Pertes et gaspillages de nourriture dans les chaînes de valeur de la pêche et de l’aquaculture
©FAO/Ansen Ward


Markets and how they function influence food loss and waste (FLW). Markets and marketing, in turn, are influenced by a number of other variables, including: communications, infrastructure, services, legislation and standards, consumer demand, technology and investment.

Markets influence access to raw materials, including fish, and equipment or inputs. Markets also influence the sale of fish and fish products, demand for value-added products, and quality standards.

In a developing country context, the root causes of FLW are interlinked and complex, but a primary driver of FLW is poor market access, which ultimately leads to spoilage before product is sold. On the other hand, access to developed international markets, such as that of the European Union, can drive up standards and quality, and the adoption of practices that lead to loss reduction and increased value. Improving roads and services, certification processes, and making cross border trade easy and cost effective, will improve regional market access.  

Supply and demand also have implications for FLW. Over supply usually leads to a negative effect on price from the producer’s perspective and can lead to quality deterioration.

The market can be an important driver of improvements and standards in value chains, and can influence fish handling and the hygiene of facilities. Supermarkets often require suppliers to meet certain required hygienic conditions and product specifications and standards. They often require suppliers to be regulated or certified by food standards safety authority. The application of best management practices (BMP) and certification processes are often used as a means to improve market access, and are likely to reduce FLW. Hence, initiatives that promote BMP for marketing purposes likely have a positive effect on FLW prevention and reduction. On the other hand, high quality standards can cause FLW at supplier level as they can lead to product rejection. Nevertheless, higher levels of FLW are observed at consumer and retail levels in more developed country value chains.

Key Publications


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Reducing Waste in the Fish Sector

Market related solutions are highlighted in a WRAP initiative to reduce fish waste.