FAO in Pakistan

Pakistan at a Glance

Official Name

Islamic Republic of Pakistan




Parliamentary Democracy


Four Provinces:
Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, and Sindh
Two Pakistan-Administered Areas: Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan
One Federal/Capital Territory: Islamabad


Urdu (National Language)
English (Official Language)
Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Siraiki, Balochi, Brohi, Brahvi, Hindko (Regional Languages)


241.49 million (2023 Census)

Country ranking in the world


Population Growth Rate


Area Total

Total : 796 096 sq. km
Land : 770 875 sq. km
Water: 25 220 sq. km


1 046 km


Located in Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, with India on the east Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China on the north
Time GMT+5


Four seasons are recognized:
1) A cool, dry winter from November to February
2) A hot, dry spring from March through May
3) The summer, rainy season, also known as the southwest monsoon period, occurs from June to September
4) The autumn from October to November


Divided into three major geographic areas: the northern highlands, the Indus River plain in the centre and east, and the Balochistan Plateau in the south and west

Natural Resources

Arable land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

Major Rivers

Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, and Sutlej

Major Watersheds

(area sq. km)

Indian Ocean drainage: Indus (1 081 718 sq. km)

Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: Tarim Basin (1 152 448 sq. km)
(Aral Sea basin) Amu Darya (534 739 sq. km)

Major Aquifers

Indus Basin

Population Distribution

The Indus River and its tributaries attract most of the settlement, with Punjab province the most densely populated

Natural Disasters

Frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in the north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)

Literacy Rate

62.8 percent
Males: 73.4 percent
Females: 51.9 percent

Labour Force

71.76 million
Agriculture: 37.4 percent
Services: 37.2 percent

Total Cropped Area

24.1 million hectares

GDP per Capita (USD)

1,568 (FY2023)

GDP Growth Rate

0.29 percent (FY2023)

Inflation Rate

29.2 percent (FY 2023)

Economy of Pakistan

Pakistan, the 5th most populous country and 41st largest economy has been growing at an average rate of 2.89 percent in the last five years. The services sector contributes the largest to the economy with a share of 58.6 percent, followed by agriculture (22.9 percent) and Industry (18.5 percent). Wholesale and retail are the largest sector of economy with a share of 18 percent in GDP and 30 percent in services. While in agriculture, livestock dominates with 62 percent share and an overall share of 14 percent in GDP. Manufacturing has a 65 percent share of industry and contributes around 13 percent to the overall GDP. With a per capita GDP of USD 1,568, the population living below the poverty line (USD 3.6/day) has increased to 39.4 percent in 2023. Historically, Pakistan has a trade deficit problem and in FY2023, the trade deficit touched USD 27.5 billion (0.7 percent of the GDP). Pakistan exports accounted for USD 27.7, capturing 0.13 percent of the global exports. Whereas imports totalled USD 55 billion, making it the 47th largest importer in the world. In terms of exports, textile exports account for 60 percent of the total exports. Pakistan is also the 4th largest rice exporter in the world, known for its Basmati rice. In imports, 75 percent share is comprised of capital goods and raw materials while 25 percent are consumer goods. Energy imports take an overwhelming 35 percent in total imports as indigenous oil production caters to 30 percent of the domestic energy demand. Food imports have increased to USD 9 billion, half of which is edible oil.

Agriculture Sector

Pakistan’s agriculture sector contributes around 23 percent to the GDP and employs 37.4 percent of the national labour force. About 70 percent of Pakistan’s exports are directly or indirectly derived from agriculture. Covering an area of 30.5 million hectares, about 47 percent of the national land is agricultural land, higher than the global average of 38 percent. In the agriculture sector, livestock has an overwhelming contribution of 62 percent, followed by important crops (4.1 percent), other crops (3.3 percent), forestry (0.5 percent) and fisheries (0.3 percent). Pakistan has two major cropping seasons i.e., Kharif and Rabi, with total water availability of 72.7 MAF. More than 82 percent of the cultivated land is irrigated, and 18 percent is rainfed. About 60 percent of the rainfed areas are used for growing winter-season crops like wheat, barley, gram, lentils, rapeseed, and canola mustard. The two major staple crops are wheat and rice, accounting for 37 and 11 percent of the total crop area, respectively. Sugarcane and cotton are the two major cash crops, contributing 0.9 and 0.3 percent of the GDP, respectively. Pakistan has an estimated livestock population of 225 million with a value addition of PKR 5.5 trillion in 2023. Pakistan is the 5th largest milk producer with a gross annual production of 67 million tonnes. Due to a large livestock population, Pakistan also fetches USD 950 million in leather exports, making it the 4th largest leather apparel exporter.