Economic and Policy Analysis of Climate Change
©FAO/Jeanette Van Acker


The Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector accounts for around 20-25% of global anthropogenic emissions, and is currently one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases. It also is one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss, which is a key pre-requisite for the resilience of ecosystems. However, the sector also has the potential to become a pillar in mitigating and adapting to climate change:

  • by reducing existing emissions at the farm level and along the production value chain;
  • by enhancing climate resilience through climate-smart agriculture and biodiversity preservation;
  • by transforming carbon sources into carbon sinks.

Facing the challenges posed by climate change will require continuous interaction and feedback between public and private investments, AFOLU interventions and efficiency and efficacy assessments.

The EX-ACT suite of tools

The EX-Ante Carbon Balance Tool (EX-ACT) suite answers to the need for accessible, complete and time-sensitive accounting tools in the AFOLU sector. It provides three tools that can measure the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and biodiversity impacts of projects and policies ex ante, in itinere and ex post: