Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition (FSN Forum)


What story can Small Island Developing States (SIDS) tell on addressing the relationship between poverty and climate change?

The Small Island Developing States (SIDS)  share unique and particular vulnerabilities, resulting in a complex set of environmental, food security and nutrition challenges. With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), countries have renewed their commitment to fight poverty [1], hunger and malnutrition. Climate change constitutes a fundamental threat to achieving those goals and tackling climate change and climate-related events would be key for moving people out of poverty and help achieve SDG 1 (No poverty). SDG 1 pays special attention to building resilient livelihoods and helping the rural poor reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate change and natural disasters. This is critical to secure lives and livelihoods, income, and to improve food security and nutrition.

SIDS are particularly vulnerable to climate change and other external shocks. They are likely to face increased vulnerability to shocks and stresses, if their adaptive capacities and ecosystem services are eroded.

These vulnerabilities and threats have been highlighted by the SIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action (S.A.M.O.A.) Pathway. Climate change impacts pose a threat to food systems which exacerbate high prevalence of food insecurity among the SIDS Community. In response to this, as described in Paragraph 61 of the S.A.M.O.A. Pathway, FAO has been requested to coordinate the development of The Global Action Programme (GAP) on Food Security and Nutrition in SIDS, in close collaboration with the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN/DESA) and the UN Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked developing countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS).

According to the GAP, “pro-poor growth and development policies and strategies are needed to increase the ability of poor people to take advantage of, and benefit from “the opportunities that these new instruments, such as the S.A.M.O.A. Pathway and the GAP, provide. This includes measures that target and address key sources of vulnerability and deprivation, and strengthen adaptive capabilities.’’ Furthermore, the GAP emphasizes the importance “that interventions, programmes, and services aimed at social and economic empowerment of communities, and at addressing food security and malnutrition in target groups, are underpinned by enabling political, institutional and social environments.’’ Achieving poverty eradication and food security and nutrition as a path to adapt to climate change will, according to the GAP programme, have a “multiplier effect on sustainable development.’’

Learning from SIDS on how they cope with climate change related impacts in these respects, could be instrumental to not only other Small States but also to the rest of the world. Their adaptive ways and mechanisms, despite their small size in land mass, could be instrumental to other regions and countries with relation to the nexus on poverty and climate change in coastal areas.

This forum aims to get perspectives from SIDS about the connection between poverty and climate change. The results gathered here will feed into an ongoing work to support countries to address the interrelation between poverty and climate change in coastal areas, coastal communities and SIDS. It also aims to provide concrete ideas for countries on how to better approach this relationship in their climate change and development agendas, thus feeding into and improving the dialogue and exchange of expertise between SIDS as well as with non-SIDS countries, and the overall south-south cooperation.

Overall, this discussion aims to gather the approaches and strategies used in SIDS to adapt to climate change, while building resilience of the most poor and vulnerable. Particularly, its purpose is:

a) to learn how SIDS are reducing the exposure of the poor and most vulnerable people to climate change and climate related events;

b ) to learn about pathways, tools and challenges, including recommendations for effectively building adaptive capacity to eradicate poverty and achieving food security and nutrition within the context of climate change.

To help gather these lessons, we invite you to share your experience and views by replying to the following questions:

  1. Can you share examples of actions that are being undertaken to reduce poverty, food insecurity and nutrition challenges in response to climate change and climate-related events? Actions can range from informal to formal and include social protection and multisectoral policies, projects, programmes, activities, among others.
  2. What lessons have been drawn from building resilience and adaptive capacity of poor and vulnerable people in the context of climate change and climate-related events?
  3. What are the challenges of reducing poverty and inequalities and building the adaptive capacity of the poor and vulnerable to climate change and climate related events?
  4. What should the world learn from these experiences? What are the plausible pathways and good practices you would recommend to follow when addressing poverty, food security and nutrition in the context of climate change and climate-related events?

We thank you very much in advance for your time and inputs and look forward to an engaging exchange.


Daniela Kalikoski    Samson Fare   Anthony Charles

Advisor, Strategic Program on Reducing Rural Poverty


[email protected]

Technical Specialist, SIDS


[email protected]

School of the Environment & School of Business, Saint Mary’s University

Halifax, Canada

[email protected]

[1] Poverty is not exclusively measured in monetary terms, but it’s also a social issue that encompasses individual’s wellness and wellbeing, including the natural environment of the population in a given time. It can also involve problems of marginalization, powerlessness, lack of voice, and disconnection, and it’s closely related to other concepts that aim to understand its causes, meanings, and consequences.

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Respond to Question 1:

I understand that there are lots of programes/projects that were targeted to reduce poverty, food security, climate change ect.. I would like to share our experience here in the Rural areas of Solomon Islands. Our Young people were always excluded in the actual implementation or participation in any activities. There are lots of reasons why  - ranging from culture, education and others.

Our young people are the future of SIDS.  Their lives are directly affected by climate change and is threatening their livelihood. We, the young people need to know the causes what is threatening our livelihood, need to be informed, must participate in programmes, and have a voice in policy making decisions.

From my experience, it is better to design youth led initiatives, because young people tend to listen better to their peers than to someone outside of their group age. Considering the culture factor.

I would recommend more programmes/project to be youth let. I appeal to governments and donors to support youth led organisations and movements that are trying to address the socio -economic issues in SIDS.

Response to Question 1;

The examples of actions that are taken to reduce poverty: First and foremost thanks for these good questions which help me to express activities done very relevant to my career, there are a number of activities done to reduce poverty, food insecurity, and nutritional challenges in response to climate change:

A, Reduce poverty:

There are many activities being done to reduce poverty like enabling or financial facilities to the farmers in cooperatives to support their micro-projects of agricultural activities, those activities include: growing of tomatoes, and other horticultural crops which do not require higher agronomic techniques and farmers take the products to the market. We can talk of activities done to facilitate traditional water harvesting like rain water harvesting that helps farmers to irrigate their horticultural crops, micro-loans, financing the trainings of farmer informal agronomists to help other farmers. Farmers education: this is teaching farmers the importance of using modern farming systems like use of fertilizers, spraying, proper planting methods, growing periods all mentioned activities are being done to reduce poverty in people vulnerable to poverty to improve their livelihoods.

B, Food insecurity and climate change:

The results of climate change are increase in drought of many areas and very low rainfall in many areas of the world, here as plant breeders and all environmental specialists; the response to this problem is the introduction of new crops and plant species which can resist climate drought problems, this activities of introducing new crops are done in many areas of research institutions, new crops like hybrid maize, beans, sorghum, millet, banana, wheat, rice, etc are being introduced to farmers, these drought resistant crops helps to reduce food insecurity.

The activities done by Nigerian farmers of digging small hills in their field to hold rain water this helps to prolong the water in the soil and reduce soil erosion.

C, nutrition and climate change:

There are a number of activities being done to improve nutrition; like projects that support processing to increase a number of products from the same crop/plant, processing include package/storage facilities of the product to resist dryness for a long period of time, reducing deterioration and seed dormancy to crops, proper seed storage and overall increased value to the crop for being useful for a long period of time after harvest while actually have not lost its nutritional content


Response to question 2:

The lesson from adaptive capacity build to the poor involves a number of recommendations from the experience learnt; first, when you want to develop a community base on their culture and customs, if you bring something they don’t understand it will collapse when you depart, or they will just do it to make you happy. The crops liked by a community or which bring economy to the poor people. You give facilitation to the people basing on the commodity which can do well in ecological condition of the region. The farmers usually grow crops which do well in their region and the development should come to support the very crops preferred by the farmers and can do well in that agro-ecological conditions. There should be a forecast to resist climate events like floods, which destroy crops and human building; by digging water harvesting dams, planting trees around bare areas and the fields.


Response to question 3;

  • The challenges are introducing projects that are not relevant to the community customs or religion,
  • Not allowing the target group in the suggestion of the micro projects which supports them,
  • introducing of crops which do not do well in the ecological condition of the Areas,
  • Introducing of commodities which are not relevant to the need of the society and are not preferred by the majority.
  • Poor planning and policy makers who are the final decision makers
  • The individuals who do not like the good progress of the target areas and start dirty education of resisting projects


Response to question 4;

What should the world learn from these experiences?

  • The would should first reason the climatic behavior and changes and the way out.
  • The world should promote plant breeding sciences because it is the only way to do crop gene editing which can change crop to match climate changes.
  • When addressing poverty include community members to participate and respect responses given by farmers in survey questionnaires.
  • Avoid introducing a commodity (a crop) without clear information of climate or ecological condition of the region.
  • The projects should facilitate farmers’ needs basing on the economic crop.
  • The world should promote horticultural crops because most of crops does not require higher agronomic techniques to be grown and have a great healthy importance
  • These should be projects supporting irrigation and water storage facilities not depending on rain water


Please have a look at the article, Built to last? Local climate change adaptation and governance in the Caribbean – The case of an informal urban settlement in Trinidad and Tobago , that we wrote some years ago about CC adaptation in Trinidad and Tobago, it contains many interesting insights that we gained during our fieldwork in a squatters settlement. Here is a link:,

Please don't hesitate to get back to me for the full article PDF.

Kind regards,

Lideke Middelbeek.

EASTERN CARIBBEAN TRADINGAGRICULTURE AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATION (ECTAD CARIBBEAN) was set up by farmer leaders in 2009 to address the problem of poverty amongst small farm families.

We share with you one of our simple approach use by ECTAD CARIBBEAN Working with small farm families in several villages in St Vincent and the Grenadines,

Our approach is on promoting environmentally sustainable production and sustained profitable markets for our small farm families. We have an example of some success with one crop dasheen/taro.

The production methods used by farmers planting mainly on the hillside is a whole system instead of a mound for planting. This method saw over 120% in crop yield over 98% reduction in hillside soil slippage. Farmers and farmer leaders are clustered into groups of their own design and provided training in production, grading, post-harvest handling packaging leading to profitable market links in the Caribbean and Europe. By eliminating the inefficiencies in the value chain they saw their price increase of between 100 and 150 %, reduction in transaction cost and more competitive prices to the final buyers.

The marketing program is ongoing for over 7 years and after selling over 5 million pounds of products they have not had a claim from buyers. So satisfied are the buyers that the markets are increasing and other crops are being added. These farmers clusters are mainly headed by female farmer leaders they coordinate sorting, grading and packaging. The clusters also have a key role in setting the prices based on market information.

We are seeing successful business small farm families we are encouraging the young people in the family to be involved with record keeping and information and forecast that will help with production and marketing. We are seeing that once the profitability is demonstrated more and more young people are showing interest in farming as a business.


Jethro Greene,

Chief Coordinator,


New Montrose

P.O. Box 827, Kingstown

St. Vincent and the Grenadines, W.I.

Tel: (784) 453 1004

Mobile (784) 593 8604

Email: [email protected]

skype: http://jethro.greene

facebook tertius greene

Thank you for this opportunity for SIDS countries to share their experience. In building on the following two points below, I would like to contribute to the forum with a well-documented example of Palau, Micronesia region, Pacific SIDS:  

-the national economies of SIDS are mainly service-sector oriented, and more attention is needed to develop opportunties for local livelihoods based on sustainable use of natural resources.

-participatory approaches and initiatives that work at multiple levels and cross-sectorally should be mainstreamed as key levers to building capacity and improving integrated approaches.

Yes, it is important to acknowledge, as well as come to terms with, SIDS economies tend to hop on the bandwagon of service sector investment because of its quick profit turnovers, due to the fact that we have adapted and become reliant in our survival on technological advancements (i.e. high-speed internet connected by fiber optic cables) and modern conveniences ( i.e. public electricity and water). Oftentimes these present-day conveniences that comprise of what defines a 'developed nation', compromise on natural resource recycling functions, i.e. wildlife breeding cycles and carbon sequestration. However, this has not always been the case. The original founders of Palau, for example, embedded into the constitution, conservation and no-take (no harvesting) zones. There is a group of islands called the Seventy Islands that are protected under the constitution as eternal no-take zones, and with a sustainable management plan, the coexistence of tourism and responsible ecosystem management is present in Koror State, Palau. Please read more in detail here:

This is because of the close interlinkage and dialogue between the traditional leaders, legislative bodies, private sector (tour companies) and the transparent information-sharing with the rest of the community. To the people of Palau, the environment (both land and sea) and human society is a single body.  Responsible management is engrained in the culture and a systems thinking of a long-term vision for the benefit of the next generation of Palauans remains at the forefront of the island country's economic development agenda.

Thank you to everyone who has participated to date for their thoughtful and insightful contributions. Some of the key points we have heard so far:

- The rich and varied local contexts of SIDS and the communities that form them, in terms of culture, history, economy, environment must be recognized and adequately understood in order to address the threats presented by climate change and disasters;

- While current understanding of poverty has advanced beyond economic aspects to include broader dimensions of wellbeing including food security, nutrition, safety and more, too often this is not adequately reflected in policy and program implementation and monitoring;

- For many SIDS, local agriculture is essential to local food security – policy should align with this to support these critical social objectives first and foremost.

- A variety of initiatives to improve local agriculture were described, including: capacity development and accessible technology to improve soil quality and retention, adaptive practices such as timing plantings to better line up with changes in hydrologic cycle, improved water conservation and storage, affordable irrigation, conserving and making use of local biodiversity, post-harvest processing and conservation practices to build on local knowledge and adapted to climate change realities;

- The national economies of many SIDS are service sector oriented – while this can be positive in motivating conservation interest, more attention is also needed towards developing opportunities for local livelihoods based on sustainable use of natural resources as part of addressing poverty and inequality, for example through further developing agro-forestry, agro-tourism, artisanal fisheries for local markets;

- Fisheries and use of other marine resources are activities in many SIDS that are in need of greater attention and support to develop and maintain sustainable local harvests for local markets;

- Urban planning in coastal cities should consider the interconnectedness of aquatic and terrestrial landscapes and work to support ecological integrity and conservation/enhancement of ecosystem services;

- Scenario development offers a useful opportunity to model what future socio-economic needs might be under different conditions;

- Structured review processes can be useful to assess and improve the alignment of policy and plans with climate adaptation and poverty reduction objectives, as well as to provide guidance on opportunities for adaptation financing (for example as in the case of Zanzibar’s MKUZA II);

- Participatory approaches and initiatives that work at multiple levels and cross-sectorally should be mainstreamed as key levers in building capacity and improving integrated approaches.

- Many small island countries are heavily reliant on food imports, which lead to a progressive abandonment of traditional foods and local varieties.

- A substantial percentage of the poor population relies on processed imported food, which is high in sugar and salts, further exacerbating the incidence of NCDs such as obesity.

We would still like to hear more details about your experiences with climate change adaptation and poverty reduction (considering climate-related poverty prevention and alleviation, and addressing inequality). Specifically how can the impacts of poverty reduction initiatives best be monitored?



Many socioeconomic and environmental factors in those countries are both opportunities and barriers to address poverty and climate change problems.

The communal landownership in the small islands countries in the Pacific region, for example, make easier to distribute the lands for food production to needy people but the ownership has discouraged the people for economically productive uses.

These people of the countries are likely to be seriously suffered if extreme natural disasters and global political crises coincidently overlaps or happened together. These countries cannot avoid the cyclones due to geophysical positioning. They need diversification in food and economic business to survive in serious humanitarian crises and take economic benefit in market based business in harmonious international environment.

Unfortunately, international agencies have influenced on the values and behaviors of community leaders and policies of government agencies and used the lands under tree planation for making high benefit (offsetting carbon) to distant users.

If indigenous agroforestry system was integrated in the plantation, it would alleviate food and nutritional problem. The trees would reduce damage of cyclones in indigenous food system. Vested interest foreign people have strategically influenced to the community leaders and government agencies.

If FAO is committed to help those countries, its management requires identifying the vested interest people and ethically discourage their inappropriate interventions.


B. Dhakal


Bonsoir à tous,

Par la présente,trouvez ci-joint notre contribution pour ce sujet :

Pouvez-vous donner des exemples d'actions menées pour réduire la pauvreté, l'insécurité alimentaire et les défis nutritionnels en réaction au changement climatique et aléas climatiques? Les actions peuvent aller du niveau informel au formel et inclure la protection sociale ainsi que des politiques, des projets, des activités, des programmes multisectoriels, etc.

Les petites et grandes Antilles ou se situent certains petits États insulaires en développement (PEID) sont assujettis à de nombreuses catastrophes naturelles, pouvant donner lieu à de retentissent séisme telle que celui qui à touché Haïti en2010 ou encore le violent cyclone « Maria » qui à touché entre autres la Dominique.

En août 2017, l’ONG internationale « Humanity For The World (HFTW) » a mis en place une action pour l’amélioration des conditions de vie, d’éducation, contre la pauvreté, contre la malnutrition auprès de la communauté de Momance, notamment auprès de l’école « institution mixte les pionniers de Momance ».

Humanity For The World (HFTW) est venu en aide directement à la communauté en situation de résilience en apportant un soutien financier et matériel.

À cette occasion, 7 ans après le séisme, l’ONG internationale à pu observer, mesurer l’impact psychologique et social des effets du séisme communauté de Momance.

La communauté de Momance est située dans un petit village de Léogâne en Haïti, elle a dû faire face à de nombreux défis au cours des 10 dernières années ; il n'y avait ni de puits ni eau courante, pas d'électricité, de mauvaises conditions de vie, pas d'école, et la plupart vivaient avec moins de 2 dollars par jour. En 2010, Léogane a été l'épicentre d'un tremblement de terre dévastateur qui a fait des milliers de morts et réduit la majeure partie du pays en décombres. Lorsque la poussière s'est installée, les chefs de village de Momance se sont réunis et ont formé un comité qui a formé une vision pour l'avenir de Momance. Ils voulaient un meilleur endroit pour leurs enfants et leur communauté :

-   un conseil des anciens du village s’est tenu

-   des terres ont été cédées pour la réalisation d’une école en vue de dispenser une éducation de qualité aux enfants de la communauté « Institution mixte les pionniers de Momance »

-   Des personnes de confiance ont été choisies pour l’éducation des jeunes (Mr Mario LOREMY son staff d’encadrement)

-   Les parents se relaient à l’école pour effectuer la cuisine et nourrir les élèves au déjeuner

-   Bien qu’ils ne soient pas encore autosuffisants, nous avons pu observer que les habitants ont mis en place une production agricole (mais) pour approvisionner la cantine scolaire.

Grâce aux donations diverses et variées, au travail acharner de la communauté de Momance,

À l'automne 2012, un puits a été construit, en 2013, la phase de la construction d’une école pour accueillir les enfants de la communauté a été lancée, avec 2 salles de classe. Aujourd’hui, plus de 150 élèves à l'école, avec 4 salles de classe, une chapelle, un bureau et une aire de jeux. Chaque enfant reçoit également un repas chaud tous les jours. Un programme médical et dentaire a été ajouté et une clôture de sécurité est également en cours de construction. Il y a tellement de changements positifs dans Momance.

Quelles leçons ont été dégagées du renforcement de la résilience et de la capacité d'adaptation des pauvres et des personnes vulnérables dans le contexte du changement climatique et des aléas climatiques?

La résilience dont a fait preuve la communauté de Momance a fait des catastrophes, un pilier, une force qui a transcendé sa souffrance en énergie positive, ce qui leur a redonné l’espoir. Cet espoir a donné naissance à la construction d’une dynamique au sein de la communauté. C’est l’amour, présent à l’intérieur et à l’extérieur de cette communauté qui leur à permis de relever inlassablement la tête face aux catastrophes naturelles qui les a touchés.

C’est la preuve qu’un amour inconditionnel au sein de chaque action mène à un avenir meilleur.

La leçon que Humanity For The World (HFTW) tire de cette observation est que par nature, l’Homme est fort, l’instinct de survie des populations pauvres que l’on pourrait qualifier de « résilience » est à l’origine, de la créativité qu’ils déploient, quelque soit l’ampleur des catastrophes qui les touche.

Quels sont les défis à relever pour réduire la pauvreté et les inégalités et renforcer la capacité d'adaptation des pauvres et des personnes vulnérables au changement climatique et aux aléas climatiques?

Le grand défi est celui de la réconciliation des peuples de la terre

Le grand défi est de parvenir à considérer un Homme dans sa globalité pour ce qu’il représente pour l’Humanité en faisant abstraction de préjugés

Le grand défi est de savoir définir une société durable et résiliente, adaptable à chaque société, chaque population

Le grand défi est de fédérer les peuples du monde autour des mêmes priorités

Le grand défi est de mobiliser la population mondiale autour de la situation de la planète, de la souffrance des peuples victimes des changements climatiques.

Le plus grand défi est de repositionner l’Amour au centre de la vie des Hommes.

Que faut-il tirer de ces expériences? Quelles sont les trajectoires plausibles et les bonnes pratiques que vous recommanderiez pour traiter la pauvreté, la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition dans le contexte du changement climatique et des aléas climatiques?

Humanity For The World (HFTW) à une vision pour le monde : Un amour inconditionnel universel

Nous pensons qu’il est indispensable de recentrer l’Amour au centre de la vie des Hommes.

Il est nécessaire d’appliquer un Amour inconditionnel au centre de chaque action pour évoluer vers un monde meilleur.

Faire de l’amour un étendard mondial sera salutaire, car la solidarité mondiale qui en émanera sera le bras armé qui pourra éradiquer la pauvreté, sécuriser l’alimentation et la nutrition dans un contexte enclin au changements climatiques et empreint aux aléas climatiques.

In this response, please find below our contribution on the subject:

Can you share examples of actions that are being undertaken to reduce poverty, food insecurity and nutrition challenges in response to climate change and climate-related events? Actions can range from informal to formal and include social protection and multisectoral policies, projects, programmes, activities, among others.

The Greater and Lesser Antilles, where some small developing island states are located, are subject to many natural catastrophes, including devastating earthquakes such as the one affecting Haiti in 2010 or again the violent hurricane "Maria" that affected Dominica, among others.

In August 2017, the International NGO Humanity for the World (HFTW) set up a project for improving living conditions, providing education, reducing poverty and malnutrition, for the community of Momance, in particular through the school called “Institution mixte les pionniers de Momance “[ The Pioneers of Momance Co-educational Institution].

Humanity for the World has directly helped this actively resilient community with financial and material support.

In this instance, 7 years after the earthquake, the International NGO could observe and measure the psychological and social impact of the consequences of the earthquake on the Momance community

The Momance community is located in a small village of the Leogane district in Haiti. This village has had to face many challenges in the last 10 years; there were no wells or running water, no electricity, bad living conditions, no school and the majority of people lived on less than 2 dollars a day. In 2010, Leogane was the epicentre of a devastating earthquake which killed many people and left most of the country in ruins. Once the dust settled, the Momance village chiefs met and formed a committee that developed a vision for the future of Momance. They wanted a better place for their children and their community:

- A village council of elders was created.

- Land was donated for building a school called "Institution mixte les pionniers de Momance” so as to provide quality education for the children in the community.

- Trusted people have been chosen for the education of the young (Mr. Mario Loremy and his teaching staff)

- Parents take turns at school to do the cooking and feeding of the children at lunch time.

- Even though they are not yet selfsufficient, we have been able to observe that the people have set up some agricultural production (maize) to supply the school canteen.

Thanks to several and varied donations, and to the unremitting work of the Momance community,

In the autumn of 2012, a well was built; in 2013 construction of a school to receive the children of the community was launched, with 2 classrooms. Today, more than 150 children go to school, with 4 classrooms, a chapel, an office and a playground. Also, each child receives a hot lunch every day. A medical and dental program has been added and also, a security fence is being built. There are so many positive changes in Momance.

What lessons have been drawn from building resilience and adaptive capacity of poor and vulnerable people in the context of climate change and climate-related events?

The resilience shown by the Momance community has turned catastrophe into strength, a force which has turned their suffering into positive energy, and which has rekindled their hope. This hope has given rise to the emergence of a dynamic force at the heart of the community. It is love, present inside and outside this community which has enabled them again and again to raise up their heads in the face of the natural catastrophes that have hit them.

It is proof that an unconditional love at the heart of each action leads to a better future.

The lesson that HFTW draws from this observation is that by nature, Man is strong, the survival instinct of poor people, that one could call resilience, is at the source of the creativity that they deploy, regardless of the extent of the catastrophes that affected them.

What are the challenges of reducing poverty and inequalities and building the adaptive capacity of the poor and vulnerable to climate change and climate related events?

The main challenge is the reconciliation of the peoples of the world.

The main challenge is to come to consider a Person in all their aspects, for what they represent for Humanity by setting aside all prejudice.

The main challenge is to know how to define a sustainable and resilient society, adaptable to each society and population.

The main challenge is to bring together people in the world around the same priorities.

The main challenge is to mobilize the world population around the planet’s situation, the suffering of the victims of climate changes.

The greatest challenge is to reposition love at the center of human life.

What should the world learn from these experiences? What are the plausible pathways and good practices you would recommend to follow when addressing poverty, food security and nutrition in the context of climate change and climate-related events?

Humanity for the World (HFTW) has a vision for the world: Unconditional universal Love.

We believe that it is indispensable to refocus Love at the center of human life.

It is necessary to apply unconditional Love at the center of each action to develop a better world.

To make Love a world standard would be the salutary, because the world solidarity that would emanate from this would be the strong arm that could eradicate poverty, secure food and nutrition in a context prone to climate change and marked by the vagaries of the climate.



Humanity For The World (HFTW)

Ali Attoumani


English translation below

L’ONG MLEZI est une organisation intervenant principalement au sud de l’île d’Anjouan dans le cadre de l’encadrement de la population rurale sur la lutte contre la pauvreté et l’insécurité alimentaire face aux effets néfastes dus au changement climatique.

Sur des sites situés à des endroits très accidents avec des sols complètement érodés, l’ONG propose aux petits producteurs propriétaires chacun d’une parcelle d’une superficie moyenne de 450m², la technique de l’embocagement tout en introduisant des variétés de manioc et de banane de variétés locales résistants aux maladies liées aux changement climatique avec des méthodes artisanales de conservation de la récolte pour assurer la disponibilité même en cas de catastrophe naturelle.

L’embocagement est une pratique constituée de 04 niveaux techniques. Il s’agit de :

Niveau I : Clôturer la parcelle avec des boutures de légumineuse (sadragon et/ou glyricidia) et mettre les lignes antiérosives à l’intérieur de la parcelle tout au long des courbes de niveau avec des mini boutures de légumineuses en association avec des éclats de souche de graminées (pénicétum et/ou guatemala). Les espèces légumineuses introduites à ce stade permettent d’enrichir le sol en azote et de produire du fourrage pour les petits et gros ruminants. Quant aux espèces graminées plantées au long des courbes de niveau, elles contribuent non seulement à la lutte contre l’érosion du sol mais aussi elles servent de complément alimentaire pour les animaux.

Niveau II : Construction des terrasses et banquettes entre les courbes de niveau et application de la technique de la vache au piquet.

Cette technique permet non seulement de réduire la pente en cascade mais aussi de fertiliser le sol à partir décomposition de la bouse de vache, et des déchets de fourrage non consommé par l’animal. L’urine de l’animal accélère notamment la fertilisation de la parcelle.

L’animal attaché autour d’un piquet après 30 jours, arrive à fertiliser en moyenne 10m² avant d’être déplacé à un autre endroit.

Niveau III : Pratiques des techniques améliorées de production telles que le semi en ligne, le buttage, le billonnage et l’utilisation rationnelle des pesticides et des engrais minéraux à titre de fertilisants complémentaires. C’est à ce stade que sont introduites les variétés améliorées de semences résistantes au changement climatique.

Niveau IV : Organisation de l’exploitation, commercialisation de la production et techniques de conservation des récoltes consistant au séchage du manioc et de la banane.

Les outils utilisés sont les émissions radio, les réunions de sensibilisation, la vulgarisation individuelle au niveau du site de production, les images et les échanges entre des paysans des différents sites.

Les défis à relever reste l’amélioration de la résilience des producteurs face au changement climatique et la lutte contre l’insécurité alimentaire.

The NGO MLEZI is an organization intervening mainly in the south of the Island of Anjouan in the context of the organization of the rural population in the fight against poverty and food insecurity in the face of adverse effects of climate change.

In very steep and broken up areas where the soil has been totally eroded, the NGO proposes to the small farmer-owners, each one with a plot of land of an average size of 450m2, the technique of establishing hedges by introducing varieties of cassava and bananas resistant to diseases arising from climate change, with traditional methods of conservation of the harvest to ensure availability even in cases of natural disaster.

The hedging method is a practice composed of 4 technical levels. They are:

Level I: Enclosure of the plot with cuttings of legumes (sadragon and gliricidia) and with anti-erosion lines of mini hedges, inside the plot along the contour lines, made of  legumes cuttings together with small clumps of natural grasses (pennisetum and guatemala grass). The legume species introduced at this stage provides enrichment of the soil in nitrogen and the production of fodder for both big and small ruminants. As for the grasses planted along the contour lines, they contribute not only to the fight against soil erosion but also serve as additional food for the animals.

Level II: Building of terraces and banking between the contour lines and use of the pegged cow technique. This technique not only allows to reduce the angle of the downward slope but also to fertilize the soil from the decomposition of the cow dung and the remains of fodder not eaten by the animal. The animal's urine increases notably the fertilization of the plot.

A pegged animal will after 30 days have fertilized an average of 10m2 before being moved to another place.

Level III: Use of improved production techniques such as in line planting, mounding, ridging and the rational use of pesticides and mineral inputs as complementary fertilizers. It is at this stage that the improved varieties of seeds resistant to climate change are introduced.

Level IV: Organization of exploitation, commercialization of production and techniques for conservation of the harvests comprising the drying of cassava and bananas.

The tools used are radio broadcasting, awareness meetings, dissemination to the individual at the level of production site, illustrations and exchanges among farmers of different areas.

The challenges to be noted continue to be the improvement of producers´ resilience in the face of climate change and the fight against food insecurity.

Island state self-sufficiency

Sustainable development in general, implies that all three pillars of development that is, economy, society and environment must be sustainably and equitably resourced.

The same holds true for small island developing states (SIDS) but their conditions are quite unique and different from larger islands and other countries that form part of a continent. Whereas agriculture is very much an economic activity in continental economies, it is very much a social activity in islands and need to be treated as such. Social services such as health and education are highly subsidized by the state to meet the needs of the masses and the vulnerable. Although private clinics and private schools may exist to provide these social services, the state has an obligation to ensure that the whole of society has access to these services. In that light, if we accept that agriculture in SIDS is more of a social obligation rather than an economic activity, then we must design a framework to accommodate this sector at the national, regional and international arenas.   


Many island economies including Seychelles depend on provision of services rather than exploitation of natural resources for economic growth. In many cases, the size of islands does not allow them to exploit natural resources to supply a large market such as an export market except of course fisheries products due to the vast EEZ of many islands. The EEZ of the Seychelles is some 1.4 Million SQ. KM. Some islands have developed niche markets for specialized products manufactured from the use of the islands unique resources. If these resources are not carefully managed, they are soon depleted. As a result the general trend is that small islands depend on tourism, financial services (and off-shore banking), industrial fisheries to grow the economy and in return import most of the food requirements.

Island populations are small in size and population, they have limited land area and much of the available man power is absorbed in the main economic sectors leaving very little for the development of other sectors such as agriculture, health or education. These islands therefore depend heavily on imported labor even for the economic activities but also on imported basic food, clothing and shelter materials. It is worth noting however that some SIDS have done very well for themselves in terms of economic growth. Some SIDS fall in the high income or high middle income brackets such as the Seychelles and Mauritius in the Indian Ocean, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean and Fiji in the Pacific yet they are plagued by nutritional challenges due to consumption of foods that lead to diet related diseases.

Social and society

Many SIDS are chronically affected by many of the social ills that affect larger countries, they have some of the highest global statistics on non-communicable diseases and incarceration rates. They are plagued by drugs, prostitution and broken or dysfunctional families. In an attempt to keep the small economy buoyant, very little financial resources are available for allocation to the support of social infrastructure (both hard and soft). Food and agriculture however is if special interest whereas agriculture is very much and economic activity in larger countries including larger islands, it is not the case in SIDS. In small societies, agriculture is very much a social support mechanism which is required to counter act the many negative impacts of importation of food.

Natural disasters

In the event of natural disasters including climate related disasters, SIDS  are really at the mercy of the importers since food reserves are minimal and there is rapid turnover with interspersed periods of no stocks at all. If ports/airports are destroyed and badly damaged by a natural disaster and the local production is insufficient to cover the transition or recovery period then a social disaster may occur.


Seychelles tourism rest upon the image of a pure, natural, clean environment and in order to maintain this image much resources including financial resources are used for environmental conservation activities. These activities could be made much more sustainable if the aspect of livelihoods through the use of the natural resources could be developed. Environmental conservation in Seychelles today is led mainly by state activities and non-government organizations (NGOs). Initiatives such as agroforestry and agro tourism are still very much in the pilot phases. Huge investments are made in conserving the environment but very little emphasis is placed on sustainable use of natural resources which could help to address the issue of agriculture and food security in SIDS.

For any SIDS to be self-sufficient it must be able to sustainably and adequately provide energy water and food to its population.


Many SIDS depend almost entirely on fossil fuels for energy production, very few produce fossil fuels and of those that do, yet fewer are able to refine locally. It is therefore necessary that SIDS develop alternative renewable energy resources. The current main choices are wave, wind, solar and possibly bio gas. In the context of wave and wind the technologies are relatively underdeveloped for commercial adoption and is very expensive. Solar and biogas provide more plausible options but on small islands the quantity of slurry or other inputs to bio gas production might be limited to produce energy on a large scale. Solar is thus the most feasible option to date and the cost to the consumer is not as prohibitive as other alternative energy options. Solar technology for energy production is well established and islands are blessed with copious amounts of sunshine for long hours.


Although many SIDS have sufficient annual rainfall to meet its needs and more, it is not surprising that many do not have sufficiently developed capture and distribution infrastructure. As a result there are often times no supply in the midst of heavy rainfall. An efficient water system in SIDS do not have to be an elaborate system. Simple hydro technology along river ways could enhance storage and the use of extra storage options along river courses could be a cost effective and sustainable option. Many SIDS are blessed with an elaborate network of rivers and streams


The majority of low income and low middle income households in SIDS are obliged to consume highly processed canned foods with high sugar and salt contents with many additives and preservatives. This is because food that is imported is costly, imported fresh fruits and vegetables may not endure the duration and conditions of sea travel and must be brought by air. The cost of freight is high and this impacts the final cost of the product. Many SIDS cannot and do not pay salaries that allow the vast majority of the population to enjoy imported  fresh, wholesome, natural, unprocessed food, including meat products. The irony is that the sea surrounding islands are teaming with healthy fish protein yet many islands have an undeveloped or underdeveloped artisanal fisheries sector but a better developed commercial fisheries sector that takes fresh fish to larger overseas markets for better profits. It is often the case in SIDS that the masses can better afford cheap imported chicken or other meats rather than fish. Apart from regular freight, insurance and other costs that affect food prices, these costs can be further increased due to “risks” and in the Indian Ocean an example is piracy or the physical state of the seas due to climate change. Many small islands do not have a sufficient volume of goods to ensure a regular and reliable sea transportation and are often at the mercy of shipping companies that ply the route only if and when it is profitable. It is therefore better economic sense for importers to bring canned and processed foods that have a longer shelf life.

For many social reasons including benefits to health, availability and accessibility to wholesome food and poverty alleviation it is necessary for SIDS to invest in a well-established agricultural sector and not as an economic activity that competes with other highly profitable investments like tourism or industrial fisheries but in such a way that the society can meet its international and national obligations on food and nutrition security.