Le droit à l’alimentation autour du globe

  Zimbabwe

La Constitution de la République du Zimbabwe protège de manière explicite le droit à une alimentation adéquate.

La République du Zimbabwe est devenue un État partie au Pacte international relatif aux droits économiques, sociaux et culturels en 1991 par adhésion.

CONSTITUTIONAL RECOGNITIONS OF THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD

Explicit protection of the right to adequate food

Article 77: Right to food and water. - "Every person has the right to- (a) safe, clean and potable water; and (b) sufficient food; and the State must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within the limits of the resources available to it, to achieve the progressive realisation of this right.”

Article 81(1): “Every child, that is to say every boy and girl under the age of eighteen years, has the right –
(f) to education, health care services, nutrition and shelter.”

Article 50.5: "[...] (d) right to conditions of detention that are consistent with human dignity, including the opportunity for physical exercise and the provision, at State expense, of adequate accommodation, ablution facilities, personal hygiene, nutrition, appropriate reading material and medical treatment)."

Directive principles of state policy

Article 289: "Principles guiding policy on agricultural land In order to redress the unjust and unfair pattern of land ownership that was brought about by colonialism, and to bring about land reform and the equitable access by all Zimbabweans to the country's natural resources, policies regarding agricultural land must be guided by the following principles-- (e) the use of agricultural land should promote food security, good health and nutrition and generate employment, while protecting and conserving the environment for future generations.”

Article 19 (2): “The State must adopt reasonable policies and measures, within the limits of the resources available to it, to ensure that children – 

(b) have shelter and basic nutrition, health care and social services.”

National status of international obligations

Article 326: “1. Customary international law is part of the law of Zimbabwe, unless it is inconsistent with this Constitution or an Act of Parliament. 2. When interpreting legislation, every court and tribunal must adopt any reasonable interpretation of the legislation that is consistent with customary international law applicable in Zimbabwe, in preference to an alternative interpretation inconsistent with that law.”

Other pertinent provisions for the realization of the right to adequate food

Article 3 (1): “Zimbabwe is founded on respect for the following values and principles – 
(c) fundamental human rights and freedoms.” 

Article 11: “The State must take all practical measures to protect the fundamental rights and freedoms enshrined in Chapter 4 and to promote their full realisation and fulfillment.”

Article 15: “The State must – 
(a) encourage people to grow and store adequate food; 
(b) secure the establishment of adequate food reserves; and 
(c) encourage and promote adequate and proper nutrition through mass education and other appropriate means.” 

Article 21 (2): “The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must endeavour, within the limits of the resources available to them 
(b) to provide facilities, food and social care for elderly persons who are in need.”

INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) – 1948

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) – 1966

Status: Adhésion (1991)

Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) – 1979

Status: Adhésion (1991)

Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) – 1989

Status: Ratification (1990)

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) – 2006

Status: Adhésion (2013)

Législation et politiques qui reconnaissent le droit à une alimentation adéquate

Les Directives sur le droit à l’alimentation, validées par le Comité de la sécurité alimentaire mondiale et adoptées par le Conseil de la FAO, fournissent des orientations pour la réalisation progressive du droit à une alimentation adéquate dans le contexte de la sécurité alimentaire nationale

Étant donné que le droit humain à une alimentation adéquate peut être mis en œuvre par le biais de plusieurs actions juridiques et politiques, nous vous invitons à visiter les Profils par pays sur FAOLEX pour accéder à la collection complète des mesures adoptées au niveau national. Parmi les différents documents disponibles, vous trouverez la législation et les politiques qui font référence à certaines Directives pertinentes, telles que la Directive 8 sur l' Accès aux ressources et aux moyens de production, la Directive 9 sur la Sécurité sanitaire des aliments et protection des consommateurs, la Directive 13 sur l’Appui aux groupes vulnérables, et la Directive 16 sur les Catastrophes naturelles et anthropiques.

Vous trouverez ci-dessous les politiques et législations qui mentionnent explicitement le droit à l\'alimentation.

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