Борьба с вредителями и обращение с пестицидами

Интегрированная защита растений (ИЗР) - это тщательное рассмотрение всех доступных методов защита растений от болезней и вредителей и последующая интеграция соответствующих мер, которые препятствуют развитию популяций вредных организмов.

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) was developed in response to steadily increasing pesticide use that resulted in pest control crises (outbreaks of secondary pests and pest resurgence following development of pesticide resistance) and increasing evidence and awareness of the full costs to human health and the environment of the intensive use of pesticides.

IPM is the careful consideration of all available pest control techniques and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that discourage the development of pest populations. It combines biological, chemical, physical and crop specific (cultural) management strategies and practices to grow healthy crops and minimize the use of pesticides, reducing or minimizing risks posed by pesticides to human health and the environment for sustainable pest management.

IPM is a dynamic process that makes use of an ecological systems approach and encourages the user or producer to consider and use the full range of best pest control options available given economic, environment and social considerations. IPM is based on ecology, the concept of ecosystems and the goal of sustaining ecosystem functions. It promotes the growth of a healthy crop with the least possible disruption to agro-ecosystems and encourages natural pest control mechanisms.

The role of IPM in sustainable agriculture:

  • Applies sustainable pest control. IPM builds on ecosystem services such as pest predation while protecting others, such as pollination. It also contributes to increased farm productivity and food availability by reducing pre- and post-harvest crop losses.
  • Reduces pesticide residues. IPM contributes to food and water safety, as reducing the amount of pesticides used in turn reduces residues in food, feed and fiber, and environment.
  • Enhances ecosystem services. IPM seeks to maintain the national crop ecosystem balance. It conserves the underlying natural resource base (i.e. soil, water and biodiversity) and enhances ecosystem services (i.e. pollination, healthy soils, diversity of species).
  • Increases income levels. IPM reduces production costs through reduced levels of pesticide use. Higher quality crops (with less residues) can command better prices in markets and contribute to increased farmer profitability. 
  • Strengthens farmer knowledge. IPM promotes farmer stewardship, increases farmer knowledge of ecosystem functioning adapted to their local context.