Corresponds to the proposed methodology of the tool and the experience of LAP in Latin America and particularly Central America.

Module 1: Proposed Methodology and Experience of LAPs in Latin America

Introduction to the cross concepts in the guide

Owing to the wide range of aspects in which LAPs are involved, the monitoring and evaluation of these aspects similarly needs to expand the methodologies. Although existing methods can be used for several indicators, more specialist methods need to be added to measure the scope of interventions within LAIs and communities. In parallel, given that LAPs involve aspects that have been analysed within good governance frameworks developed by both the FAO and the World Bank, we considered it appropriate to introduce concepts that can support these analytical processes.

This tool therefore contains a range of methodological frameworks and instruments that seek to meet the requirements of the M&E systems of LAPs.

  • Change theory proposing a cause and effect chain which allows the main activities of LAPs to be linked to the objectives and impacts it is hoped to achieve.
  • The concept of sustainable livelihoods, which measures the resilience of households by evaluating their strengths and weaknesses regarding human, social, physical, economic and environmental capital.
  • Gender perspective which seeks to provide concepts in various sections of the guide for evaluating progress in the fairness of access to tenure rights for more vulnerable populations, particularly women.
  • A participatory approach presents examples of various ways of evaluating the results and impacts of LAPs with participatory methods which include beneficiaries, users of land administration services and other programme players.
  • The Fiscal, Financial and Economic Analysis (FFEA), which comprises a cross-sectional analysis of the various evaluation frameworks of LAPs as the associated benefits should be measured at different levels of society.
  • The conceptual frameworks for analysing land tenure governance, namely the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGT)1, the Land Governance Assessment Framework2 and the UN-Habitat framework in the Global Urban Governance Campaign3, help to guide M&E processes in the various spheres of intervention of LAPs, including in indigenous territories.


1 FAO (2013).
2 Banco Mundial (2011).
3 UN-Habitat (2002).