Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition (FSN Forum)

This member contributed to:


      The identified CEEIs are crucial issues to sustainable food security and nutrition (FSN). Each issue is inevitably broad since any attempt to narrow down issues to specifics will amount to a litany of issues that could make the report verbose. However, I feel inequality and inequity in food systems could stand alone, although they were captured under some of the CEEIs.

      Building resilience in food systems for sustainability is the goal of all the efforts that will be put into the system including this consultation.  This is why many of the CEEIs such as rural-urban continuum, climate change, conflicts the fragility issues featured prominently- seem like duplications. Revitalizing climate policies and infectious diseases are environmental issues which could be merged as such. Climate issues are not limited to policies alone but also other relevant issues were identified. The issue could be tagged Climate Change in food systems or Climate Change and infectious diseases challenging in food systems.

      The drivers and trends identified as they are well captured


      The following could be considered

      Building resilient supply chains for FSN- The roles of research and innovations in building resilience need to be highlighted

      Urban and peri-urban food systems- The need to capture rural in this heading in order to highlight issues of migration and agricultural employment for youth.

      Conflicts and the fragility of food systems- Local conflict resolution strategies.

      Revitalizing climate policies for FSN- reflect content in the title of the issue.

      Recognizing the role and rights of food system workers- the roles of those working in the formal sector in the food systems at local levels are not covered.

      Building a meaningful interface for diverse knowledges and practices for FSN- The need to highlight information management and how food systems actors could benefit from digitization.

      Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases challenging FSN. The need to address what know about infectious diseases and preventing them. 

    • E-Consultation on inequality in FSN

      i. Inequality from food security and nutrition perspective means disparity in access to resources, opportunities and outcomes in agri-food system relative to socio-economic characteristics of an individual, community, nation or region.

      ii. Trends within and between countries (data collection, measurement tools); World Inequality Report, 2022, World Inequality Database (WID)

      iii. Links between health and nutrition inequalities and labour productivity, educational attainment, economic growth and human wellbeing;

      Inequalities in health and nutrition impact negatively on the vulnerable individuals, communities, nations and regions consequently on labour productivity in agriculture and other sectors. Educational attainment is a common denominator that can significantly affect health and nutrition security, enhance productivity, economic growth and wellbeing at individual and all levels to facilitate equal and equitable access to resources and outcomes.

      iv. Commitments to reduce inequality (SDGs)- UN systems , EU, AU Organizations- FARA, AFAAS

      Efforts to improve measurement-Professional bodies, including those I belong:

      a. Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria (AESON), 

      b. National Rural Sociological Association (NRSA)

      c.Organization of Women in Science for Developing World (OWSD); 

      d. Nigerian Forum for Agriculture and Advisory Services (NIFAAS)

      e. AFAAS and GFRAS.

      f. Agriculture, Nutrition and Health (ANH) Academy

      v. Relationship between inequality and inequity-

      Inequity refers to unfairness which could arise from poor governance, corruption or cultural exclusion while inequality simply refers to the uneven distribution of resources and assets based on socio-cultural and economic variables age, gender. Inequality breeds inequity which perpetrates inequality.

      2. Share good practices and successful experiences on policy, legislation, interventions and initiatives that have proven successful at: 

      a. reducing inequality gap and its potential impact on food security and nutrition outcomes- Some interventions in Agriculture in Nigeria e.g Fadama Programme, IFAD assited RTEP, Community-Based Natural Resourses Management Programme in Nigeria.

      3. Share the most recent references that should be considered in this report.


      Margaret J. Koyenikan

      Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension services,

      University of Benin, PMB 5114,

      Benin-City, Nigeria.

      Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services (AEAS) are expected to address issues related to agriculture and rural development. Gender and nutrition are among the several thematic areas to address in order to achieve better living standard for the people. The principles of Agricultural Extension include comprehensiveness in nature and involvement of all the family members which relate to the discussion point. Gender affects access to production resources and level of involvement in decision making which could tell on nutritional status of typical African household. The effect of nutrition on physical, mental and social status of people could be obvious while gender equality issue in development is yet to be fully accepted even by practitioners. In Nigeria, extension service is still largely public sector-driven and unified. However, the following are suggested:

      AEAS need to disseminate information and technologies that can change attitude, knowledge and skills of the people on gender and nutrition.

      They need to apply scientific research and knowledge to agriculture and home management practices, educate farming families on the need and benefit of adoption.

      Facilitate needs assessment and capacity building at community level.

      To play these roles effectively, AEAS practitioners need capacity building as well for competencies in communication, human and leadership development and programme planning.