Sustainable Development Goals

Indicator 2.3.1 - Volume of production per labour unit by classes of farming / pastoral / forestry enterprise size

This indicator refers to the value of production per labour unit operated by small scale producers in the farming, pastoral and forestry sectors. Data will be produced by classes of enterprise size. The indicator will measure progress towards SDG Target 2.3.

Target 2.3

By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and nonfarm employment.

Agricultural output per labour day, PPP (constant 2011 international $)

  • Non-small-scale producers
  • Small-scale producers


Together with indicator 2.3.2, it offers a complete breakdown of who small-scale producers are, what they earn and how much they produce. These indicators are vital for government efforts to drive the nation’s economy, eliminate hunger and poverty and reduce inequality.

Key results

The percentage of small-scale food producers for countries with available data in Africa, Asia and Latin America ranges from about 40 to about 85 percent. In Nepal, the proportion of small-scale food producers is 43 percent, whereas in Armenia and Nicaragua it is about 85 percent. In most other countries, the proportion of small-scale food producers is between 50 to 70 percent. The incidence of small-scale food producers is, instead, as low as less than 10 percent in most countries of the European Union, and around 2 percent in Germany, Denmark, France and the Netherlands.

Concerning the productivity of small-scale food producers, data is available for very few countries, as many surveys do not report labour input in agriculture in a comparable form, and when they do, it is usually limited to crop production. Bearing these limitations in mind, the productivity of small-scale farms ranges from less to 5 international dollars per day in countries such as Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia and Niger, to more than 10 international dollars in countries such as Panama and India. In all countries, the productivity of small-scale producers is systematically lower than in the average for large producers.

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