulloo, M.E. & Turok, J., (eds). 2008. Crop Wild Relative Conservation and Use. Wallingford, UK, CABI Publishing.

Maxted, N. & Kell, S. 2009. Establishment of a Global Network for the In Situ Conservation of Crop Wild Relatives: Status and Needs. CGRFA Background Study Paper No. 39. Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome, FAO.

Mba, C. 2013. Induced mutations unleash the potentials of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. Agronomy, 3(1): 200-231.

Mba, C., Guimaraes, E.P., & Ghosh, K. 2012. Re-orienting crop improvement for the changing climatic conditions of the 21st century. Agriculture & Food Security, 1:7.

McGuire, S. & Sperling, L. 2013. Making seed systems more resilient to stress. Global Environmental Change, 23(3): 644-653.

McLachlan, J.S., Clark, J.S. & Manos, P.S. 2005. Molecular indicators of tree migration capacity under rapid climate change. Ecology, 86(8): 2088-2098.

McSweeney, C.S., & Mackie, R. 2012. Micro-organisms and ruminant digestion: State of knowledge, trends and future prospects. Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. CGRFA Background Study Paper No. 61. Rome, FAO.

MEA. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis. A Report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Washington, DC, World Resources Institute.

Mocali, S., Paffetti, D., Emiliani, G., Benedetti, A. & Fani, R. 2008. Diversity of heterotrophic aerobic cultivable microbial communities of soils treated with fumigants and dynamics of metabolic, microbial and mineralization quotients. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 44(4): 557-569.

Muchugi, A., Lengkeek, A., Kadu, C., Muluvi, G., Njagi, E. & Dawson, I. 2006. Genetic variation in the threatened medical tree Prunus africana in Cameroon and Kenya: implications for current management and evolutionary history. South African Journal of Botany, 72(4): 498-506.

Muchugi, A., Muluvi, G.M., Kindt, R., Kadu, C.A.C., Simons, A.J., & Jamnadass, R.H. 2008. Genetic structuring of important medicinal species of genus Warburgia as revealed by AFLP analysis. Tree Genetics & Genomes, 4(4): 787-795.

Nash, C.E. 2011. The History of Aquaculture. Hoboken, USA, Wiley-Blackwell.

Nass, L.L. & Paterniani, E. 2000. Pre-breeding: a link between genetic resources and maize breeding. Scientia Agricola, 57(3): 581-587.

Neale, D.B. & Kremer, A. 2011. Forest tree genomics: growing resources and applications. Nature Reviews Genetics, 12(2): 111-122.

Nellemann, C., Hain, S. & Alder, J. (eds). 2008. In dead water, merging of climate change with pollution, overharvest and infestations in the world’s fishing grounds. Arendal, Norway, UNEP Rapid Response Assessment.

Nyoka, B.I., Ajayi, O.C., Akinnifesi, F.K., Chanyenga, T., Mngómba, S.A., Sileshi, G., Jamnadass, R. & Madhibha, T. 2011. Certification of agroforestry tree species in Southern Africa: opportunities and challenges. Agroforestry Systems, 83: 75-87.

Oonincx, D.G.A.B., van Itterbeeck, J., Heetkamp, M.J.W., van den Brand, H., van Loon, J.J.A. & van Huis, A. 2010. An exploration on greenhouse gas and ammonia production by insect species suitable for animal or human consumption. PLoS ONE, 5(12): e14445.

Padulosi, S., Bergamini, N. & Lawrence, T., eds. 2012. On farm conservation of neglected and underutilized species: status, trends and novel approaches to cope with climate change. Proceedings of an International Conference, Frankfurt, 14-16 June, 2011. Rome, Bioversity International.

Patterson, D.T., Westbrook, J.K., Joyce, R.J.V., Lingren, P.D. & Rogasik, J. 1999. Weeds, insects, and diseases. Climatic Change, 43(4): 711-727. 

Pecl, G.T., Araújo, M.B., Bell, J.D., Blanchard, J., Bonebrake, T.C., Chen, I.C., Clark, T.D., Colwell, R.K., Danielsen, F., Evengård, B. & Falconi, L. 2017. Biodiversity redistribution under climate change: Impacts on ecosystems and human well-being. Science, 355:6332.

Petit, R.J. & Hampe, A. 2006. Some evolutionary consequences of being a tree. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 37: 187-214.

Pullin, R. & White, P. 2011. Climate change and aquatic genetic resources for food and agriculture: state of knowledge, risks and opportunities. CGRFA Background Study Paper No. 55. Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome, FAO. 

Ramirez-Villegas, J., Khouri, C., Jarvis, A., Debouck, D.G., Guarino, L. 2010. A gap analysis methodology for collecting crop genepools: a case study with phaseolus beans. PLoS ONE, 5(10): 13497.

Ratnam, W., Rajora, O.P., Finkeldey, R., Aravanopoulos, F., Bouvet, J.-M., Vaillancourt, R.E., Kanashiro, M., Fady, B., Tomita, M. & Vinson, C. 2014. Genetic effects of forest management practices: Global synthesis and perspectives. Forest Ecology and Management, 333: 52-65.

Redden, R. 2013. New approaches for crop genetic adaptation to the abiotic stresses predicted with climate change. Agronomy, 3(2): 419-432.

Rehfeldt, G.E., Tchebakova, N.M., Parfenova, Y.I., Wykoff, W.R., Kuzmina, N.A. & Milyutin, L.I. 2002. Intraspecific responses to climate in Pinus sylvestris. Global Change Biology, 8: 912-929.

Rezaei, E.E., Gaiser, T., Siebert, S., & Ewert, F. 2015. Adaptation of crop production to climate change by crop substitution. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 20(7): 1155-1174.

Rojas, W., Valdivia, R., Padulosi, S., Pinto, M., Soto, J.L., Alcocer, E., Guzman, L., Estrada, R., Apaza, V. & Bravo, R. 2009. From neglect to limelight: issues, methods and approaches in enhancing sustainable conservation and use of Andean grains in Bolivia and Peru. pp. 87-117, in: A. Buerkert and J. Gebauer (editors). Agrobiodiversity and Genetic Erosion. Contributions in Honor of Prof. Dr Karl Hammer. Supplement 92 to the Journal of Agricultural and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics. Kassel University Press GmbH.

Rosegrant, M.W., Koo, J., Cenacchi, N., Ringler, C., Robertson, R.D., Fisher, M., Cox, C.M., Garrett, K.; Perez, N.D. & Sabbagh, P. 2014. Food security in a world of natural resource scarcity: The role of agricultural technologies. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

Rosenzweig, C., Iglesias, A., Yang, X.B., Epstein, P.R. & Chivian, E. 2001. Climate change and extreme weather events: implications for food production, plant diseases, and pests. Global Change and Human Health, 2(2): 90-104. 

Rubyogo, J.C., Sperling, L., Muthoni, R. & Buruchara, R. 2010. Bean seed delivery for small farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa: the power of partnerships. Society and Natural Resources, 23(4): 285-302.

Sacande, M. & Berrahmouni, N. 2016. Community participation and ecological criteria for selecting species and restoring natural capital with native species in the Sahel. Restoration Ecology, 24(4): 479-488.

Sacande, M., Jøker, D., Dulloo, M.E. & Thomsen, K.A. (eds). 2004. Comparative storage biology of tropical tree seeds. Rome, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.

Savolainen, O., Pyhäjä, T. & Knurr, T. 2007. Gene flow and local adaptation in trees. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 38: 595-619.

Schueler, S., Falk, W., Koskela, J., Lefèvre, F., Bozzano, M., Hubert, J., Kraigher, H., Longauer, R. & Olrik, D.C. 2014. Vulnerability of dynamic genetic conservation units of forest trees in Europe to climate change. Global Change Biology, 20: 1498-1511.

Shu, Q.Y. 2009. Induced Plant Mutations in the Genomics Era. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Induced Mutations in Plants, 11-15 August 2008. Plant Breeding and Genetics Section, Joint FAO-IAEA Division. Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency. Rome, FAO. 

Singh, Aradhana (Lead Author); Lakhdar Boukerrou and Michelle Miller (Topic Editors). Diversification in agriculture. In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland (Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment). (Published in the Encyclopedia of Earth November 17, 2009; Retrieved (February 22, 2010).

Singh, U.S., Bari, M.A., Kumar, A., Ismail, A. & Mackill, D.J. 2010. Status of Stress Tolerant Rice in South Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Public and Private Participation in the Development and Adoption of Stress Tolerant Rice Varieties in the coastal region of Bangladesh. Organised by the International Finance Corporation and South Asia Enterprise Development Facility, Dhaka, 19 August 2009. 

Smith, P., Bustamante, M., Ahammad, H., Clark, H., Dong, H., Elsiddig, E.A., Haberl, H., Harper, R., House, J., Jafari, M., Masera, O., Mbow, C., Ravindranath, N.H., Rice, C.W., Robledo Abad, C., Romanovskaya, A., Sperling, F., & Tubiello, F. 2014. Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU). In O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel & J.C. Minx, eds. Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York, USA, Cambridge University Press.

Smock, L.A., Smith, L.C., Jones, J.B. Jr. & Hopper, S.M. 1994. Effects of drought and a hurricane on a coastal headwater stream. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 131: 25−38.

Snook, L., Dulloo, M. E., Jarvis, A., Scheldeman, X. & Kneller, M. 2011. Crop germplasm diversity: the role of gene bank collections in facilitating adaptation to climate change. Chapter 25. In S.S Yadav, R. Redden, J.L. Hatfield, H. Lotze-Campen and A. Hall, eds. Crop Adaptation to Climate Change. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Sperling, L., Ashby, J.A., Smith, M.E., Weltzien, E. & McGuire, S. 2001. A framework for analyzing participatory plant breeding approaches and results. Euphytica, 122(3): 439-450. 

Sperling, L., Boettiger, S. & Barker, I. 2014. Integrating seed systems. Planning for Scale Brief, 3.

Stella, A. (on behalf of the NEXTGEN and ADAPTmap consortia). 2010. Insights into the interactions of goat breeds and their environments. Proceedings of the 10th World Congress of Genetics Applied to Livestock Production. Vancouver, Canada. 

TAC Secretariat. 2001. Systemwide review of breeding methodologies in the CGIAR. Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).

Tang, J., Xu, L., Chen, X. & Hu, S. 2009. Interaction between C4 barnyard grass and C3 upland rice under elevated CO2: impact of mycorrhizae. Acta Oecologica, 35(2): 227-235.

Tester, M. & Langridge, P. 2010. Breeding technologies to increase crop production in a changing world. Science, 327(5967): 818-822.

Thomas, C.D., Cameron, A., Green, R.E., Bakkenes, M., Beaumont, L.J., Collingham, Y.C., Erasmus, B.F.N., Ferreira De Siqeira, M., Grainger, A., Hannah, L., Hughes, L., Huntley, B., Van Jaarsveld, A.S., Midgley, G.F., Miles, L., Ortega-Huertas, M.A., Peterson, A.T., Phillips, O.L. & Williams, S.E. 2004. Extinction risk from climate change. Nature, 427: 145-148.

Thormann, I., Parra-Quijano, M., Rubio-Teso, M.L., Endersen, D.T.F., Dias, S., Iriondo, J.M. & Maxted, N. 2016. Predictive characterization methods for accessing and using CWR diversity. In N. Maxted. et al (eds). Enhancing Crop Genepool Use: Capturing Wild Relative and Landrace Diversity for Crop Improvement. CABI p. 64-77.

Tripp, R. 2001. Seed provision & agricultural development: the institutions of rural change. London, Overseas Development Institute (ODI). 182 pp. 

Waage, J. 2007. The sustainable management of biodiversity for biological control in food and agriculture: status and needs. Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. CGRFA Background Study Paper No. 38. Rome, FAO.

Westengen, O.T. & Brysting, A.K. 2014. Crop adaptation to climate change in the semi-arid zone in Tanzania: the role of genetic resources and seed systems. Agriculture & Food Security, 3:3.

Westengen, O.T., Jeppson, S. & Guarino, L. 2013. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status. PLoS ONE, 8(5): e64146.

Wilhelm, E. 2005. Micro- and macropropagation of forest trees. In T. Geburek, & J. Turok, eds. Conservation and Management of Forest Genetic Resources in Europe, pp. 623-650. Zvolen, Slovakia, Arbora Publishers.

Witcombe, J.R., Joshi, A., Joshi, K.D. & Sthapit, B.R. 1996. Farmer participatory crop improvement. I. Varietal selection and breeding methods and their impact on biodiversity. Experimental Agriculture, 32(4):445-460.

World Economic Forum. 2010. Realizing a New Vision for Agriculture: A roadmap for stakeholders. Geneva, Switzerland.

Yamamura, K. & Kiritani K. 1998. A simple method to estimate the potential increase in the number of generations under global warming in temperate zones. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 33(2): 289-98.