Economic and Policy Analysis of Climate Change


Leveraging COVID-19 recovery strategies to build climate-smart agrifood systems in developing countries

Working papers

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has jeopardized the stability of agrifood systems and the welfare of the rural households that are actively engaged in the different components of these systems, particularly in developing countries. Efforts are underway to redress the negative impacts of the pandemic through investments to ‘build back better’. These efforts represent an enormous opportunity to make significant and lasting contribution to the longer-term resilience and sustainability of agrifood systems in the context of climate change. The objective of this [...]

Guiding policies and investments to reduce agriculture-led deforestation in Viet Nam


The study unpacks the potential, current and future, linkages between beef and dairy development and deforestation, using Nghe An and Ha Tinh provinces in Viet Nam as case study, where the beef and dairy production increases are important and potential impact on the primary forests is of particular concern. It shows how beef and dairy expansion creates demand for additional land, which combined with existing land constraints, increases risk of further deforestation. The study also proposes possible entry points for [...]

Leveraging social protection to enhance farmers’ climate adaptive capacities

Policy briefs

This brief explores new evidence on the relationships between social protection and farmer resilience to drought-related shocks through adopting adaptive agricultural practices. The main aim is to identify challenges and opportunities to implement integrated strategies to upscale their impact on building climate resilience.

Policy options for the refugees' self-reliance integration model in Uganda

Policy briefs

The findings in this brief have been adapted from the FAO Agricultural Development Economics Working Paper 22-08 "Enhancing refugees’ self-reliance in Uganda – The role of cash and food assistance" (available at Rethinking the land-based self-reliance model is essential to support refugees’ integration and to build their self-reliance in the long-term. The transition toward a refugee policy that focuses on a broader food value chain development and off-farm activities’ enhancement is also recommended to reach both short- and long-term development. [...]

Enhancing refugees’ self-reliance in Uganda

Working papers

Social protection transfers are the most widespread measures adopted to stabilize refugee households’ livelihoods and alleviate their food insecurity. This paper contributes to the literature on the effectiveness of different types of support on livelihoods and productivity outcomes of one of the largest refugee populations in Africa. Taking advantage of a unique panel dataset representative of the largest part of the 1.4 million people hosted in the Uganda refugees’ settlements, this paper investigates how different social protection interventions (cash and [...]

Reducing vulnerability to weather shocks through social protection in Ethiopia

Policy briefs

This brief suggests that by integrating climate risk management objectives with social protection instruments, it is possible to improve the livelihood conditions of vulnerable groups while reducing their sensitivity to climate related shocks.

Reducing vulnerability to weather shocks through social protection – Evidence from the implementation of Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) in Ethiopia

Working papers

This paper uncovers the mechanisms shaping the impact of the public work component of the Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on beneficiaries and communities’ food security and vulnerability to various shocks. From a policy perspective, the empirical findings recommend explicitly integrating environmental and climate considerations to design social protection programmes which target poor agricultural households highly vulnerable to weather shocks.

EX-ACT – Guidelines, Tool version 9

Manuals and guidelines

This document presents the methodology used to build the EX-Ante Carbon Balance Tool version 9 (EX-ACT). It describes in detail the main logic behind the tool, the tool structure, and the underlying equations and parameters used to calculate the carbon balance. EX-ACT is a land-use-based accounting system developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to evaluate the effects of the interventions in agriculture on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and carbon stock changes expressed as carbon [...]

Can food aid relax farmers’ constraints to adopting climate-adaptive agricultural practices? Evidence from Ethiopia, Malawi and the United Republic of Tanzania

Working papers

The adoption of climate-adaptive agricultural practices (CAAPs) among resource-poor smallholder households is typically hindered by liquidity and risk constraints. Using an inverse probability weighted estimator that uses three waves of nationally representative panel survey data from Ethiopia, Malawi and the United Republic of Tanzania, this article examines whether food transfers help overcome barriers to the adoption of selected CAAPs. The results show that in each country analysed, receiving food transfers increase the probability of adopting at least one CAAP.

Ex-Ante Carbon-balance Tool for Value Chain: EX-ACT VC – Guidelines

Manuals and guidelines

The Ex-Ante Carbon-balance Tool for Value Chains (EX-ACT VC) is a quantitative multi-appraisal tool that evaluates the sustainability of agrifood value chains simultaneously along several environmental, economic, and social dimensions. It analyses greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions along an agrifood value chain, from farm-gate-to-shelf, including GHG fluxes from processing and storage, to packaging and transportation; calculates a set of value-added indicators including gross production value, value-added, and net income; and estimates the number and nature of jobs created along the value [...]
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