Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) Toolbox

Drylands Forests and Agrosilvopastoral Systems

Welcome to the module on dryland forests and agrosilvopastoral systems. This module highlights the importance and vulnerability of dryland forests and agrosilvopastoral systems and provides guidance on their sustainable management, protection and restoration. It provides basic and more detailed information, as well as tools, cases and practical experiences. 

Adeel, Z., King, C., Schaaf, T., Thomas, R. & Schuster, B. 2008. People in marginal drylands: managing natural resources to improve human well-being. A policy brief based on the Sustainable Management of Marginal Drylands (SUMAMAD) project. United Nations University.

Aronson, J., Milton, S., Blignaut, J. & Raven, P. 2007. Restoring natural capital: science, business, and practice. Island Press.

Bainbridge, D.A. 2007. A guide for desert and dryland restoration: new hope for arid lands. Washington, DC, Island Press.

Bainbridge, D.A. 2012. Restoration of arid and semi-arid lands. In J. Van Andel & J. Aronson, eds. Restoration ecology: the new frontier. Chichester, UK, Blackwell Publishing, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Berrahmouni, N., Regato, P., Ellatifi, M., Daly-Hassen, H., Bugalho, M., Bensaid, S., Diaz, M. & Aronson, J. 2009. Chapter 17. Ecoregional Planning for Biodiversity Conservation. In J. Aronson, J.S. Pereira & J.G. Pausas, eds. Cork oak woodlands in transition: ecology, adaptive management, and restoration of an ancient Mediterranean ecosystem. Island Press book series on the science and practice of ecological restoration. Society of Ecological Restoration International.

Bhagwat, S.A. & Rutte, C. 2006. Sacred groves: potential for biodiversity management. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 4(10): 519–524.

Blay, D. 2004. Rehabilitation of degraded lands in Sub-Saharan Africa: lessons learned from selected case studies. Forestry Research Network for Sub-Saharan Africa & IUFRO Special Programme for Developing Countries.

Bozzano, M., Jalonen, R., Thomas, E., Boshier, D., Gallo, L., Cavers, S., Bordács, S., Smith, P. & Loo, J. (eds). 2014. Genetic considerations in ecosystem restoration using native tree species. State of the World’s forest Genetic Resources Thematic Study. Rome, FAO and Bioversity International.

Braatz, S. 2012. Building resilience for adaptation to climate change through sustainable forest management. In FAO/OECD, Building resilience for adaptation to climate change in the agriculture sector. Proceedings of a Joint FAO/OECD Workshop. Rome, FAO.

Buffle, P. & Reij, C. 2012. Land rehabilitation on the central plateau of Burkina Faso and Building resilience to climate change through farmer-managed natural regeneration in Niger. Ecosystem & Livelihoods Adaptation Network.

Chidumayo, E.N. & Gumbo, D.J. (eds). 2010. The dry forests and woodlands of Africa: managing for products and service., London, Earthscan

Chirino, E., A. Vilagrosa, A., Cortina, J., Valdecantos, A., Fuentes, D., Trubat, R., Luis, V.C., Puertolas, J., Bautista, S., Baeza, M.J., Peñuelas, J.L. & Vallejo, V.R. 2009. Ecological restoration in degraded drylands: the need to improve the seedling quality and site conditions in the field. In S.P. Grossman ed. Forest management. Nova Science Publ., Inc.

CILSS. 2009. Récupération des glacis dénudés à des fins sylvo-pastorales. Comité permanent Inter-États de lutte contre la sécheresse au Sahel.

Clewell, A., Rieger, J. & Munro, J. 2000. Guidelines for developing and managing ecological restoration projects. Tucson, USA, Society for Ecological Restoration.

Clewell, A.F. & Aronson, J. 2013. Ecological restoration: principles, values, and structure of an emerging profession. Second edition. Island Press.

Colomer, R., Regato Pajares, P. & Enciso Encinas, E. 2014. Mediterranean Mosaic Project. Shouf Biosphere Reserve restoration plan.

Davies, J., Poulsen, L., Schulte-Herbrüggen, B., Mackinnon, K., Crawhall, N., Henwood, W.D., Dudley, N., Smith, J. & Gudka, M. 2012. Conserving dryland biodiversity. International Union for Conservation of Nature, United Nations Environment Programme-World Conservation Monitoring Programme and United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification.

deMarsh, P., Boscolo, M., Savenije, H., Grouwels, S., Zapata, J., Campbell, J. & Macqueen, D. 2014. Making change happen: what can governments do to strengthen forest producer organizations? Forest and Farm Facility Working Paper. Rome, FAO, the Forest and Farm Facility, Tropenbos International and the International Family Forestry Alliance.

Dewees, P., Place, F., Scherr, S. J. & Buss, C. 2011. Investing in trees and landscape restoration in Africa: what, where and how. Washington, DC, Program on Forests (PROFOR).

Dobie, P. 2003. A future for the drylands? Review of European Community & International Environmental Law, 12(2): 140–148.

Falkenmark, M.,  Berntell, A., Jagerskog, A., Lundqvist, M., Matz, M. & Tropp, H. 2007. On the verge of a new water scarcity: a call for good governance and human ingenuity. SIWI Policy Brief. Stockholm International Water Institute.

FAO. 1985. Sand dune stabilization, shelterbelts and afforestation in dry zones. FAO, Rome.

FAO. 1989. Arid zone forestry: a guide for field technicians. FAO Conservation Guide. Rome (available at:

FAO. 1989. Role of forestry in combating desertification. FAO, Rome.

FAO. 2004. Simpler forest management plans for participatory forestry. FAO-FONP Working Paper. Rome.

FAO. 2006. Fire management: voluntary guidelines: principles and strategic actions. Fire Management Working Paper 17. Rome.

FAO. 2009. Enhancing stakeholder participation in NFPs: tools for practitioners. Rome.

FAO. 2010. Enhancing FAO’s practices for supporting capacity development of member countries. Rome.

FAO. 2010. Guidelines on sustainable forest management in drylands of sub-Saharan Africa. Rome.

FAO. 2010. Planted forests in sustainable forest management: a statement of principles. Rome.

FAO. 2010. Fighting sand encroachment: Lessons from Mauritania, FAO Forestry Paper No. 158. Rome.

FAO. 2010. Forests and climate change in the Near East Region. Rome.

FAO. 2010. Global forest resources assessment 2010: terms and definitions. Rome.

FAO. 2011. Reforming forest tenure: Issues, principles and process. FAO Forestry Paper No. 165. Rome.

FAO. 2011. Gestion des plantations sur dunes. Document de travail sur les Forêts et la Foresterie en zones arides, No. 3.

FAO. 2012. Forests, trees and people together in a living landscape: a key to rural development. Document prepared for the 21st session of the Committee on Forestry.

FAO. 2012. Voluntary guidelines on the responsible governance of tenure of land, fisheries and forests in the context of national food security. Rome.

FAO. 2012. Mainstreaming climate-smart agriculture into a broader landscape approach. Background paper for the Second Global Conference on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change.

FAO. 2013. Advancing agroforestry on the policy agenda: a guide for decision-makers, by G. Buttoud, in collaboration with O. Ajayi, G. Detlefsen, F. Place & E. Torquebiau. Agroforestry Working Paper No. 1. Rome.

FAO. 2013. Towards food security and nutrition: increasing the contribution of forests and trees. In Forests for livelihoods and food security.

FAO. 2013. Resilient livelihoods: disaster risk reduction for food and nutrition security framework programme. Rome.

FAO. 2014. The state of the world’s forest genetic resources. Rome.

FAO. 2014. State of the world’s forests 2014. Rome.

FAO, International Fund for Agricultural Development & World Food Programme. 2014. The state of food insecurity in the world 2014: strengthening the enabling environment for food security and nutrition. Rome.

FAO, Mountain Partnership Secretariat, UNCCD, SDC & CDE. 2011. Highlands and drylands: mountains, a source of resilience in arid regions. Published by FAO, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, Mountain Partnership, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, and Center for Development and Environment of Bern University, with the support of an international group of experts. Rome.

Faye, M., Weber, J., Abasse, T., Boureima, M., Larwanou, M., Bationo, A., Diallo, B., Sigué, H., Dakouo, JM, Samaké, O. & Diaité, D. 2011. Farmers preferences for tree functions and species in the West African Sahel. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods, 20(2–3): 113–136.

Fernandes, P.M. 2013. Fire-smart management of forest landscapes in the Mediterranean basin under global change. Landscape and Urban Planning, 110(0): 175–182.

 Field, C.B., Barros, V.R., Mach, K.J. et al. 2014. Technical summary. In C.B. Field, V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L.White, eds. Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: Global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York, USA, Cambridge University Press.

Garibaldi, A. & Turner, N. 2004. Cultural Keystone species: implications for ecological conservation and restoration. Ecology and Society, 9(3).

GM-UNCCD. 2008. International experts consultation: desertification, migration and local development. Global Mechanism-United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification.

Hansen, M.C., Potapov, P.V., Moore R., Hancher, M., Turubanova, S.A., Tyukavina, A., Thau, D., Stehman, S.V., Goetz, S.J., Loveland, T.R., Kommareddy, A., Egorov, A., Chini, L., Justice, C.O. & Townshend, J.R.G. 2013. High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change. Science, 342(6160): 850–853.

Haglund, E., Ndjeunga, J., Snook, L. & Pasternak, D. 2011. Dry land tree management for improved household livelihoods: farmer managed natural regeneration in Niger. Journal of Environmental Management, 92(7): 1696–1705.

Hatcher, J. 2009. Dialogue, consensus and vision: participatory and negotiated territorial development. More than a methodology – a strategy for territorial interaction and integration. FAO Land Tenure Working Paper 12. Rome.

Heidelberg, A., Neuner, H., Osepashvili, I. & Schulzke, R. 2011. Forest restoration guidelines. WWF Caucasus Programme Office, WWF Germany.

Hooke, J., Van Wesemael, B., Torri, D., Castillo, V., Cammeraat, E. & Poesen, J. 2007. Combating land degradation by minimal intervention: the connectivity reduction approach. University of Portsmouth.

ICRAF. 2013. Charcoal: a driver of dryland forest degradation in Africa? Fact sheet – Agroforestry World Blog. Nairobi.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2014. Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. IPCC Working Group II Fifth Assessment Report. technical summary.

International Tropical Timber Organization. 2002. ITTO guidelines for the restoration, management and rehabilitation of degraded and secondary tropical forests. ITTO Policy Development Series No. 13. Yokohama, Japan.

IUCN. undated. WISP: World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism. Nairobi (available at:

Iiyama, M., Neufeldt, H., Dobie, P., Njenga, M., Ndegwa, G. & Jamnadass, R. 2014. The potential of agroforestry in the provision of sustainable woodfuel in sub-Saharan Africa. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 6: 138–147.

Le Floc’h, É. & Aronson, J. 2013. Les arbres des déserts: Enjeux et promesses, Actes Sud Editions.

Liniger, H.P., Mekdaschi Studer, R., Hauert, C. & Gurtner, M. 2011. Sustainable land management in practice: guidelines and best practices for sub-Saharan Africa. TerrAfrica, World Overview of Conservation approaches and Technologies and FAO (available at:

Kaale, B.K. 2001. Forest landscape restoration: Tanzania country report. IUCN/WWF.

Maginnis, S. & Jackson, W. 2005. Restoring forest landscapes. Gland, Switzerland, IUCN (available at:

Mansourian, S., Aquino, L., Erdmann, T.K. & Pereira, F. 2014. A comparison of governance challenges in forest restoration in paraguay’s privately-owned forests and madagascar’s co-managed state forests. Forests, 5(4): 763–783.

Mansourian, S., D. Vallauri & Dudley, N. 2005. Forest restoration in landscapes: beyond planting trees. New York, USA, Springer.

Mansourian, S. 2009. Forests in arid zones: issues, priorities and ideas for joint action. Background paper for discussion at the 13th World Forestry Congress.

Mazzucato, V. Niemeijer, D., Stroosnijder, L. & Röling, N. 2001. Social networks and the dynamics of soil and water conservation in the Sahel. Gatekeeper Series No. 101. London, International Institute for Environment and Development.

Mekdaschi Studer, R. & Liniger, H. 2013. Water harvesting: guidelines to good practice. Bern, Centre for Development and Environment, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Rainwater Harvesting Implementation Network, Wageningen, the Netherlands, MetaMeta, and Rome, International Fund for Agricultural Development.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Millenium ecosystem assessment: ecosystems and human well-being: current state and trends. Volume 1, Chapter 22. Millennium Ecosytems Assessment. Washington DC, World Resources Institute.

Ministry of Environment. 2009. Lebanon’s national forest fire management strategy. Government of Lebanon.

Mukuria Muturi, G. 2012. Ecological impacts of Prosopis invasion in riverine forests of Kenya. Wageningen, the Netherlands, Wageningen University.

Neely, C., Bunning, S. & Wilkes, A. 2009. Review of evidence on drylands pastoral systems and climate change: implications and opportunities for mitigation and adaptation. Rome, FAO.

Newton, A.C. & Tejedor, N. 2011. Principles and practice of forest landscape restoration: case studies from the drylands of Latin America I. Gland, Switzerland, IUCN (available at:

Prokofieva, I., Wunder, S. & Vidale, E. 2012. Payments for environmental services: a way forward for Mediterranean forests? EFI Policy brief 7. Helsinki, European Forest Institute.

Rego, F., Rigolot, E., Fernandes, P., Montiel, C. & Sande Silva, J. 2010. Towards integrated fire management. EFI Policy Brief 4. Helsinki, European Forest Institute.

Reij, C., Tappan, G. & Smale, M. 2009. Agroenvironmental transformation in the Sahel: another kind of “Green Revolution”. IFPRI Discussion Paper. International Food Policy Research Institute.

Rietbergen-McCracken, J., Maginnis, S. & Sarre, A. 2007. The forest landscape restoration handbook. International Union for the Conservation of Narure and the International Tropical Timber Organization. London, Earthscan.

Savory, A. 1999. Holistic management: a new framework for decision making. Island Press.

SER. 2004. The SER primer on ecological restoration. Society for Ecological Restoration. Science and Policy Working group (available at:

Simons, A.J. & Leakey, R.R.B. 2004. Tree domestication in tropical agroforestry. In P.K.R. Nair, M.R. Rao & L.E. Buck, eds. New vistas in agroforestry, pp. 167–181. Springer.

Simonsen, S.H., Biggs, R., Schlütter, M., Schoon, M., Bohensky, E., Cundill, G., Dakos, V., Daw, T., Kotschy, K., Leitsch, A., Quinlan, A., Peterson, G. & Moberg, F.  2014. Applying resilience thinking: seven principles for building resilience in social-ecological systems. Stockholm Resilience Center brochure.

Thompson, I., Mackey, B., NcNulty, S. & Mosseler, A. 2009. Forest resilience, biodiversity, and climate change. A synthesis of the biodiversity/resilience/stability relationship in forest ecosystems. Technical Series No. 43. Montreal, Canada, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

UNCCD n.d. Desertification and gender. UNCCD thematic Fact Sheet Series.

UNCCD. 1994. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. Paris.

UNCCD. 2011. Desertification: a visual synthesis. Bonn, United Nations Convention to Combat Climate Change.

UNDP-UNCCD. 2011. The forgotten billion: MDG achievement in the drylands. Bonn, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and United Nations Development Programme.

UNEP. 1992. World atlas of desertification. London, UK and Baltimore, USA, United Nations Environment Programme.

UNEP-WCMC. 2007. A spatial analysis approach to the global delineation of drylands areas of relevance to the CBD Programme of Work on Dry and Subhumid Lands. Dataset based on spatial analysis between WWF terrestrial ecoregions and aridity zones. United Nations Environment Programme-World Conservation Monitoring Centre.

UNESCO. 2012. 4th edition of the UN world water development report: managing water under uncertainty and risk. Overview of key messages. Paris, United Nations Environmental, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Walker, B., Holling, C.S., Carpenter, S.R. & Kinzig, A.  2004. Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems. Ecology and Society, 9(2).

Whaley, O.Q., Beresford-Jones, D.G., Milliken, W., Orellana, A., Smyk, A. & Leguía, J. 2010. An ecosystem approach to restoration and sustainable management of dry forest in southern Peru. Kew Bulletin, 65: 613–641.

WOCAT. 2007. Where the land is greener: case studies and analysis of soil and water conservation initiatives worldwide, edited by H. Liniger and W. Critchley. World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies.

World Agroforestry Center. 2014. Treesilience: an assessment of the resilience provided by trees in the drylands of Eastern Africa. Nairobi.

World Bank. 2004. Anatolia Watershed Rehabilitation Project appraisal document. Washington, DC.

World Bank. 2012. Anatolia Watershed Rehabilitation Project implementation completion and results report. Washington, DC.

Zolli, A. & Healy, A.M. 2013. Resilience: why things bounce back. Simon and Schuster.