Economic and Policy Analysis of Climate Change

Policy briefs

Evidence and policy options on migration, cash crop production and deforestation in Uganda

Policy briefs

This policy brief, prepared by the FAO Economic and Policy Analysis of Climate Change (EPIC), aims to analyse the relationships and policy options in regard to migration, cash crops and deforestation in Uganda. In particular, it shows that: – the expansion of cash crop activities significantly drives deforestation in Uganda; - migrants who produce cash crops contribute to deforestation significantly more than locals; - improving coordination between interventions on forests, agriculture and land use, and securing land rights is crucial in order to [...]

Reducing agriculture-led forest loss in Viet Nam: the role of land use constraints

Policy briefs

This brief reviews some of the main land use contraints to reducing agriculture-led forest loss in Viet Nam. We find that agricultural land use constraints increase agriculture-driven pressure on forests. Farmers producing high-value crops have more incentives to deforest, and this increase when operating in areas with land use constrains. Removing land use constraints, repurposing agricultural support and reinforcing environmental regulations would improve agricultural productivity, sustainability and climate resilience, while reducing pressure on forests. The findings in this brief have [...]

Adapting to rising temperatures: farm practices and policy options in Uganda

Policy briefs

Climate change is leading to a rise in global temperatures, which poses a major threat to agriculture production, and to the welfare of smallholder farmers. Identifying sustainable farming practices to reduce the sensitivity of Ugandan agriculture to rising temperatures is critical for safeguarding the livelihoods of farmers. This brief provides evidence on the positive impacts of organic fertilizer application, coffee-banana intercropping and cereal-legume intercropping on crop production value under conditions of high temperatures, and considers policy options to support their [...]

EX-Ante Carbon-balance Tool for value chains - Assessing environmental and socio-economic potential of agri-food value chains

Policy briefs

By analyzing agri-food value chains, policy makers and researchers are able to better understand how economic, social and environmental dimensions are intertwined. This is an important step, which allows for identification of areas for potential improvement along an agri-food value chain. EX-ACT Value Chain (EX-ACT VC) is derived from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) EX-Ante Carbon-balance Tool (EX-ACT). The tool is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology to account for GHG [...]

Supporting climate adaptation in smallholder agriculture. Summarizing lessons learnt

Policy briefs

Supporting smallholder farmers to adapt to climate change is essential for achieving Sustainable Development Goals 1 (No poverty) and 2 (Zero hunger). This will require policies and programs that enable farmers with few resources to adopt farm practices and technologies that reduce sensitivity to rising temperatures, the spread of new pests and diseases, and increasingly erratic rainfall. This brief consolidates evidence and stylized facts to guide policy discussions on climate adaptation in smallholder agriculture, based on work carried out by [...]

Food aid supports climate-adaptive investments by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa

Policy briefs

This brief explores the evidence on the relationships between food aid transfers and investments in climate adaptive agriculture using data from Ethiopia, Malawi and United Republic of Tanzania. Four climate adaptive agricultural investments are considered, namely: adoption of cereal-legume intercropping, use of organic fertilizers such as manure and compost, construction of soil and water conservation structures in fields, and investments in livestock diversification. These practices differ in their levels of capital and labour intensity,and their appropriateness for farmers will vary [...]

The dual threat of extreme weather and the COVID-19 crisis: Anticipating the impacts on food availability

Policy briefs

The COVID-19 pandemic is having a profound negative effect on the global economy and is occurring in the context of a rapidly changing climate. This year is expected to be the second hottest in recorded history. Weather forecasts for 2020 indicate a high probability that extreme weather will adversely affect food production in many countries. This brief draws on historical evidence and demonstrates that reductions in national food availability caused by severe weather events tend to be considerably larger in [...]

Reducing export restrictions on timber to sustain commercial forestry investments in Uganda

Policy briefs

Over the last 20 years, the Government of Uganda has implemented several policies to promote investments in commercial forest plantations. As a result of these policy efforts, the supply of commercially produced pine is set to increase dramatically over the next few years. This brief summarizes a cost-benefir analysis based on interviews carried out in July 2019. The findings highlights a significant challenge facing the sector. Without reforms to the current market situation in the country, plantation owners are unlikely [...]

Making the wheat sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina more competitive and resilient

Policy briefs

In Bosnia and Herzegovina wheat is a key staple, yet domestic production is small and low quality. Current policy environment tends to disadvantage wheat producers and makes them vulnerable in face of changing climate. Government interventions should focus on improving competitiveness of wheat producers and building resilience to climate change. Key reforms should encompass land consolidation, on-farm investments, access to high quality inputs and equipment, extension services and access to risk management tools.                  

Drought adaptation practices and profits in Sri Lanka’s rice sector: what is the missing link?

Policy briefs

It is projected that climate change will affect rainfall patterns in South Asia and will contribute to a decline in water availability for rice cultivation in the region. In Sri Lanka, where rice is both the staple food and the primary crop grown by farmers, reductions in water availability for rice cultivation has serious impacts on farmers’ welfare and national food security.   The Overarching Agricultural Policy in Sri Lanka recognizes the importance of adapting and building resilience to climate change in [...]
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