Le droit à l’alimentation autour du globe

  Népal

La Constitution de la République fédérale démocratique du Népal protège de manière explicite le droit à une alimentation adéquate.

La République fédérale démocratique du Népal est devenue un État partie au Pacte international relatif aux droits économiques, sociaux et culturels en 1991 par adhésion.

CONSTITUTIONAL RECOGNITIONS OF THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD

Explicit protection of the right to adequate food

Article 36:
(1) Every citizen shall have the right relating to food.
(2) Every citizen shall have the right to be safe from the state of being in danger of life from the scarcity of food.
(3) Every citizen shall have the right to food sovereignty in accordance with law.”

Implicit protection of the right to adequate food

Article 42:
(2) Citizens who are economically very poor and communities on the verge of extinction, shall have the right to special opportunity and facilities in the areas of education, health, housing, employment, food and social security, for their protection, progress, empowerment and development.
(3) People with physical impairment shall have the right to a dignified way of life and equal access to social services and facilities, along with their diversity identity.”

Other pertinent provisions for the realization of the right to adequate food

Article 50: “(1) It shall be the political objective of the State to strengthen a federal democratic republican system to ensure an atmosphere where democratic rights are exercised by acknowledging sovereignty, independence and integrity of the country to be of utmost importance; by protecting freedom, equality, property and all citizens through rule of law; by embracing the norms and values of fundamental rights and human rights, gender equality, proportional inclusion, participation and social justice; and by maintaining a just system in all spheres of national life in order to establish a government system aimed at public welfare, while maintaining relations between federal units on the basis of cooperation between them, and internalizing the principle of inclusion in the governance system on the basis of local autonomy and decentralization,”

Article 51: “The State shall pursue the following policies:

(b) Policies regarding political and governance system:

  • (1) Guaranteeing people’s welfare and all-round-progress through economic, social and cultural transformation, while defending and strengthening political achievements and their development.
  • (2) Maintaining rule of law by protecting and practicing human rights.

(h) Policies regarding the basic needs of citizens:

  • (12) Increasing investment in the agricultural sector by making necessary provisions for sustainable productivity, supply, storage and security, while making it easily available with effective distribution of food grains by encouraging food productivity that suits the soil and climate conditions of the country in accordance with the norms of food sovereignty.”

Article 52: “It shall be the obligation of the State to maintain Nepal's independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, autonomy of Nepal, protecting and promoting fundamental rights and human rights, and to observe the directive principles of the State and gradually implementing the policies.”

INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) – 1948

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) – 1966

Status: Adhésion (1991)

Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) – 1979

Status: Ratification (1991)

Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) – 1989

Status: Ratification (1990)

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) – 2006

Status: Ratification (2010)

Législation et politiques qui reconnaissent le droit à une alimentation adéquate

Les Directives sur le droit à l’alimentation, validées par le Comité de la sécurité alimentaire mondiale et adoptées par le Conseil de la FAO, fournissent des orientations pour la réalisation progressive du droit à une alimentation adéquate dans le contexte de la sécurité alimentaire nationale

Étant donné que le droit humain à une alimentation adéquate peut être mis en œuvre par le biais de plusieurs actions juridiques et politiques, nous vous invitons à visiter les Profils par pays sur FAOLEX pour accéder à la collection complète des mesures adoptées au niveau national. Parmi les différents documents disponibles, vous trouverez la législation et les politiques qui font référence à certaines Directives pertinentes, telles que la Directive 8 sur l' Accès aux ressources et aux moyens de production, la Directive 9 sur la Sécurité sanitaire des aliments et protection des consommateurs, la Directive 13 sur l’Appui aux groupes vulnérables, et la Directive 16 sur les Catastrophes naturelles et anthropiques.

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