Sustainable Development Goals

Indicator 2.3.2 Average income of small-scale food producers, by sex and indigenous status

The indicator refers to the average income of small-scale food producers employed in the farming, pastoral and forestry sectors. Data will be disaggregated sex and indigenous status. This indicator will measure progress towards SDG Target 2.3.

Target 2.3

By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and nonfarm employment.

Average annual income from agriculture, PPP (constant 2011 international $)

  • Non-small-scale producers
  • Small-scale producers


Together with indicator 2.3.1, it offers a complete breakdown of who small-scale producers are, what they earn and how much they produce. These indicators are vital for government efforts to drive the nation’s economy, eliminate hunger and poverty and reduce inequality.

Key results

The percentage of small-scale food producers for countries with available data in Africa, Asia and Latin America ranges from about 40 to about 85 percent. In Nepal, the proportion of small-scale food producers is 43 percent, whereas in Armenia and Nicaragua it is about 85 percent. In most other countries, the proportion of small-scale food producers is between 50 to 70 percent. The incidence of small-scale food producers is, instead, as low as less than 10 percent in most countries of the European Union, and around 2 percent in Germany, Denmark, France and the Netherlands.

Concerning the incomes of small-scale food producers, which are systematically lower than those of large food producers, results range from a few hundred international dollars per year in countries such as Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia, to over 3 000 USD per year in countries such as Vietnam, Iraq and Mongolia.

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