Private sector (i.e., mainly multinationals) must face four securities: food security (food availability for everyone worlwide), food safety, nutrition/health and environment. With the globalization of ultra-processed foods, food security and food safety have been almost fully met, but to the detriment of human health and environment. The challenge relative to SGD for private sector would be to meet all four dimensions at the same time:. For this, developping minimal processing? And to both fragment and relocate food transformation to avoid long distance (allowed by ultra-processing). Food systems are 34% GHGE (Crippa, M., Solazzo, E., Guizzardi, D., Monforti-Ferrario, F., Tubiello, F.N., Leip, A., (2021). Food systems are responsible for a third of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Nature Food 2(3), 198-209.). The largest contribution came from agriculture and land use/land-use change activities (71%), with the remaining were from supply chain activities: retail, transport, consumption, fuel production, waste management, industrial processes and packaging. This means 10% of GHGE by "retail, transport, consumption, fuel production, waste management, industrial processes and packaging", but we should not forget that all is linked and that probably the 24% by agricultural productions is dependent on the way that we process foods. Notably, ultra-processed foods drive intensive agriculture and breeding (see attached file). An important issue would be to measure impact of private sector on GHGE when coming back to less processed foods, and private sector fragmentation and relocalization, and how it will impact in return food agricultural production.
Dr. Anthony Fardet