CEREALS are generally of the gramineous family and, in the FAO concept, refer to crops harvested for dry grain only.
Crops harvested green for forage, silage or grazingare are classified as fodder crops. Also excluded are industrial crops, e.g. broom sorghum (Crude organic materials nes) and sweet sorghum when grown for syrup (Sugar crops nes). For international trade classifications, fresh cereals (other than sweet corn), whether or not suitable for use as fresh vegetables, are classified as cereals. Cereals are identified according to their genus. However, when two or more genera are sown and harvested as a mixture they should be classified and reported as "mixed grains".
Production data are reported in terms of clean, dry weight of grains (12-14 percent moisture) in the form usually marketed. Rice, however, is reported in terms of paddy. Apart from moisture content and inedible substances such as cellulose, cereal grains contain, along with traces of minerals and vitamins, carbohydrates - mainly starches - (comprising 65-75 percent of their total weight), as well as proteins (6-12 percent) and fat (1-5 percent). The FAO definitions cover 17 primary cereals, of which one - white maize - is a component of maize. Each definition is listed along with its code, botanical name or names, and a short description. Cereal products derive either from the processing of grain through one or more mechanical or chemical operations, or from the processing of flour, meal or starch. Each cereal product is listed after the cereal from which it is derived.
ROOTS AND TUBERS are plants yielding starchy roots, tubers, rhizomes, corms and stems. They are used mainly for human food (as such or in processed form), for animal feed and for manufacturing starch, alcohol and fermented beverages including beer. The denomination "roots and tubers" excludes crops which are cultivated mainly for feed (mangolds, swedes) or for processing into sugar (sugar beets), and those classified as "roots, bulb and tuberous vegetables" (onions, garlic and beets). It does include starch and the starchy pith and flour obtained from the trunk of the sago palm and the stem of the Abyssinian banana (Musa ensete). Certain root crops, notably bitter cassava, contain toxic substances, particularly in the skins. As a result, certain processes must be undertaken to make the product safe for human consumption.
Apart from their high water content (70-80 percent), these crops contain mainly carbohydrates (largely starches that account for 16-24 percent of their total weight) with very little protein and fat (0-2 percent each). Methods of propagating root crops vary. A live potato tuber or seed must be planted but only part of the live yam tuber and a piece of the stalk (not the root) in the case of cassava. Production data of root crops should be reported in terms of clean weight, i.e. free of earth and mud. FAO distinguishes among seven primary root and tuber crops. The code and name of each one appears in the list that follows, along with its botanical name, or names, and a short description. The processed products of roots and tubers are listed together with their parent primary crops.
In addition to providing the source for the manufacture of sugar, SUGAR CROPS are used to produce alcohol and ethanol. In certain countries, sugar cane is eaten raw in minor quantities. It also is used in the preparation of juices and for animal feed. There are two major sugar crops: sugar beets and sugar cane. However, sugar and syrups are also produced from the sap of certain species of maple trees, from sweet sorghum when cultivated explicitly for making syrup and from sugar palm. Sugar beets that are cultivated solely as a fodder crop and red or garden beets that are classified as vegetable crops are excluded from the FAO list of sugar crops. Sugar cane is a perennial grass (replanted at intervals using pieces of the cane stalks) that is cultivated mainly in the tropics. Sugar beet is an annual crop that is propagated by the seeds of the flowers. It is cultivated in cooler climates than sugar cane, mainly above the 35th parallel of the Northern Hemisphere. Both sugar beets and sugar cane have a high water content, accounting for about 75 percent of the total weight of the plants. The sugar content of sugar cane ranges from 10 to 15 percent of the total weight, while that of sugar beets is between 13 and 18 percent. The protein and fat content of both beets and cane is almost nil. Production data on sugar beets and sugar cane relate to the harvested crop, free of soil, plant tops and leaves. FAO lists three primary sugar crops.
Under the name SWEETENERS, FAO includes products used for sweetening that are derived from sugar crops, cereals, fruits or milk, or that are produced by insects. This category includes a wide variety of monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and disaccharides (sucrose and saccharose). They exist either in a crystallized state as sugar, or in thick liquid form as syrups. The traditional sources of sugar are sugar cane and sugar beets. But in recent years, ever larger quantities of cereals (mainly maize) have been used to produce sweeteners derived from starch.
OTHER DERIVED PRODUCTS. In addition to sugar, molasses is also obtained with various degrees of sugar content. The by-product obtained from the extraction of sugar is called bagasse in the case of sugar cane, and beet pulp in the case of sugar beets.
PULSES are annual leguminous crops yielding from one to 12 grains or seeds of variable size, shape and colour within a pod. They are used for both food and feed. The term "pulses" is limited to crops harvested solely for dry grain, thereby excludingcrops harvested green for food (green peas, green beans, etc.) which are classified as vegetable crops. Also excluded are those crops used mainly for oil extraction (e.g.soybeand and groundnuts) and leguminous crops (e.g. seeds of clover and alfalfa) that are used exclusively for sowing purposes. In addition to their food value, pulses also play an important role in cropping systems because of their ability to produce nitrogen and thereby enrich the soil. Pulses contain carbohydrates, mainly starches (55-65 percent of the total weight); proteins, including essential amino acids (18-25 percent, and much higher than cereals); and fat (1-4 percent). The remainder consists of water and inedible substances. Production data should be reported in terms of dry clean weight, excluding the weightof the pods. Certain kinds of pulses can be skinned and partially crushed or split toremove the seed-coat, but the resulting products are still considered raw for classification purposes. FAO covers 11 primary pulses. Each is listed below, along with its code, its botanical name, or names, and a short description. Only two processed products are included in the FAO list, namely flour of pulses and bran of pulses.
Tree NUTS are dry fruits or kernels enclosed in woody shells or hard husks, which in turn are generally covered by a thick, fleshy/fibrous outer husk that is removed during harvest. Similar products, such as groundnuts, sunflower seeds and melon seeds, although often used for similar purposes, are included with oil-bearing crops (see Group 6). FAO includes in this group only dessert or table nuts. Nuts that are used mainly for flavouring beverages and masticatory and stimulant nuts should be excluded. An exception is made for areca nuts and kola nuts, which FAO considers to be inedible nuts, but which are included with the nut and derived products group to be consistent with international trade classifications. Nuts used mainly for the extraction of oil or butter, (e.g. sheanuts) as well as nuts contained in other fruits (e.g. peaches) are excluded. It should be noted that some countries report certain nut crops (chestnuts, pignolia nuts) with forestry products. Production data relate to the weight of nuts in the shell or husk, but without the outer husk. The weight of the kernel contained in the nut ranges from as low as 30 percent for cashew nuts to as high as 80 percent in the case of chestnuts. The edible portion of nut kernels is, with the major exception of chestnuts, very rich in fat content at between 50 percent and 65 percent. Protein content makes up 15-20 percent and carbohydrate content is between 10 percent and 15 percent. Starch and saccharose are the main components of dry chestnuts, accounting for about 75 percent. FAO covers ten primary nut crops. Each is listed below along with its code, its botanical name, or names, and a short description.
NUT PRODUCTS include shelled nuts, whole or split, and further processed products, including roasted nuts, meal/flour, paste, oil, etc. Nut oils are not separately identified in the FAO classification; instead they are included under the heading "oil of vegetable origin nes" (see Group 14). The most commonly marketed oils are almon oil and cashew nut oil and its derivative cardol.
OIL-BEARING CROPS OR OIL CROPS include both annual (usually called oilseeds) and perennial plants whose seeds, fruits or mesocarp and nuts are valued mainly for the edible or industrial oils that are extracted from them. Dessert and table nuts, although rich in oil, are listed under Nuts (see Group 5). Annual oilseed plants tha are either harvested green or are used for grazing and for green manure are included with Fodder Crops (see Group 11). Some of the crops included in this group are also fibre crops in that both the seeds and the fibres are harvested from the same plant. Such crops include: coconuts, yielding coir from the mesocarp; kapok fruit; seed cotton; linseed; and hempseed. In the case of several other crops, both the pulp of the fruit and the kernels are used for oil. The main crops of this type are oil-palm fruit and tallow tree seeds. Production data are reported in terms of dry products as marketed. Exceptions to this general rule include: groundnuts, which are reported as groundnuts in the shell; coconuts, which are reported on the basis of the weight of the nut including the woody shell, but excluding the fibrous outer husk; and palm oil, which is reported in terms of oil, by weight. Because of the very different nature of the various oil crops, the primary products cannot be aggregated in their natural weight to obtain total oil crops. For this reason, FAO converts the crops to either an oil equivalent or an oilcake equivalent before aggregating them. Only 5-6 percent of the world production of oil crops is used for seed (oilseeds) and animal feed, while about 8 percent is used for food. The remaining 86 percent is processed into oil. The fat content of oil crops varies widely. Fat content ranges from as low as 10-15 percent of the weight of coconuts to over 50 percent of the weight of sesame seeds and palm kernels. Carbohydrates, mainly polysaccharides, range from 15 to 30 percent in the oilseeds, but are generally lower in other oil-bearing crops. The protein content is very high in soybeans, at up to 40 percent, but is much lower in many other oilseeds, at 15-25 percent, and is lower still in some other oil-bearing crops. FAO lists 21 primary oil crops. The code and name of each crop appears in the list that follows, along with its botanical name, or names, and a short description where necessary.
PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM OIL CROPS. Edible processed products from oil crops, other than oil, include flour, flakes or grits, groundnut preparations (butter, salted nuts, candy), preserved olives, desiccated coconut and fermented and non-fermented soya products.
VEGETABLES, as classified in this group, are mainly annual plants cultivated as field and garden crops in the open and under glass, and used almost exclusively for food. Vegetables grown principally for animal feed or seed should be excluded. Certain plants, normally classified as cereals and pulses, belong to this group when harvested green, such as green maize, green peas, etc. This grouping differs from international trade classifications for vegetables in that it includes melons and watermelons, which are normally considered to be fruit crops. But, whereas fruit crops are virtually all permanent crops, melons and watermelons are similar to vegetables in that they are temporary crops. Chillies and green peppers are included in this grouping when they are harvested for consumption as vegetables and not processed into spices (see also Group 10). FAO production data for green peas and green beand refer to the total weight including pods, although some countries report on a shelled weight basis. The weight of the pods ranges from 40 to 50 percent for peas to up to 70 percent for broad beans. Area data on small vegetable gardens are often omitted in agricultural surveys, although production estimates may be reported. Trade data for fresh vegetables also include chilled vegetables, meaning the temperature of the products has been reduced to around 0°C without the products being frozen. Vegetables contain principally water, accounting for between 70 percent and 95 percent of their weight. They are low in nutrients, but contain minerals and vitamins. FAO covers 27 primary vegetable products. Each is listed along with its code, botanical name, or names, and a short description.
PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM VEGETABLES refer to processed products. Apart from a few main products, international trade classifications do not permit a sufficiently detailed classification of processed products according to the primary commodity used in the preparation. A similar situation prevails for frozen vegetables.
FRUIT CROPS consist of fruits and berries that, with few exceptions, are characterized by their sweet taste. Nearly all are permanent crops, mainly from trees, bushes and shrubs, as well as vines and palms. Fruits and berries grow on branches, stalks or the trunks of plants, usually singly, but sometimes grouped in bunches or clusters (e.g. bananas and grapes). Commercial crops are cultivated in plantations, but significant quantities of fruits are also collected from scattered plants that may or may not be cultivated. Although melons and watermelons are generally considered to be fruits, FAO groups them with vegetables because they are temporary crops. Fruit crops are highly perishable. Their shelf life may be extended through the application of chemical substances that inhibit the growth of micro-organisms and through careful control of the surrounding temperature, pressure and humidity once the fruit has been picked. Fruits and berries have a very high water content accounting for some 70- 90 percent of their weight. They contain, in various degrees, minerals, vitamins and organic acids, some of which reside in the peel or skin. Some fruits have a high fibre content and other inedible components, so that wastage is high, e.g. 60 percent for passion fruit and 35-45 percent for pineapples. The waste in temperate zone fruit is lower, generally of the order of 10-15 percent, while berries contain very little waste. The carbohydrate content of fruits varies widely. Protein content is very low, averaging less than 1 percent, or below that in vegetables. Fat content in fruit is negligible, with the notable exception of avocados. Fruit crops are consumed directly as food and are processed into dried fruit, fruit juice, canned fruit, frozen fruit, jam, alcoholic beverages, etc. Fruit crops are not normally grown for animal feed, although significant quantities of diseased and substandard fruits, as well as certain by-products of the fruit processing industry, are fed to animals. Production data for fruit crops should relate to fruits actually harvested. Data on bananas and plantains should relate to the weight of single bananas or banana hands, excluding the weight of the central stalk. FAO lists 36 primary fruit crops. The code and name of each is listed below along with its botanical name, or names, and a short description where necessary.
FRUIT CROPS PRODUCTS. Apart from a few main products, international trade classifications do not permit a sufficiently detailed classification of processed products according to the primary commodity used in the preparation. Fruit crops are processed for preservation and conservation, or for transformation from one substance into another, e.g. sugar into alcohol. Drying and wine making are two of the oldest methods of preservation. The manufacture of fruit syrups and juices, jams, jellies, marmalade, chutney and sauces are also traditional methods of preservation. Modern processes include canning, freezing, quick-freezing and dehydration. Other fruit products include fruit squashes, i.e. juice with some fruit tissues included, fruit nectars containing at least 30 percent fruit solids, and some soft drinks that contain a very small amount of fruit juice. Essential oils are extracted from some fruits and fruit peels, while the peel of some fruit is also used in confectionery.
VEGETAL FIBRES. Among vegetal fibres, FAO includes 12 primary crops and five derived agricultural products. Certain fibre crops yield seeds used for sowing and for processing into oil and cake, and these are listed with oil-bearing crops and derived products in Group 6.
FIBRES OF ANIMAL ORIGIN have many of the same uses as vegetal fibres, but are of much higher value. Both fine and coarse hair of animal origin are included in this group. The FAO list includes 14 items of which seven are primary products.
SPICES are vegetable products such as leaves, flowers, seeds and roots that are rich in essential oils and aromatic principles. They are used mainly as condiments. The FAO definitions include ten spices. For practical reasons, spices are considered to be primary crops.
Production data of spices should be reported in terms of ripe, dried or powdered products. Essential oils extracted from spices are included under FAO code 0753 in Group 13, along with other essential oils.
FODDER CROPS are crops that are cultivated primarily for animal feed. By extension, natural grasslands and pastures are included whether they are cultivated or not. Fodder crops may be classified as either temporary or permanent crops. The former are cultivated and harvested like any other crop. Permanent fodder crops relate to land used permanently (for five years or more) for herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (i.e. wild prairie or grazing land), and may include some parts of forest land if it is used for grazing. Temporary crops that are grown intensively with multiple cuttings per year include three major groups of fodder: grasses, including cereals that are harvested green; legumes, including pulses that are harvested green; and root crops that are cultivated for fodder. All three types are fed to animals, either as green feed, as hay, i.e. crops harvested dry or dried after harvesting, or as silage products. Silage, or ensilage, refers to green fodder preserved without drying by fermentation that retards spoiling. Some fodder crops are components of compound feeds. Grasses contain crude fibres, crude protein and some minerals. Legumes are particularly rich in proteins and minerals. Root crops are high in starch and sugar and low in fibre, making them easy to digest. The fibre content of most fodder crops consists of cellulose, a complex carbohydrate polysaccharide that is indigestible for humans, but which is a good source of energy for animals, and particularly ruminants. For reporting purposes, the aggregation of various fodder crops into "feed units" is expressed in different ways in different countries. For example, aggregations are reported in terms of metabolizable energy, digestible nutrients, starch equivalent, protein equivalent, or grain equivalent. The FAO list includes 17 primary crops. The code and name of each crop appears in the list that follows, along with its botanical name, or names, and a brief remark where necessary.
PRODUCTS USED FOR ANIMAL FEED include: processed products from fodder crops; waste and residue; manufactured compound feeds, consisting of various mixed feeds of vegetal and animal origin to which minerals and vitamins have been added; and chemical preparations, such as vitamins and minerals and various additives. The FAO list includes 21 products, in addition to products that are already listed under other headings.
COFFEE is a tropical shrub that yields fruits or cherries which are processed so as to free the seeds or "beans" from the fruit pulp and then from the mucilage and silver skin covering the beans. Coffee with the mucilage and skin retained is called parchment coffee. By weight, the fresh cherries consist of 45-55 percent pulp, mucilage and skin, and 45-55 percent beans. The clean beand are called "green coffee" or "clean coffee" and this is considered to be a primary crop. Coffee contains caffeine, an alkaloid. Coffee is a stimulant, not a food crop.
COCOA is a rain-forest tree that is cultivated for its beans. The beand are contained in ovoid pods that grow directly on the trunk and on major branches. The beand and the white mucilage or pulp that surrounds them represent about one-third of the total weight of the pods. The fermented and dried beand are considered to be a primary crop from which various processed products are derived, including roasted beand (still in the shell) and nibs, or fragments of roasted, shelled and crushed beans. The nibs are ground to give cocoa mass, from which cocoa fat or butter is extracted by pressing. Pods, shells, pulp and cake have only limited use as an animal feed owing to their high alkaloid content. Cocoa beand contain carbohydrates, protein and particularly fat, making them a food crop as well as a stimulant.
TEA is a shrub of the Camellia family that is cultivated for its tender leaves. The two main varieties are assamica and sinensis. The primary crop consists of the tender leaves, which may be withered, rolled, fermented and dried (black tea). Green tea is black tea that is not fermented. Tea is a stimulant, not a food crop.
TOBACCO is an annual plant that is cultivated for its narcotic leaves, which are used for smoking, chewing or sniffing. The main varieties include Oriental, Maryland, Burley and Tropical. The partially dried leaves are fermented, cured and then further dried by various methods, including sun curing, air curing, flue curing and fire curing.
NATURAL RUBBER is obtained from the Par rubber or caoutchouc tree. Natural rubber is a milky fluid latex which exudes when the trunk of the tree is cut (tapped) and coagulates on exposure to the air. The dried latex is treated with sulphur at high temperatures in a process known as vulcanization to increase the desirable properties of the final product, including elasticity, strength and stability.
The OTHER CROPS group includes miscellaneous crops and crop products that are grown for a wide variety of uses, but do not fit logically into one of the other commodity groups. Most of the coded classes are themselves groupings of items that are not specified elsewhere.
VEGETABLE OILS AND FATS. Oil extraction by traditional methods often requires various preliminary operations, such as cracking, shelling, dehulling, etc., after which the crop is ground to a paste. The paste, or the whole fruit, is then boiled with water and stirred until the oil separates and can be collected. Such traditional methods have a low rate of efficiency, particularly when performed manually. Oil extracted by pressing without heating is the purest method and often produces an edible product without refining. Modern methods of oil recovery include crushing and pressing, as well as dissolving the crop in a solvent, most commonly hexane. Extracting oil with a solvent is a more efficient method than pressing. The residue left after the removal of oil (oilcake or meal) is used as feedstuff. Crude vegetable oils are obtained without further processing other than degumming or filtering. To make them suitable for human consumption, most edible vegetable oils are refined to remove impurities and toxic substances, a process which involves bleaching, deodorization and cooling (to make the oils stable in cold temperatures). The loss involved in these processes ranges from 4 to 8 percent. The FAO concept includes raw, refined and fractioned oils, but not chemically modified oils. With some exceptions, and in contrast to animal fats, vegetable oils contain predominantly unsaturated (light, liquid) fatty acids of two kinds: monounsaturated (oleic acid - mainly in extra virgin olive oil) and polyunsaturated (linoleic acid and linolenic acid - in oils extracted from oilseeds). Vegetable oils have a wide variety of food uses, including salad and cooking oils, as well as in the production of margarine, shortening and compound fat. They also enter into many processed products, such as mayonnaise, mustard, potato chips, French fries, salad dressing, sandwich spread and canned fish. Industrial and non-food uses of vegetable oils include the production of soaps, detergents, fatty acids, paint, varnish, resin, plastic and lubricants.
ANIMAL OILS AND FATS. This group includes animal fats that are obtained in the course of dressing the carcasses of slaughtered animals (slaughter fats), or at a later stage in the butchering process when meat is being prepared for final consumption (butcher fats). Butter and similar products obtained from milk are included in Group 18. Processed animal fats include lard obtained by melting raw pig fat and tallow obtained from raw fat of other animal species. Animal fats are largely used in the production of margarine, shortening and compound fat. They also enter into many processed food products. Industrial and non-food uses of animal fats include the production of soaps, fatty acids, lubricants and feedstuffs.
BEVERAGES includes five main groups of commodities that differ by source, use, nutritive value and in their commercial importance. The first group includes those products usually found in nature and used mainly for drinking purposes, such as water, ice and snow. Mineral water and aerated water, even when artificially produced, are also included here. The second group includes water to which sweeteners and flavourings have been added. This group of beverages has been gaining large markets in recent years and represents an important contribution to food consumption in some areas because of the sweetener content (up to 20 percent by weight) of these beverages. The third group includes the most traditional alcoholic beverages consumed by humans. Typically, the alcohol content of these beverages, which is obtained through fermentation of many vegetable crops, varies between 3 and 25 percent. The fourth group refers to undenatured ethyl alcohol with alcoholic strength by volume of less than 80 percent, and usually between 40 and 50 percent. This category includes all the distilled alcoholic beverages, whether or not sweeteners and/or flavourings have been added. The fifth and final group includes products that are not for human consumption, but are included here because they are closely related to alcoholic beverages. In this case, the strength of alcohol by volume is 80 percent and higher. This group includes both undenatured and denatured alcohol.
The term LIVESTOCK is used in a broad sense to cover all grown animals regardless of age, location or purpose of breeding. Non-domesticated animals are excluded under this definition unless they are kept or raised in captivity. Domestic animals included are large and small quadrupeds, poultry, insects (bees) and larvae of insects (silkworms). Figures on livestock numbers should refer to live animals enumerated on a given day or on several consecutive days. The FAO practice is that figures for an indicated year relate to animals reported by countries for any day between October of the previous year and September of the year indicated. Statistics on live animals by age, sex and utilization generally are not included in the list that follows, even though such breakdowns are extremely desirable in terms of national statistics. For each animal species FAO proposes that information be maintained on changes in national herds during the year according to the following equation: initial herd + animals born + imports of live animals - exports of live animals - natural losses - slaughter = closing herd. The purpose of this information is to present consistent and complete data. So far, only a few countries have been able to compile information in this format.
FAO defines MEAT as the flesh of animals used for food. In productiondata, meat is normally reported inclusive of bone and exclusive ofmeat that is unfit for human consumption. As reported by individualcountries, meat production data may refer either to commercialproduction (meat entering marketing channels), inspected production (from animals slaughtered under sanitary inspection), or totalproduction (the total of the above- mentioned categories plusslaughter for personal consumption). All FAO annual production datarefer to total production.
Country statistics on meat production adhere to one or more of thefollowing concepts:
1. Live weight: the weight of the animal immediately before slaughter.
2. Killed weight: the live weight less the uncollected blood lost during slaughter.
3. Dressed carcass weight: weight minus all parts - edible and inedible - that are removed in dressing the carcass. The concept varies widely from country to country and according to the various species of livestock. Edible parts generally include edible offals (head or head meat, tongue, brains, heart, liver, spleen, stomach or tripes and, in a few countries, other parts such as feet, throat and lungs. Slaughter fats (the unrendered fats that fall in the course of dressing the carcasses) are recorded as either edible or inedible according to country practice. Inedible parts generally include hides and skins (except in the case of pigs), as well as hoofs and stomach contents.
Meat production data for minor animals (poultry, rabbits, etc.) arereported in one of the following three ways: ready-to-cook weight (giblets are sometimes included and sometimes excluded); evisceratedweight (including the feet and head); or dressed weight, i.e. the liveweight less the blood, feathers and skin.
FAO data relate to dressed carcass weight for livestock and, whereverpossible, ready-to- cook weight for poultry.
Among individual countries, one of the following three concepts isused to measure production:
A. Production from all animals, of both indigenous and foreignorigin, that are slaughtered within national boundaries.
B. Production from the slaughter of indigenous animals plus exports of live indigenous animals during the reference period. Derived frommeat production as follows: production from slaughtered animals plusthe meat equivalent of all animals exported alive, minus the meatequivalent of all animals imported alive. As imports/exports of liveanimals are recorded by FAO in numbers, not weight, animal type andsize are of significance.
C. The biological production concept covers indigenous animals thatare either slaughtered or exported live, plus net additions to thestock during the reference period.
Derived from indigenous productionas follows: indigenous production plus (or minus) the meat equivalentof the change in the stock numbers during the reference period.Production is expressed in terms of live weight. Changes in the totallive weight of all animals are not taken into account.
FAO uses the first concept of meat production in the construction ofits food balance sheets and for related indicators. The second concept, indigenous meat production, in measuring the output of thenational livestock sector, is useful mainly in the construction ofindex numbers of agricultural production. The third concept,biological production, would be the most complete as it also reflectschanges in the livestock herd, but it is not used because ofdifficulties in obtaining information from national reporting offices.The prices applied to indigenous meat production are derived fromprices of live animals. This covers not only the value of meat, butalso the value of offals, fats, hides and skins.
PROCESSED PRODUCTS FROM SLAUGHTERED ANIMALS. Meat (including chilledor frozen), edible offals, fats and hides and skins are consideredprimary products. The main processed meat products are the following:
1. Cured meats include meats processed with salt and usually containingvarious additives (such as flavouring and preserving agents), anddried or smoked meat, e.g. bacon and ham made from pig meat. Paté is a spread of finely mashed, seasoned and spiced meat or liver of pigsand poultry.
2. Sausages are highly seasoned products made from meat (usually beef orpig) that has been ground, chopped and encased. Sausages may befresh, pickled, dry or semi-dry, cooked or uncooked and smoked orunsmoked. Sausages usually contain various additives, such as salt,onions and spices. The casings are made either of prepared animalintestines or synthetic material.
3. Other preserved meats include meat and meat offals that have beenboiled, steamed, grilled, fried, roasted or otherwise cooked.
The codes and names of all livestock products - with primary in uppercase letters and processed in upper and lower case letters - are shown in the list that follows, along with any accompanying remarks.
Milk, eggs, honey and beeswax are included as products of live animals. Fibres of animal origin (mainly wool and silk) are included with fibres of vegetal and animal origin in Group 9.
MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS. Estimates of milk production as reported by countries refer to one or more of the following three concepts. Gross production is milk production plus milk sucked by young animals. Net production excludes milk sucked by young animals but includes milk fed to livestock. Production available for consumprion is net production less milk fed to animals, milk retained by farmers for food and feed, direct sales to consumers and farm waste.
The FAO concept relates to net milk production. Data should be reported by kind of milking animal (cow, sheep, goat, etc.) in terms of whole milk and by weight.
In most developed countries only 5-10 percent of whole milk is used directly for human consumption. The bulk of milk production is processed before being marketed as liquid milk (e.g. standardized, pasteurized, skimmed, etc.), or is manufactured into products such as cream, butter, cheese, evaporated and condensed milk, milk powder, casein, yogurt, ice cream, etc. About 70 percent of whole milk is processed into dairy products; the by-products of these processes (e.g. skim milk, buttermilk and whey) are used either for feed or are manufactured into other dairy products, e.g. dry skim milk and low-fat cheese. Processed milk and dairy products are often supplemented with vitamins, minerals and various additives.
FAO lists 50 milk and dairy products items in the list that follows, of which five are primary products. Some food products contantining milk are not listedseparately by FAO, e.g. eggnog, shaerbet, malted milk, chocolate milk drink and mellorine.
EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS. Egg production by type of poultry should refer to the total production of eggs in the shell by all types of hens in both the traditional sector (individually owned small flocks) and the modern sector (large-scale, intensive commercial poultry farms). Total production includes eggs for hatching but excludes waste on farms. Countries should report in terms of both numbers and weight.
FAO lists seven egg and egg products items, including four primary and three processed products.
HONEY AND BEESWAX. Honey is the nectar of flowers collected and processed by certain insects, especially the honey-bee. Production data should cover the amount sold by the beekeepers plus other recorded collection of honey. Bees store honey in honeycombs that consist of hexagonal wax cells. The beeswax that is obtained by melting honeycombs with boiling water is used in candles, cosmetics and other non-food products.
The FAO codes and the names of milk and dairy products, eggs and egg products, and honey and beeswax are listed below along with any necessary remarks.
Although the commodities included in this group are very important, few countries are able as yet to provide reliable, complete and up-to-date information about them. In particular, the data on production are often not available; in such instances, the slaughter number is often used as a proxy for estimating the production of hides and skins.
There is no worldwide accepted unit of measurement for the production, trade or utilization data of hides and skins. They are given variously in countries' statistical series in terms of number (pieces) or of weight, while the product made from them, i.e. leather, is given in terms either of surface area or of weight. The number of hides may be confusing since the sizes of most common hides and skins differ considerably. However, if a weight basis is chosen, there is still considerable variation because of the ways in which hides and skins are cured. The most common state in which hides and skins are shipped, although by no meand universally practiced, seems to be wet-salted for cattle hides, calfskins and goatskins, though certain types of hides and skins are traded either dry-salted or pickled.
The weight of a hide or skin is determined by the structure of the collagen fibres of the skin. This structure in turn is conditioned by a number of factors, including genetics, age, sex, feed and environment. Numerous weight concepts are in use for statistical reporting purposes. Their respective numerical ratios depend on the technological treatment to which the hides or skins are subjected. The main weight concepts are as follows:
- "green weight" is the weight after flaying and removing dirt and dung;
- "wet-salted" weight is the weight obtained after salting or brining. As the hides and skins lose considerable amounts of moisture in this process;
- "wet-salted" cattle hides may weight 85 to 90 percent of a green hide in temperate climates and as little as 70 percent in tropical climates. For calfskins, the proportion is normally somewhat higher than for cattle hides;
- "dry-salted" weight is the weight obtained after treating the hide with salt and exposing it to air-drying. The "dry-salted" weight represents from 55 to 60 percent of the "green" weight;
- "dry" weight is the weight obtained after drying hides and skins without prior salting. It represents about 35 percent of the "green" weight;
- "pickled" weight is the weight obtained by treating, mainly skins, with a solution of sulphuric acid and salt. As more moisture evaporates than is added, it represents about 50 percent of the "green" weight.
This group covers residual items that are not included as part of any other group.
FERTILIZERS is critical for the enhancement of agricultural productivity in the world. At the national level most government institutions and private sector agencies promote a balanced fertilization usage along with other factors related to improving soil fertility for boosting crop yield in order to reduce the level of food insecurity.
Fertilizers may be organic, inorganic or mineral. Organic fertilizers play an important role in crop production and are derived from animal, plant and compost. Mineral fertilizers are available to the farmer in solid or liquid form, and are delivered to the farm either in bulk, in bags or in pressurized containers. All fertilizers contain at least one of the major plant nutrients: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Based on their N, P, K contents, normally expressed in terms of N, P2O5 and K2O, fertilizers can be categorized as follows.
Agricultural machinery and equipment are an integral part of the agricultural production process. They provide the motive power for land clearance and preparation, for planting, fertilizing, weeding and irrigation, and for harvesting, transport and processing. They enhance the productivity of livestock and poultry.
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