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土著人民

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粮农和土著人民

粮农组织是一个领先的组织,在自然资源管理以及食物系统管理上有着丰富的专业知识。鉴于自然和土著人民生计之间存在着千丝万缕的联系,粮农组织对保护环境和那些依赖环境生存的人起着重要作用。很多粮农组织项目涉及土著人民,间接地促进生物和文化多样性,以作为粮食和生计安全以及生活质量的基础。

谁是土著人民?

这张地图显示 69 个国家的土著人民的人口数据。当土著民族的存在是明显的在一个国家,但缺乏人口估计时,它指示: (N/A)。土著人民的全球估计数: 390,000,000 ~ 430,000,000 (最后更新:2015/3/31)。所显示的数据是粗略的估计,从不同的来源。粮农组织是不负责其准确性。

目前大约有超过 3.7 亿自我确认的土著人片布在世界各地约 90 多个国家. 鉴于他们对生态系统管理的传统理解,他们对世界遗产做出了相关贡献。然而,土著人民是世界上最脆弱、处于社会边缘地位和不利处境的群体. 尽管土著部落人口仅占世界总人口的5%左右,他们在极端贫困人口中却占了15%左右。到目前为止,还没有一个普遍接受的对土著人的定义。由于地区和国家的差异, 文化背景和历史条件的多源性, 这使得为土著人取一个能适用于所有土著社区的单一的国际定义极为困难。根据国际共识,粮农组织将遵循以下原则来定义土著人民:

  • 时间上的优先,指占领和使用某一特定的领土 ;
  • 自愿延续的文化特异性,其中可能包括语言、 社会组织、 宗教和精神价值, 生产模式、法律和机构等方面的
  • 自我认同,并被其他群体承认;或被国家当局作为一个独特的集体识别
  • 经历过被征服、 边缘化、 剥夺、 排斥或歧视,不管这些条件是否仍然存在。

FAO focal points and indigenous peoples caucus

Greater participation in development processes is a cornerstone of indigenous peoples’ rights. For projects that involve or affect indigenous peoples, FAO will facilitate the inclusion of representatives of indigenous peoples in its consultations and programming cycles, in accordance with the principle of ‘free, prior and informed consent’” (FAO Policy on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples.)

In February 2015, FAO organized a technical meeting between indigenous peoples’ representatives with the objective of discussing a joint work plan to implement the 2010 FAO Policy on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples.

One of the points of this joint workplan is the identification of FAO and indigenous peoples focal points at global, regional and national level with the main objective of facilitating interaction between indigenous peoples and FAO on a regular basis.

To enable this interaction, it was agreed to establish an indigenous peoples’ caucus. This caucus has one representative for each of the seven socio-cultural regions in which indigenous peoples divide the world (Africa, Asia, Central and South America and the Caribbean, the Artic, Central and Eastern Europe, Russian Federation, Central Asia and Transcaucasia, North America, and the Pacific).

The caucus has four main objectives:

  1. Follow up and monitor the implementation of the joint workplan between FAO and indigenous peoples.
  2. Enable the coordination and inclusion of as many indigenous organizations as possible.
  3. Enable an agile mechanism of representation to ensure handing over and follow up by several indigenous leaders.
  4. To communicate with FAO on a regular basis at local, regional and international levels.