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In fact, there shouldn't be anything like food waste, if we know turning it into animal fed, manure or other uses !
Residue of lot many fruits and vegetables could be turned into silage to supplement animal feed. For instance, pineapple fruit silage could be excellent fodder source for livestock. We should docuement all possible uses of grains, fruits, vegetables & other edibles, how best we can make use of them under different circumstances.
In India, over 85% of the small holders own less than 1 ha land, which is further getting fragmented due to division in the family particularly among brothers. This makes mechanization difficult along with problems in Connecting Smallholders to Markets. Moreover, many landless livestock keepers contribute milk, meat & eggs- supplying much needed Animal sourced foods-protein & other micronutrients essntial for human health & well being. Can we think of Collective farming, farmer producer organizations to remedy the situation & making agriculture profitable to small holders. I know collective farming is easier to say but difficult to put into practice, unless there is lot of common sense among the stakeholders. We also have problems of small landholding scattered here & there, not at one place, making farming even more stressful. Land consolidation may resolve this, but again it is a teething problem. These are some of the basic issues, if we could resolve them, we can expect contributing to sustainability of small farms.
It’s about, Set 3: Sustainable Agricultural Development for Food Security and Nutrition: What Roles for Livestock?
Livestock production is important from the point of view of human health, employment and livelihoods, yet questioned by some mostly in environmental implications context. It’s mostly the management issue-how we are keeping the livestock in terms of numbers, production efficiency, feeding regime (competition with humans for feed) etc. The integrated systems could be more resilient, where livestock could be maintained as per the carrying capacity of the land holdings with the farmers. The Extension and Advisory services can design extension strategies around food systems towards ensuring the availability of required amount of animal sourced protein. We need 20gm animal sourced protein/per day which means everyone needs 33 kg lean meat / 45 kg fish / 60kg eggs or 230 kg milk/year. Many countries around the world are having far less consumption from this required levels. This leads to human population suffering from micro- nutrients related deficiency diseases stunting, wasting, anaemia, cognitive problems etc. In India, for instance, Over 70% pre-school children consume less than 50% of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of iron, vitamin A, and some B vitamins particularly riboflavin and folic acid. Many of these nutritional deficiencies can be overcome, if livestock products like milk, meat, pork, fish and eggs are included in human diets in required quantities. Livestock production offers multiple benefits like improved nutrition, health, incomes, and livelihoods. Yet the potential of livestock production is underexploited in many developing countries. While the research can help improve livestock productivity, the extension and outreach activities can deliver research outcomes to producers leading to improved livestock productivity. But Research-extension- farmer linkages are weak in these countries. So, we need to design extension interventions that include promoting crop-livestock integrated farming systems, fodder cultivation, promoting livestock entrepreneurship, mentoring rural youths, and organizing capacity building programmes including for farm women. The productivity enhancing livestock technologies, when shared with the livestock owners via targeted extension services can improve their production practices for green fodder, milk, meat, fish and egg production.
The questions we need to answer, how best we can ensure the required quantity of ASF to growing human population, with least implications to environment?
You may like to read my blog: http://www.fao.org/cfs/home/blog/blog-articles/article/en/c/1043521
Looking forward to hear more from the participants?
This document cover well many topics of contemporary interest.
What future for animal-based foods vs lab grown meat for instance; bio fortification, hydroponics, millets, chemical & antibiotic free food stuffs, foods replaced by food supplements? Implications of these innovations on food production systems and family farmers.
Should they look for livelihood alternatives giving up farming?
Per person per year egg consumption in India is just only 66 eggs, with huge regional variations. For instance, in Uttar Pradesh it is only 10 eggs. While in neighboring China, it is 300 eggs/head/year. Appreciably, the National Institute of Nutrition- an institution under Indian Council of Medical Research has recommended and made the provision of eggs compulsory in mid-day meals, being cheaper, safer, more nutritious and easier to procure than alternatives such as milk or bananas. In spite of recommendation coming from such a high level institution, it has not yet been implemented in many states. In the matters of health, people, institutions and government must rise above social and religious considerations, if any. The National Egg Coordination Committee (NECC) has made efforts in India to boost egg consumption among public in general and school children in particular. Such efforts need support from public and institutions. The celebrating World Egg Day on the second Friday in October each year is one good way of boosting egg consumption. The institutions concerned with livestock and poultry research and production should shoulder the responsibility of promoting egg consumption. The private sector especially the poultry industry can play larger role by launching egg promotional campaigns, possibly by including this in their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) schemes. There are huge opportunities in poultry sector in India, if we could promote egg consumption from the current low level to higher levels.
Hoping for the best !
On What is expected from this sconference:
We know youth are reluctant to farming, mostly becuase of poor returns and difficult working conditions. This happens when we are not able to infuse a business element in farming- agriprneurship, value chains, market led production etc. One may look for answers to the following questions:
1. Agriprneurship oportunities and kind of support icluding handholding available to take agriculture as businees not just production but also processing, value addition, branding, marketing etc.
2. Success stories of young agriprneurs- who could establish themselves overcoming the hurdles on their way- role models
3. Coaching/ youth mentoring and follow-ups. Often a short duration training is imparted and they are left to their own. They dont get opportuniteis to practice what they were preached.
Videos of successful young farmers could be used to spread positive image of agriculture among youth.
Youth Needs to be trained, engaged, employed and reatined in agriculture. Hope this conference shows the way how it can be done.
I guess it would be useful, if I share here my blogs on stories of youth role models, role of Agricultural Extension and advisory services in prmoting agripreneurship among rural youth.
This looks one good idea to collect success stories of youth. I have been writing about youth especially on World Youth Skills day-15th july as also on World Youth Day -12th August. I have written a number of blogs for YPARD, GFAR, GFRAS & AESA, wherein, youth success stories have been shared. Its my pleasure to share my latest blog went online@YPARD today. In this blog, I have shared a success story of a youth whom we trained on vermi-compost making and he has turned an entrepreneur now, selling branded vermimanure. He trains other youths now skilling them on making vemicompost. On World Youth Skills day this year, we organized a small programme at his vermi-compost unit to train 25 boys from his village. Enjoy reading the blog on this experience.
Youth and social media: A leverage for agripreneurship
Looking forward to hear intersting stories from across the world,
Thanks & regards,
Mahesh Chander, Head, Division of Extension Education,ICAR- Indian Veterianry Resarch Institute, Izatnagar (UP) INDIA
On the question, what approaches have proved successful to address deeply rooted gender norms, power relations and social institutions?
Quoting from an interesting article, "A field of her own:Advancing rights of women farmers can revolutionise the rural ecosystem, by Tarini Mohan (http://googleweblight.com/i?u=http%3A%2F%2Findianexpress.com%2Farticle%2... ), the chance of propertied women being physically abused is reduced from 49 per cent to 7 per cent due to an increase in the wife’s bargaining power. But, as many as 87 per cent of women do not own their land; only 12.7 per cent of them do. Moreover, despite their hard labour in the field, women are not officially counted as farmers, and are either labelled “agricultural labourers” or “cultivators”. This is because the government does not recognise them as farmers those who do not have a claim to land under their name in official records.
Some key points taken from this article may lead to successful approaches to address deeply rooted gender norms, power relations and social institutions:
1.Providing women with access to secure land is key to incentivising the majority of India’s women farmers.
2.With security of tenure, female farmers should be provided with the three critical driving factors — the incentive, the security, as well as the opportunity — to invest in the land they harvest.
3. The government should not label women merely as “agricultural labourers” or “cultivators” but recognise them as farmers even if they do not have a claim to land under their name in official records. We need to change the stereotypical image of an Indian farmer- a mustachioed man, clad in a white dhoti with farming tools in hand. Women in India constitute close to 65 per cent of all agricultural workers as also, 74 per cent of the rural workforce, is female.
Finally, we need to create a new image of farmer, which is women inclusive!
Movies can and should play powerful role in woem empowerment- sharing here the case of recent Hindi movie-DANGAL.
In 2016, movie DANGAL by Aamir Khan was released in India, which is a story of two sisters groomed by their father as wrestlers. He basically wanted boys not girls as usual in Indian society, but he thought otherwise later and focused on his daughters to turn them worldclass wrestlers. It is impactful movie like a game changer in bringing sea change in the mind set in the traditional societies where focus of family is mostly on male child, be it feeding, schooling or career, while for girls- their marriage is the only goal. After watching DANGAL, Men and women were equally appreciative of the approach of the film to bring about change in thinking on gender issue especially the craving for male child that girls too can do what boys do. The famous dialogue or punch line in this movie, “Maari chhoriyan chhoron se kam hai ke” meaning- "Are my girls any less than boys?" itself has the biggest transformative impact in thinking of Man.
Here are some links which indicate the potential of movies in bringing about change in mind set towards gender transformative impacts.
Thanks, it is stimulating to participate in the discussion.