Pesticide Registration Toolkit

Terms and definitions C

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Substance or a mixture which induces cancer or increases its incidence. Substances and mixtures which have induced benign and malignant tumours in well performed experimental studies on animals are considered also to be presumed or suspected human carcinogens unless there is strong evidence that the mechanism of tumour formation is not relevant for humans. [Source: GHS]


Agent (chemical, physical, or biological) that is capable of increasing the incidence of malignant neoplasms, thus causing cancer. [Source: IUPAC]

Carcinogenicity test:

Long-term (chronic) test designed to detect any possible carcinogenic effect of a test substance. [Source: IUPAC]


Long-term (in relation to exposure or effect). In experimental toxicology, chronic refers to mammalian studies lasting considerably more than 90 days or to studies occupying a large part of the lifetime of an organism. [Source: IUPAC]

Chronic exposure:

Continuous or intermittent long-term contact between an agent and a target. (Other terms, such as “long-term exposure,” are also used.)  [Source: IPCS]

Chronic toxicity:

  1. Adverse effects following chronic exposure.
  2. Effects that persist over a long period of time whether or not they occur immediately upon exposure or are delayed. [Source: IUPAC]

Chronic toxicity test:

Study in which organisms are observed during the greater part of the life span and in which exposure to the test agent takes place over the whole observation time or a substantial part thereof. [Source: IUPAC]


A non-active ingredient component of a formulated product. [Source: International Code of Conduct]

Control (of a pest):

Suppression, containment or eradication of a pest population. [Source: IPPC]


Causing a surface-destructive effect on contact; in toxicology, this normally means causing visible destruction of the skin, eyes, or the lining of the respiratory tract or the gastrointestinal tract. [Source: IUPAC]

Criterion (pl. criteria):

Validated set of data used as a basis for judgment. [Source: IUPAC]


Dermal; pertaining to the skin. [Source: IUPAC]