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Потери и порча пищевой продукции в производственно-сбытовых цепях рыбного хозяйства
©FAO/Aina Randrianantoandro

Сценарии потери и порчи

Продовольственные потери и порча пищевой продукции происходят тогда, когда качество продуктов рыболовства и аквакультуры снижается или же они становятся непригодными для потребления. В этом разделе приводятся примеры потерь и порчи пищевой продукции и предлагаются рекомендации по их сокращению.

Loss Scenarios

Food loss is "the decrease in quantity or quality of food". In terms of fish, food is the fisheries and aquaculture products intended for human consumption that are ultimately not eaten by people or that have incurred a reduction of quality. A reduction in quality usually leads to a reduction in nutritional value, economic value or food safety issues. An important part of food loss is "food waste", which refers to the discarding or alternative (non-food) use of food that was fit for human consumption - by choice or after the food has been left to spoil or expire as a result of negligence. This waste can happen at all parts of the value chain.

Discards are the unwanted catch and bycatch of fish that are returned to the sea, either dead or alive. Discarding of fish can be caused by multiple reasons.    

Using freezer vessels which allow quick freezing and cold storage create a means of preserving fish that will extend the storage life without substantially altering the nature of the raw material.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

On board handling in large scale fisheries refers to the conditions that fish are subjected to after harvest and through the point of landing, when the fish is transferred on-shore.                                                                                                                                                     

On board handling in small-scale fisheries refers to the conditions that fish are subjected to after harvest and through the point of landing, when the fish is transferred on-shore.

Handling after Harvest during aquaculture refers to the activities which take place when fish and shellfish are removed from the pond, cage or other production unit, and before the products are marketed for human consumption as food.

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

Artisanal fish drying involves the evaporation of moisture from the surface of the fish and the migration of moisture from inside the fish to the surface.

fish product storage (dried, salted and dried, smoked) results in products undergoing a period of storage prior to being sold, distributed and consumed.                                                                                                                   

Artisanal fish salting is a simple and important preservation method used in many parts of the world. It is often combined with drying.

Artisanal fish smoking is a heat drying process. The heat is typically provided by an open wood fire, over which the fish are placed, imparting a smoke flavour. 


Canned fish are an important food source. Canned fish are rich in protein and many other essential nutrients, and can be a good source of omega-3 fatty acids.

Cold storage systems use as an investment to prevent perishable food loss and waste (FLW) is widely used in developed countries. It can be highly cost effective.

Freezing preserves the storage life of foods by making them more inert and slowing down the detrimental reactions that promote food spoilage and limit quality shelf life.

Fish processing plants convert fresh or frozen fish into various types of product. Processing plants can be labour intensive and or highly automated.

Fish landing centres or sites are associated with small-scale marine and inland fisheries and provide a location for first point of sale.                       

                    

Urban wholesale markets provide a location for the sale of fish and fishery products. These markets are found in coastal and inland centres near to or far from sources of fish supply.

Live fish transport is used to transfer aquaculture products, high value fin-fish from wild capture fisheries, crustaceans and molluscs from production holding facility to retailer or restaurant.

Refrigerated road transport is an essential link in cold chains that aims to supply the consumer with safe, high-quality fish and fish products.                                                                                                                                                                                                 

Fresh fish is retailed in a variety of forms from whole, unprocessed and unpackaged, to prepared in modified atmosphere packs. 

A significant proportion of fish and seafood is sold through large retailers in certain countries. Some large retailers are vertically integrated and may own or have significant control over upstream supply chain activities, such as production and processing.

Restaurants and caterers have a vital role to play in reducing food loss and waste – from how they manage left-overs and customer plate waste, to how they source produce and develop menus.

Food waste at the consumer level, including fish and fish products, occurs in both industrialized and developing countries.