Sustainable Development Goals

Indicator 2.3.2 Average income of small-scale food producers, by sex and indigenous status

The indicator refers to the average income of small-scale food producers employed in the farming, pastoral and forestry sectors. Data will be disaggregated sex and indigenous status. This indicator will measure progress towards SDG Target 2.3.

Target 2.3

By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and nonfarm employment.

Average annual income from agriculture, PPP (constant 2011 international $)

Impact

Together with indicator 2.3.1, it offers a complete breakdown of who small-scale producers are, what they earn and how much they produce. These indicators are vital for government efforts to drive the nation’s economy, eliminate hunger and poverty and reduce inequality.

Key results

In three quarters of the countries for which data are available, small-scale food producers have an average annual income of less than half that of large-scale food producers. Among small-scale food producers, the income of production units headed by men is systematically larger than the income of those headed by women.  

According to the latest available figures from 44 countries, the incomes of small-scale food producers continue to lag behind those of larger-scale producers. In most countries, small-scale food producers’ average annual income from agriculture is less than USD 2000 (constant PPP 2011) while in all countries, it is less than USD 4500 (constant PPP 2011). In addition, in three quarters of the countries for which data are available, small-scale food producers have an average income of less than half that of large-scale food producers.  

Among small-scale food producers, the income of production units headed by men is systematically larger than that of units headed by women. In half of the countries with available data, female-headed small-scale food production units earned an income of between 50 and 70 percent of that of units headed by men. Combining this information with the data on SDG Indicator 2.3.1, it can be concluded that even though the productivity of women is on par with that of men, women earn less for the same amount of labour, which indicates a gender pay gap in agriculture.  

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