抵御能力

Resilience analysis in Burkina Faso 1998-2003

Resilience analysis in Burkina Faso 1998-2003
Nov 2015

Burkina Faso is a landlocked country where adverse climatic conditions and the degradation of soil and water resources result in low agricultural productivity and in major limitation to economic growth. The country also suffers from the negative effects of a population growth rate averaging at 3 percent, which is among the highest in the world. These factors contribute to high poverty rates and severe food insecurity, particularly among rural households whose activities highly depend on a considerably volatile rainfall performance (FAO, 2014).

The country achieved a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth approaching, on average, about 5 percent per year (or 2.5 percent per capita) in the past decade. Growth has been mainly driven by the primary sector, with a recovery in cotton production and an increase in mining activities, particularly gold. Meanwhile, the country has been hit by a mix of climatic shocks (droughts in 2004 and 2007, floods in 2009 and 2010) and external (food and oil crisis in 2007) and internal (economic downturn in 2008/09) economic shocks (WB, 2013a). Since the economic activities in the country are strongly dependent on exogenous factors, its population is vulnerable, in particular in rural areas (WB, 2013b).

Against this background, the reinforcement of household resilience against food insecurity is a key objective to be taken into account in any poverty reduction intervention. Resilience is defined according to the Resilience Measurement Team Working Group - RMTWG (2014) as “the capacity that ensures adverse stressors and shocks do not have long-lasting adverse development consequences”. FAO has been pioneering resilience measurement and analysis with respect to food insecurity through the Resilience Index Measurement and Analysis (RIMA) model, which has been adopted in the present analysis. 

FAO-RIMA model identifies and weights pillars and their related elemental variables that contribute to render household resilient to shocks affecting their food security. The pillars constituting the FAO-RIMA model for Burkina Faso are the following: Income and Food Access (IFA), Access to basic services (ABS), Assets (AST), Social safety nets (SSN), Sensitivity (S) and Adaptive Capacity (AC). Additionally, the model allows tracing the stability of pillars over time. Finally, it provides evidence for more effectively designing, delivering, monitoring and evaluating assistance to populations in need, based on what they need most. 

Data employed in this study come from two surveys collected in 1998 and 2003. 

In brief, the resilience analysis of Burkina Faso serves three purposes:

  • Assessing the resilience capacity over the years.
  • Critically reviewing the different policies for increasing resilience put in place by the Government of Burkina Faso between 1998 and 2003.
  • Serving as a baseline for more actual analysis. 

 

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