FAOLEX Database

Glossary

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  A
×

abandoned land/unoccupied land

العربيةالأرض المهجورة / الأرض الشاغرة
中文被遗弃的土地/未占用的土地
Français         terres abandonnées/terres vacantes
Русскийпустующая земля/незанятая земля
Españoltierras abandonadas/terrenos baldíos
 
AGROVOC abandoned land

Definition
"Abandoned land" means unused land, which was used in the past for the cultivation of food and feed crops but where the cultivation of food and feed crops was stopped due to biophysical or socioeconomic constraints; "Unoccupied land" is land that is not occupied by any person, is in a state of disuse, or for which it has not been possible to find any person, who by reason of an estate or vested interest, has a right to occupy the land.



×

access and benefit-sharing

العربيةالحصول وتقاسم المنافع
中文获取和惠益分享
Français         accès et partage des avantages
Русскийдоступ к биологическим ресурсам и участие в доходах
Españolacceso y participación en los beneficios
 
AGROVOC access and benefit-sharing

Definition
The way in which genetic resources may be accessed, and how the benefits that result from their use are shared between the people or countries using the resources (users) and the people or countries that provide them (providers).



×

access right

العربيةحق الحصول
中文使用权限
Français         droit d'accès
Русскийправо доступа
Españolderecho de acceso
 
AGROVOC right of access

Definition
An authorization (access right), given to a user by a competent authority or by legislation, to exploit a resource or a share of a total allowable catch.



×

access-to-information

العربيةالوصول إلى المعلومات
中文信息的获得
Français         accès-à-l'information
Русскийдоступ к информации
Españolacceso-a-la-información
 
AGROVOC access to information

Definition
Right of public access to any information held by the state; and any information that is held by another person and that is required for the exercise or protection of any rights.



×

access-to-justice

العربيةالوصول إلى العدالة
中文享有司法公正
Français         accès-à-la-justice
Русскийдоступ к правосудию
Españolacceso-a-la-justicia
 
AGROVOC access to justice

Definition
Access to justice is defined as the ability of people to seek and obtain a remedy through formal or informal institutions of justice for grievances in compliance with human rights standards. Access to justice involves normative legal protection, legal awareness, legal aid and counsel, adjudication, enforcement, and civil society oversight.



×

afforestation/reforestation

العربيةالتشجير / إعادة التحريج
中文造林/再造林
Français         boisement/reboisement
Русскийоблесение/лесовозобновление
Españolforestación/reforestación
 
AGROVOC afforestation; reforestation; forestation

Definition
Afforestation is the establishment of forest through planting and/or deliberate seeding on land that, until then, was under a different land use, implies a transformation of land use from non-forest to forest. Reforestation is the re-establishment of forest through planting and/or deliberate seeding on land classified as forest.;



×

agricultural commodities

العربيةالسلع الزراعية
中文农产品
Français         produits agricoles
Русскийсельскохозяйственные товары
Españolproductos agrícolas
 
AGROVOC agricultural products

Definition
Raw or partly refined agricultural goods whose value mainly reflects the costs of gathering or harvesting them; they are traded for processing or incorporation into final goods.



×

agricultural development

العربيةالتنمية الزراعية
中文农业发展
Français         développement agricole
Русскийсельскохозяйственное развитие
Españoldesarrollo agrícola
 
AGROVOC agricultural development

Definition
Development of crops, livestock farming, soil fertility, etc. creating the conditions for the fulfillment of agricultural potential, by allocation of inputs, availability of technology, accumulation of knowledge.



×

agricultural land

العربيةالأرض الزراعية
中文农业用地
Français         terrains agricoles
Русскийземли сельскохозяйственного назначения
Españolterrenos agrícolas
 
AGROVOC farmland

Definition
Agricultural land is typically land devoted to agriculture, the systematic and controlled use of other forms of life—particularly the rearing of livestock and production of crops—to produce food for humans. It is generally synonymous with both farmland or cropland, as well as pasture or rangeland.



×

agroecology

العربيةالزراعة الإيكولوجية
中文生态农业
Français         agroécologie
Русскийагроэкология
Españolagroecología
 
AGROVOC agroecology

Definition
Agroecology is a scientific discipline, a set of practices and a social movement. As a science, it studies how different components of the agroecosystem interact. As a set of practices, it seeks sustainable farming systems that optimize and stabilize yields. As a social movement, it pursues multifunctional roles for agriculture, promotes social justice, nurtures identity and culture, and strengthens the economic viability of rural areas.



×

agro-forestry

العربيةالحراجة الزراعية
中文农林(复合)系统
Français         agro-foresterie
Русскийагролесомелиорация
Españolagroforestal
 
AGROVOC agroforestry

Definition
Agroforestry is a land use management system in which trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland. This intentional combination of agriculture and forestry has varied benefits, including increased biodiversity and reduced erosion.



×

air quality/air pollution

العربيةجودة الهواء / التلوث الجوي
中文空气质量/空气污染
Français         qualité de l'air/pollution de l'air
Русскийкачество воздуха/загрязнение воздуха
Españolcalidad del aire/contaminación del aire
 
AGROVOC air quality; air pollution

Definition
Air quality - The degree to which air is polluted; the type and maximum concentration of man-produced pollutants that should be permitted in the atmosphere. Air pollution -The general term alluding to the undesirable addition of substances (gases, liquids, or solid particles) to the atmosphere that are foreign to the natural atmosphere or are present in quantities exceeding natural concentrations.



×

allocation/quota

العربيةتخصيص/ حصة
中文分配/配额
Français         allocation/quota
Русскийраспределение/квота
Españolasignación/cuota
 
AGROVOC allocation

Definition
Allocation of resources refers to the apportionment of productive assets among different uses. Quotas refer to a limited quantity of a particular product which under official controls can be harvested, produced, exported, or imported.



×

amphibians

العربيةالبرمائيات
中文两栖动物
Français         amphibiens
Русскийземноводные
Españolanfibios
 
AGROVOC amphibians

Definition
Class of vertebrates including the (tail-less) frogs and toads (anurans), newts and salamanders, and worm-like (leg-less) Apoda. Animals having a vertebral column or backbone.



×

animal feed/feedstuffs

العربيةأعلاف الحيوانات / الأعلاف
中文动物饲料/饲料
Français         aliments pour animaux
Русскийкорм для животных/кормовые продукты
Españolalimentos para animales/piensos
 
AGROVOC feeds

Definition
Any single or multiple materials, whether processed, semi-processed or raw, which is intended to be fed directly to food producing animals.



×

animal health

العربيةصحة الحيوان
中文动物健康
Français         santé des animaux
Русскийздоровье животных
Españolsanidad animal
 
AGROVOC animal health

Definition
The physical health of animals for food production, including the presence, risk and control of diseases.



×

animal production

العربيةالإنتاج الحيواني
中文动物生产
Français         production animale
Русскийживотноводство
Españolproducción animal
 
AGROVOC animal production

Definition
Raising of domesticated animals in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food and fiber.



×

animal reproduction

العربيةالتناسل الحيواني
中文动物繁殖
Français         reproduction des animaux
Русскийвоспроизводство животных
Españolreproducción animal
 
AGROVOC animal reproduction

Definition
Includes: artificial insemination, semen, semen production/collection centres, deep-frozen bovine semen, embryo transfers, in vitro fertilization, etc. See also "biotechnology".



×

animal welfare

العربيةرعاية الحيوان
中文动物福利
Français         protection des animaux
Русскийблагополучие животных
Españolprotección de los animales
 
AGROVOC animal welfare

Definition
How an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. An animal is in a good state of welfare if (as indicated by scientific evidence) it is healthy, comfortable, well nourished, safe, able to express innate behaviour and if it is not suffering from unpleasant states such as pain, fear and distress.



×

antimicrobial resistance (AMR)

العربيةمقاومة المكروبات للأدوية
中文抗菌素耐药性
Français         résistance aux antimicrobiens
Русскийрезистентность к противомикробным препаратам
Españolresistencia a los antimicrobianos
 
AGROVOC antimicrobial resistance

Definition
AMR refers to when micro-organisms – bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites – evolve resistance to antimicrobial substances, like antibiotics. This can occur naturally through adaption to the environment, the pace of AMR's spread is now on the uptick due to inappropriate and excessive use of antimicrobials.



×

apiculture/sericulture

العربيةتربية النحل / تربية دودة القز
中文养蜂业/养蚕业
Français         apiculture/sériciculture
Русскийпчеловодство/шелководство
Españolapicultura/sericultura
 
AGROVOC apiculture; sericulture

Definition
Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of bee colonies by humans in order to collect their honey and other products that the hive produce (including beeswax, propolis, flower pollen, bee pollen, and royal jelly), to pollinate crops, or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers. Sericulture, or silk farming, is the cultivation of silkworms to produce silk.



×

aquaculture

العربيةالاستزراع المائي
中文水产养殖
Français         aquaculture
Русскийаквакультура
Españolacuicultura
 
AGROVOC aquaculture

Definition
Cultivation of plants or breeding of animals in water (embracing freshwater and brackish culture, fish farming). The farming of aquatic organisms including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants with some sort of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc.



×

aquatic animals

العربيةالحيوانات المائية
中文水生动物
Français         animaux aquatiques
Русскийводные животные
Españolanimales acuáticos
 
AGROVOC aquatic animals

Definition
An aquatic animal is an animal, either vertebrate or invertebrate, that lives in the water for most or all of its lifetime.



×

aquatic plants

العربيةالنباتات المائية
中文水生植物
Français         plantes aquatiques
Русскийводные растения
Españolplantas acuáticas
 
AGROVOC aquatic plants

Definition
Plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater). Aquatic plants can only grow in water or in soil that is permanently saturated with water. They are therefore a common component of wetlands.



×

artisanal fisheries

العربيةحرفة الأسماك
中文小型手工渔业
Français         pêche artisanale
Русскийкустарный рыбный промысел
Españolpesca artesanal
 
AGROVOC artisanal fisheries

Definition
There is no universal definition for what type of fisheries or aquaculture count as ‘artisanal’ or ‘small-scale’. Commonly, these terms are used for describing fisheries and aquaculture that use relatively small production units with low input and output, and low levels of technology or capital investment. Fishing for sport or recreation are excluded.;



×

authorization/permit

العربيةترخيص / تصريح
中文授权/许可
Français         autorisation/permis
Русскийдозволение/разрешение
Españolautorización/permiso
 
AGROVOC licences

Definition
Authorization is the process of endowing or conferring a person with legal power or sanction to do something specific.




  B
×

bank

العربيةضفة
中文(江、河、湖、海的)岸
Français         berge
Русскийберег
Españolribera
 
AGROVOC riverbanks

Definition
Bank is the land alongside a body of water.



×

basic legislation

العربيةتشريع أساسي
中文基本立法
Français         législation de base
Русскийбазовое законодательство
Españollegislación básica
 
AGROVOC basic legislation

Definition
The prinicipal law within a particular sector or technical area.



×

basin/catchment/watershed

العربيةمستجمع مياه / مستجمع أمطار
中文集水区/流域
Français         bassin/captage/bassin versant
Русскийводосборный бассейн/водораздел
Españolcuenca/área de captación/cuenca colectora
 
AGROVOC watersheds

Definition
The area that is defined by its natural, hydrological boundaries.



×

bed

العربيةسرير
中文河床
Français         lit
Русскийдно/русло
Españollecho
 
AGROVOC river beds

Definition
The path where a river runs, or where a river once ran; the bottom earthen part of a river or lake, not including the riverbanks.



×

beverages

العربيةمشروبات
中文饮料
Français         boissons
Русскийнапитки
Españolbebidas
 
AGROVOC beverages

Definition
A drinkable liquid. Includes: beer, non-alcoholic beverages (fruit juices, concentrates, nectars, etc.).;Note: The following beverages have specific key words: "potable water"; "mineral water", "viticulture/oenological practices", "coffee/cocoa/tea"; and "milk/dairy products".



×

biodiversity

العربيةتنوع حيوي
中文生物多样性
Français         biodiversité
Русскийбиоразнообразие
Españolbiodiversidad
 
AGROVOC biodiversity

Definition
Variety among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems (Article 2 of the Convention on Biodiversity).



×

bioenergy

العربيةطاقة حيوية
中文生物能源
Français         bioénergie
Русскийбиоэнергия
Españolbioenergía
 
AGROVOC bioenergy

Definition
Covers all energy forms derived from organic fuels (biofuels) of biological origin used for energy production. It comprises both purpose-grown energy crops, as well as multipurpose plantations and by-products (residues and wastes). The term by-products includes solid, liquid and gaseous by-products derived from human activities. Biomass may be considered as one form of transformed solar energy.



×

biofuel

العربيةوقود حيوي
中文生物燃料
Français         biocarburant
Русскийбиотопливо
Españolbiocombustible
 
AGROVOC biofuels

Definition
Biofuel is fuel produced directly or indirectly from biomass.



×

biological agents

العربيةالعوامل البيولوجية
中文生物制剂
Français         agents biologiques
Русскийбиологические агенты
Españolagentes biológicos
 
AGROVOC biological control agents

Definition
Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms. This keyword refers to the licensing, use, storage, labelling, certification, safety, biological pest control agents, organisms and micro-organisms, pathogens.



×

biosafety

العربيةالسلامة الأحيائية
中文生物安全
Français         prévention des risques biotechnologiques
Русскийбиобезопасность
Españolseguridad de la biotecnología
 
AGROVOC biosafety

Definition
Biosafety is a term used to describe efforts to reduce and eliminate the potential risks resulting from biotechnology and its products. For the purposes of the Biosafety Protocol, this is based on the precautionary approach, whereby the lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as an excuse to postpone action when there is a threat of serious or irreversible damage.



×

biosecurity

العربيةالأمن الحيوى
中文生物安全管理
Français         biosécurité
Русскийбиозащищенность
Españolbioseguridad
 
AGROVOC biosecurity

Definition
Management of all biological and environmental risks associated with the environment, including food and agriculture, including forestry and fisheries.



×

biosphere reserves

العربيةمحميات المحيط الحيوي
中文生物圈保护区
Français         réserves de biosphère
Русскийбиосферные заповедники
Españolreservas de biósfera
 
AGROVOC nature reserves

Definition
Biosphere reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems promoting solutions to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use. They are internationally recognized, nominated by national governments and remain under sovereign jurisdiction of the states where they are located. UNESCO provides the secretariat of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves in accordance with the provisions of the Statutory Framework.



×

biotechnology

العربيةالتكنولوجيا الحيوية
中文生物技术
Français         biotechnologie
Русскийбиотехнология
Españolbiotecnología
 
AGROVOC biotechnology

Definition
"Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivates thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use"(Convention on Biological Diversity).



×

birds

العربيةطيور
中文鸟类
Français         oiseaux
Русскийптицы
Españolpájaros
 
AGROVOC birds

Definition
Warm-blooded egg-laying vertebrate animals distinguished by the possession of feathers, wings, a beak, and typically by being able to fly.



×

breastfeeding/infant food

العربيةالرضاعة الطبيعية/ أغذية الأطفال
中文母乳喂养/婴幼儿食品
Français         allaitement au sein/alimentation des enfants
Русскийгрудное вскармливание/детское питание
Españolalactamiento/alimentos para niños
 
AGROVOC breast feeding; infant foods

Definition
Infant milk substitutes, feeding bottles, "natural" food, formula, dry milk. Also refers to national public information campaigns to promote breastfeeding, to the International Code on marketing of breast milk substitutes, etc.



×

breeders' rights

العربيةحقوق المربين
中文育种者的权利
Français         droits des obtenteurs
Русскийправа селекционеров
Españolpla
 
AGROVOC breeders rights

Definition
Plant breeder's rights are a form of intellectual property (IP). They grant a limited commercial monopoly to breeders of new plant varieties. PBR allows a breeder the right to exclude others from a range of activities including producing and reproducing a protected variety.



×

business/industry/corporations

العربيةالتجارة / الصناعة / المؤسسات
中文商业/工业/企业
Français         commerce/industrie/sociétés
Русскийпредпринимательская деятельность/промышленность/корпорации
Españolnegocios/industria/corporaciones
 
AGROVOC business enterprises; industry; corporations

Definition
Group of productive enterprises or organizations that produce or supply goods, services, or sources of income



×

bycatch

العربيةصيد العرضي
中文兼捕渔获物
Français         prises accessoires
Русскийприлов
Españolcapturas incidentales
 
AGROVOC bycatch

Definition
The part of catch unintentionally captured during a fishing operation, in addition to target species, and consisting of discards and incidental catches of vulnerable species.




  C
×

cadastre/land registration

العربيةالسجل العقاري / تسجيل الأراضي
中文地籍簿/土地登记
Français         cadastre/enregistrement des terres
Русскийкадастр/регистрация земель
Españolcatastro/registración de tierras
 
AGROVOC cadastres; land registration

Definition
Cadastre is a public record, survey, or map of the value, extent, and ownership of land as a basis of taxation. Land registration is the official recording of legally recognised interests in land and is usually part of a cadastral system. From a legal perspective a distinction can be made between deeds registration, where the documents filed in the registry are the evidence of title, and registration of title, in which the register itself serves as the primary evidence.



×

camelids

العربيةإبليات
中文骆驼
Français         camélidés
Русскийверблюдовые
Españolcamélidos
 
AGROVOC Camelidae

Definition
The phylogenetic family which includes camels, llamas, alpacas, guanacos, viunas.



×

capacity building

العربيةبناء القدرات
中文能力建设
Français         renforcement des capacités
Русскийпостроение потенциала
Españolfortalecimiento de la capacidad
 
AGROVOC capacity building

Definition
The process through which the ability of individuals and organizations to perform functions, solve problems and set and achieve sustainable objectives is developed and maintained over time.



×

captive wild animals

العربيةالحيوانات البرية الأسيرة
中文 圈养的野生动物
Français         animal sauvage en captivité 
Русскийсодержащееся в неволе дикое животное
Españolanimales salvajes en cautividad 
 
AGROVOC animal husbandry

Definition
An animal that has a phenotype not significantly affected by human selection, but that is captive or otherwise lives under direct human supervision or control, including zoo animals and pets.



×

cartilaginous fishes

العربيةأسماك غضروفية
中文软骨鱼类
Français         poissons cartilagineux
Русскийхрящевые рыбы
Españolpeces cartilaginosos
 
AGROVOC cartilaginous fishes

Definition
Cartilaginous fishes are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone. The class is divided into two subclasses: Elasmobranchii (sharks, rays, skates, and sawfish) and Holocephali (chimaeras, sometimes called ghost sharks, which are sometimes separated into their own class). Also include “Picked dogfish" , “Spurdog”, “Dogfish”, “Porbeagle”, “Catshark”.



×

cattle

العربيةالماشية
中文
Français         bovins
Русскийкрупный рогатый скот
Españolbovinos
 
AGROVOC cattle

Definition
Large ruminant animals with horns and cloven hoofs, domesticated for meat or milk, or as beasts of burden; cows and oxen.



×

cereals/grains/rice

العربيةحبوب / حبيبات / أرز
中文谷物/粮食/稻米
Français         céréales/grains/riz
Русскийколосовые/хлебные злаки/рис
Españolcereales/granos/arroz
 
AGROVOC cereals; grain; rice

Definition
Any plant of the grass family yielding an edible grain, as wheat, rye, oats, rice, or corn.



×

certification

العربيةشهادة
中文认证
Français         certification
Русскийсертификация
Españolcertificación
 
AGROVOC certification

Definition
Process that guarantees compliance with foreseen standards and requirements. Refers to all procedures prescribed by law for obtaining a certificate.



×

child labour

العربيةعمالة الأطفال
中文童工
Français         travail des enfants
Русскийдетский труд
Españoltrabajo infantil
 
AGROVOC child labour

Definition
Work that harms children’s well-being and hinders their education, development and future livelihoods.



×

civil and political rights

العربيةالحقوق المدنية والسياسية
中文公民权利和政治权利
Français         droits civils et politiques
Русскийгражданские и политические права
Españolderechos civiles y políticos
 
AGROVOC civil rights; legal rights

Definition
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals. They ensure one's entitlement to participate in the civil and political life of society and the state without discrimination or repression.



×

Civil Code

العربيةالقانون المدني
中文民法典
Français         Code Civil
РусскийГражданский кодекс
EspañolCódigo Civil

Definition
A Civil Code is a codification of private law relating to persons, family, property, inheritance, obligations and contracts. In some jurisdictions, some core areas of private law (commercial and corporate law) are codified under a separate commercial code.;A Civil Code is a codification of private law relating to persons, family, property, inheritance, obligations and contracts. In some jurisdictions, some core areas of private law (commercial and corporate law) are codified under a separate commercial code.;



×

classification/declassification

العربيةتصنيف / رفع السرية
中文分级/解除分级
Français         classement/déclassement
Русскийклассификация/исключение из классификации
Españolclasificación/declasificación
 
AGROVOC classification

Definition
Classification refers to an administrative decision to place something within a legal category subject to specific rules. Declassification refers to an administrative decision that moves something from a legal category subject to specific rules to a category subject to ordinary law.



×

clean development mechanism

العربيةآلية التنمية النظيفة
中文清洁发展机制
Français         mécanisme de développement propre
Русскиймеханизм чистого развития
Españolmecanismo de desarrollo limpio
 
AGROVOC Clean Development Mechanism

Definition
One of the flexibility mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol (IPCC, 2007) that provides for emissions reduction projects which generate Certified Emission Reduction units which may be traded in emissions trading schemes.



×

cleaning agents/detergents

العربيةمواد التنظيف / المنظفات
中文清洁剂/洗涤剂
Français         produits de nettoyage/détergents
Русскийчистящие средства/моющие средства
Españolproductos de limpieza/detergentes
 
AGROVOC surfactants

Definition
Chemical and biological agents to remove food residue, dirt, grease or other objectionable matter and/or reduce the number of micro-organisms to a level that does not compromise food safety and public health. Cleaning products may contain toxic chemicals, some of which emit volatile organic compounds causing respiratory, dermatological and environmental harm.



×

climate change

العربيةالتغير المناخي
中文气候变化
Français         changement de climat
Русскийизменение климата
Españolcambio climático
 
AGROVOC climate change

Definition
A change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.



×

coal

العربيةالفحم
中文煤炭
Français         charbon
Русскийуголь
Españolcarbón
 
AGROVOC coal

Definition
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata consisting chiefly of carbonized plant matter, found mainly in underground seams and used as fuel.



×

coastal zone management

العربيةإدارة المناطق الساحلية
中文沿海区域管理
Français         gestion des zones côtières
Русскийуправление прибрежной зоной
Españolordenación de áreas costeras
 
AGROVOC coastal zone management

Definition
Measures undertaken for the conservation, protection, utilization, and management of coastal areas.



×

Codex Alimentarius

العربيةالدستور الغذائي
中文食品法典
Français         Codex Alimentarius
РусскийКодекс Алиментариус
EspañolCodex Alimentarius
 
AGROVOC codex alimentarius

Definition
The "Codex Alimentarius" is a collection of international standards for the safety and quality of food as well as codes of good manufacturing practice and other guidelines to protect the health of the consumer and remove unfair practices in international trade.



×

codified constitution

العربيةدستور مقنن
中文成文宪法
Français         constitution codifiée
Русскийкодифицированная конституция
Españolconstitución codificada
 
AGROVOC codified constitution



×

coffee/cocoa/tea

العربيةالقهوة / الكاكاو / الشاي
中文咖啡/可可/茶
Français         café/cacao/thé
Русскийкофе/какао/чай
Españolcafé/cacao/té
 
AGROVOC coffee; cocoa products; tea



×

collecting/harvesting

العربيةجمع / حصاد
中文采集/收获
Français         ramassage/récolte
Русскийсбор/уборка урожая
Españolrecolección/cosecha
 
AGROVOC harvesting

Definition
Gathering of wild plants and non-timber forest products for human use or consumption.



×

common property

العربيةالملكية المشتركة
中文共同财产
Français         propriété commune
Русскийобщая собственность
Españolpropiedad común
 
AGROVOC common property

Definition
Property held by two or more persons in common with each other, e.g. joint tenants.



×

community management

العربيةإدارة المجتمع
中文社区管理
Français         gestion communautaire
Русскийобщинное управление
Españolordenación comunitaria
 
AGROVOC community management

Definition
Community management or common-pool resource management is the management of a common resource or issue by a community through the collective action of stakeholders.



×

concession

العربيةحق ممنوح
中文特许权
Français         concession
Русскийконцессия
Españolconcesión
 
AGROVOC concession (land)

Definition
Contractual right entitling the beneficiary to exploit a body of water or expanse of land belonging to the State subject to particular terms.



×

condiments/herbs/spices

العربيةالبهارات / أعشاب / توابل
中文调味品/香草/香料
Français         condiments/herbes/épices
Русскийприправы/кухонные травы/специи
Españolcondimentos/hierbas/especias
 
AGROVOC condiments; herbaceous plants; spices

Definition
Herbs are the leaves from shrubs, best fresh although dried are common, used to add aroma to a dish. Spices are dried seeds, root, bark or other vegetable matter, used to add flavour and colour to a dish. Condiments are added to a dish to add or complement its flavour. They are often prepared mixes (like mustard or soy sauce), although the broad definition can include spices (e.g. pepper).



×

constitutional law

العربيةالقانون الدستوري
中文宪法
Français         révision constitutionnel
Русскийконституционный закон
Españolreforma constitucional
 
AGROVOC constitutional law

Definition
An Act of Parliament that amends or repeals the text of the Constitution in whole or in part.



×

consumer protection

العربيةحماية المستهلك
中文消费者保护
Français         protection du consommateur
Русскийзащита потребителей
Españolprotección del consumidor
 
AGROVOC consumer protection

Definition
Consumer protection is the practice of safeguarding buyers of goods and services, and the public, against unfair practices in the marketplace. Consumer protection measures are intended to prevent businesses from engaging in fraud or specified unfair practices in order to gain an advantage over competitors or to mislead consumers.



×

continental shelf

العربيةالجرف القاري
中文大陆架
Français         plateau continental
Русскийконтинентальный шельф
Españolplataforma continental
 
AGROVOC continental shelves

Definition
The continental shelf of a coastal State comprises the seabed and subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer edge of the continental margin, or to a distance of 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured where the outer edge of the continental margin does not extend up to that distance (article 76 of the Law of the Sea Convention).



×

contract farming

العربيةزراعة تعاقدية
中文订单农业
Français         agriculture contractuelle
Русскийсельскохозяйственное производство по контракту
Españolagricultura por contrato
 
AGROVOC contract farming

Definition
Contract farming is agricultural production carried out according to an agreement between a buyer and farmers, which establishes conditions for the production and marketing of a farm product or products.



×

contracts

العربيةعقود
中文合约
Français         contrats
Русскийдоговоры
Españolcontratos
 
AGROVOC contracts

Definition
A legal agreement between two parties.



×

cooperative/producer organization

العربيةجمعية تعاونية / منظمة المنتجين
中文合作/生产商组织
Français         coopérative/organisation de producteurs
Русскийкооператив/организация производителей
Españolcooperativa/organización de productores
 
AGROVOC cooperatives; producer organizations

Definition
A corporation or association established to give economic services to its members without gain to itself. Includes agricultural cooperatives, cooperative societies, peasant associations, fishermen's cooperatives, etc.



×

coral

العربيةمرجان
中文珊瑚
Français         corail
Русскийкоралловые
Españolcoral
 
AGROVOC corals; aquatic animals

Definition
Corals are marine invertebrates within the class Anthozoa of the phylum Cnidaria. They typically live in compact colonies of many identical individual polyps. Coral species include the important reef builders that inhabit tropical oceans and secrete calcium carbonate to form a hard skeleton.



×

coronavirus disease (COVID-19)

العربيةمرض فيروس كورونا (COVID-19)
中文冠状病毒病 (COVID-19)
Français         maladie à coronavirus (COVID-19)
Русскийкоронавирусная инфекция (COVID-19)
EspañolEnfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19)
 
AGROVOC coronavirus disease

Definition
COVID-19 is the infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus SARS-Cov-2, which had not been previously identified in humans.



×

court/tribunal

العربيةمحكمة
中文法庭/仲裁庭
Français         cour/tribunaux
Русскийсуд/орган правосудия
Españolcorte/tribunal
 
AGROVOC courts

Definition
A body of people presided over by a judge, judges, or magistrate, and acting as a tribunal in civil and criminal cases. A Tribunal is a body established to settle certain types of dispute.



×

credit

العربيةائتمان
中文信用
Français         crédit
Русскийкредит
Españolcrédito
 
AGROVOC credit

Definition
A contractual agreement in which a borrower receives something of value now and agrees to repay the lender at some date in the future, generally with interest. The term also refers to the borrowing capacity of an individual or company.



×

crops 

العربيةمحاصيل
中文作物 
Français         cultures
Русскийзерновые культуры 
Españolcultivos forrajeros
 
AGROVOC crops; grasses

Definition
A crop is any cultivated plant, fungus, or alga that is harvested for food, clothing, livestock, fodder, biofuel, medicine, or other uses.



×

crustaceans

العربيةالقشريات
中文甲壳类动物
Français         crustacés
Русскийракообразные
Españolcrustáceos
 
AGROVOC Crustacea

Definition
A large group of mainly aquatic arthropods which include crabs, lobsters, shrimps, woodlice, barnacles, and many minute forms. They are very diverse, but most have four or more pairs of limbs and several other appendages.



×

cultural heritage

العربيةالتراث الثقافي
中文文化遗产
Français         patrimoine culturel
Русскийкультурное наследие
Españolpatrimonio cultural
 
AGROVOC cultural heritage

Definition
Cultural Heritage is an expression of the ways of living developed by a community and passed on from generation to generation, including customs, practices, places, objects, artistic expressions, values and food.




  D
×

dangerous animal/harmful animal

العربيةالحيوانات الخطرة / الحيوانات الضارة
中文危险的动物/有害动物
Français         animal dangereux/animal nocif
Русскийопасное животное/вредное животное
Españolanimal dañino/animal peligroso
 
AGROVOC noxious animals

Definition
Any wild, exotic, or venomous animal or other animal which, because of its size, disposition, or other characteristic, would constitute a danger to persons or property.



×

data collection/reporting

العربيةجمع البيانات / تقارير
中文数据收集/报告
Français         collecte de données/déclarations
Русскийсбор данных/отчетность
Españolrecopilación de datos/informes
 
AGROVOC data collection

Definition
Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on targeted variables in an established system, which then enables one to answer relevant questions and evaluate outcomes. Reporting - the act of giving an official notification, for example about its accounts or activities.



×

decentralization

العربيةاللامركزية
中文权力下放
Français         décentralisation
Русскийдецентрализация
Españoldescentralización
 
AGROVOC decentralization

Definition
Decentralization refers to the transfer of authority from a central government to a sub-national entity. There are many ways in which a government may devolve power to the sub-national level - decentralization can be political, administrative, fiscal, or economic.



×

deep sea bed

العربيةقاع البحر العميق
中文深海海底
Français         fonds marins
Русскийглубоководное морское дно
Españolfondo marino profundo
 
AGROVOC ocean floor

Definition
The sea-bed and ocean floor and subsoil thereof beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. The area underneath the High Seas. (article 1 of the Law of the Sea)



×

desertification

العربيةالتصحر
中文荒漠化
Français         désertification
Русскийопустынивание
Españoldesertificación
 
AGROVOC desertification

Definition
Land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry subhumid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities.



×

diadromous fish

العربيةأسماك ثنائية المجال
中文海淡水洄游鱼类
Français         poissons diadromes
Русскийдиадромная/проходная рыба
Españolpeces diádromos
 
AGROVOC diadromous fishes

Definition
Diadromous is a general category describing fish that spend portions of their life cycles partially in fresh water and partially in salt water. These represent both anadromous and catadromous fish. Anadromous fishes spend most of their adult lives at sea, but return to fresh water to spawn.



×

disasters

العربيةكوارث
中文灾害
Français         catastrophe
Русскийстихийные бедствия
Españoldesastres
 
AGROVOC disasters; disaster risk management

Definition
Sudden, calamitous event that seriously disrupts the functioning of a community or society and causes human, material, and economic or environmental losses that exceed the community’s or society’s ability to cope using its own resources. Though often caused by nature, disasters can have human origins.



×

disinfection/disinfestation

العربيةتطهير
中文消毒/灭虫
Français         désinfection
Русскийдезинфекция/дезинсекция
Españoldesinfección/desinfestación
 
AGROVOC disinfection; pest control; pest control

Definition
Disinfection - the process of cleaning something using chemicals that kill bacteria and other organisms (very small living things) that cause disease. Disinfestation - physical or chemical process to destroy or remove small undesirable animal forms, particularly arthropods or rodents, present upon the person, clothing, or environment of an individual or domestic animals.



×

dispute settlement

العربيةتسوية المنازعات
中文争端解决
Français         règlement des différends
Русскийурегулирование споров
Españolsolución de controversias
 
AGROVOC dispute settlement

Definition
Relates to alternate dispute settlement mechanisms such as arbitration, mediation, conciliation, negotiation, enquiry, resort to agencies or arrangements, Alternative Dispute Resolution. It excludes judicial settlement of disputes, which is covered by keyword "special court/tribunal".



×

drainage/land reclamation

العربيةالصرف / استصلاح الأراضي
中文排水/土地围垦
Français         drainage/assèchement
Русскийдренаж/мелиорация
Españoldrenaje/bonificación
 
AGROVOC drainage; reclamation

Definition
Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area with excess of water. Land reclamation is the process of creating new land from the sea.




  E
×

early warning system/emergency intervention system

العربيةنظام الانذار المبكر /نظام التدخل في حالات الطوارئ
中文预警系统/紧急干预系统
Français         réseau d'alerte/intervention d'urgence
Русскийсистемы раннего предупреждения/системы оказания чрезвычайной помощи
Españolsistema de alerta rápida/sistema de intervención de emergencia
 
AGROVOC early warning systems

Definition
Early Warning System - Systems which predict or forecast the formation or movement of a potentially disastrous phenomenon which may develop into or cause a disaster, natural or otherwise. Emergency intervention system - a comprehensive management system which integrates the response to emergencies. This system provides the governance structure and the operational facilities to respond to emergencies.



×

ecofriendly products/ecofriendly processes

العربيةالمنتجات الصديقة للبيئة / عمليات صديقة للبيئة
中文生态友好的产品/生态友好型工艺
Français         éco-produits/processus écologique
Русскийэкологически чистые продукты/ экологически чистые процессы
Españoleco-productos/ecoprocesos
 
AGROVOC ecofriendly processes; sustainable products

Definition
Eco-friendly products or processes do not harm the environment whether in their production, use or disposal. They help preserve the environment by significantly reducing the pollution they could produce.



×

ecological production/organic production

العربيةالإنتاج الأيكولوجي / الانتاج العضوي
中文生态生产/有机生产
Français         production écologique/production biologique
Русскийэкологическое производство/органическое производство
Españolproducción ecológica/producción orgánica
 
AGROVOC ecological production

Definition
Relates to the organic form of production, i.e. without the use of chemical products and pesticides, and to biological and organic products.



×

economic/social/cultural rights

العربيةالحقوق الاقتصادية / الاجتماعية / الثقافية
中文经济/社会/文化权利
Français         droits économiques, sociaux et culturels
Русскийэкономические/социальные/ культурные права
Españolderechos económicos, sociales y culturales
 
AGROVOC economic rights; social rights; cultural rights

Definition
Economic, social and cultural rights include the rights to adequate food, to adequate housing, to education, to health, to social security, to take part in cultural life, to water and sanitation, and to work.



×

ecosystem conservation  

العربيةحفظ النظم الإيكولوجية
中文 生态系统保护
Français         préservation de l'écosystème
Русский охрана экосистем
Españolconservación de ecosistemas 
 
AGROVOC ecosystem conservation

Definition
Ecosystem refers to the variety of habitats and communities of different species that interact in a complex web of interdependent relationships. From an ecological standpoint, preservation is defined as maintaining an intact ecosystem so that it functions at the same level as it has historically. Preservation also commonly entails prohibiting any human use that could compromise ecosystem function.



×

education

العربيةتعليم
中文教育
Français         éducation
Русскийобразование
Españoleducación
 
AGROVOC education

Definition
The process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.



×

EEZ-Exclusive Economic Zone

العربيةالمنطقة الاقتصادية الخالصة
中文专属经济区
Français         ZEE-Zone Economique Exclusive
РусскийИЭЗ-исключительная экономическая зона
EspañolZEE-Zona Económica Exclusiva
 
AGROVOC exclusive economic zones

Definition
The Law of the Sea Convention establishes a special legal regime of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea and which shall not extend beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. Provisions may concern the right and duties of the coastal state in this zone (exploitation, exploration - for purposes of scientific research for instance - conservation and management of the natural resources/marine environment), the rights and duties of other states in this zone.



×

effluent waste water/discharge

العربيةمياه الصرف الصحي / تسرب
中文污水废水/排放
Français         eaux usées/déversement
Русскийсточные воды/сброс
Españolefluente de aguas residuales/vertido
 
AGROVOC liquid wastes; wastewater

Definition
Refers to liquid waste, including provisions regarding pollutants, effluent, waste water, waste water treatment, quality standards of receiving waters, waste water recycling. Includes sources of pollution not associated with a distinct discharge point, such as rainwater, runoff from agricultural lands, timber operations.



×

emissions

العربيةانبعاثات
中文排放
Français         émissions
Русскийвыбросы
Españolemisiones
 
AGROVOC emission

Definition
In the climate change context, emissions refer to the release of greenhouse gases and/or their precursors and aerosols into the atmosphere over a specified area and period of time.



×

emissions trading

العربيةتبادل حقوق إطلاق الانبعاثات
中文排放权交易
Français         échange de droits d'émission
Русскийторговля выбросами
Españolcomercio de emisiones
 
AGROVOC emissions trading

Definition
Emissions trading (also known as cap and trade) is a market-based approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants.



×

endangered species

العربيةالأنواع المهددة بالانقراض
中文濒危物种
Français         espèces menacées
Русскийисчезающие виды
Españolespecies en peligro
 
AGROVOC endangered species

Definition
An endangered species is a species of wild animal or plant that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.



×

energy conservation/energy production

العربيةالحفاظ على الطاقة / إنتاج الطاقة
中文节能/能源生产
Français         conservation de l'énergie/production de l'énergie
Русскийсохранение энергии/производство энергии
Españolconservación de energía/producción de energía
 
AGROVOC energy conservation; energy generation

Definition
Energy conservation is the effort made to reduce the consumption of energy by using less of an energy service. This can be achieved either by using energy more efficiently or by reducing the amount of service used. Energy generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.



×

enforcement/compliance

العربيةتطبيق / التزام
中文执法/遵守
Français         mise en application
Русскийправоприменение/соблюдение
Españolcumplimiento/aplicación
 
AGROVOC enforcement

Definition
Compliance: the state of conformity with regulatory requirements including, but not limited to, legislative provisions, regulations, rules, standards, and orders. Enforcement: actions taken to induce, encourage, or compel compliance with regulatory requirements.



×

environmental audit

العربيةالمراجعة البيئية
中文环境审计
Français         éco-audit
Русскийэкологическая экспертиза
Españolauditoría ambiental
 
AGROVOC environmental auditing

Definition
Environmental Audit is a management tool used to evaluate environmental performance.



×

environmental fees/charges

العربيةالرسوم البيئية / النفقات
中文环境费/收费
Français         droits/redevances relatives à l'environnement
Русскийэкологические сборы/платежи
Españoltarifas/cánones relativos al medio ambiente
 
AGROVOC environmental charges

Definition
Environmental charges are paid for the right to use the environment and the purpose for the implementation thereof is to avoid or decrease possible damages related to the use of natural resources, emission of pollutants into the environment and waste disposal.



×

environmental impact assessment

العربيةتقييم الأثر البيئي
中文环境影响评价
Français         étude d'impact sur environnement
Русскийоценка воздействия на окружающую среду 
Españolevaluación del impacto sobre el ambiente 
 
AGROVOC Environmental Impact Assessment

Definition
Environmental Impact Assessment is a process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development, taking into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse.



×

environmental planning

العربيةالتخطيط البيئي
中文环境规划
Français         planification environnementale
Русскийэкологическое планирование
Españolplanificación ambiental
 
AGROVOC environmental policies

Definition
All planning activities with the objective of preserving or enhancing environmental values or resources.



×

environmental security

العربيةالأمن البيئي
中文环境安全
Français         sécurité environnementale
Русскийэкологическая безопасность
Españolseguridad ambiental
 
AGROVOC environmental security

Definition
Environmental security can be interpreted broadly to cover any major ecological development that seriously threatens the welfare of human societies, even without increasing the likelihood of war. Such threats are posed by the panoply of environmental problems, which include depletion of the ozone layer, global warming, desertification, deforestation, and the loss of biodiversity, that are collectively referred to under the rubric "global change."



×

environmental standards

العربيةالمعايير البيئية
中文环保标准
Français         normes environnementales
Русскийэкологические стандарты
Españolnormas sobre calidad ambiental
 
AGROVOC environmental standards

Definition
Environmental standards are standards for materials, products and production processes to ensure that negative impacts on the environment are minimal or kept within certain limits.



×

equine-animals

العربيةالخيول
中文马科动物
Français         cheval
Русскийсемейство лошадиные
Españolequino
 
AGROVOC Equidae

Definition
Equine animal means any member of the family equidae, including, but not limited to, horses, ponies, mules, asses, and zebras.



×

equipment

العربيةمعدات
中文设备
Français         équipement
Русскийоборудование
Españolequipos
 
AGROVOC equipment

Definition
Tools, equipment and machinery to carry out farm operations efficiently from the viewpoint of financial and capital costs as well as social and environmental costs.



×

equity

العربيةإنصاف
中文公平
Français         équité
Русскийправо справедливости
Españolequidad
 
AGROVOC equity

Definition
Fairness of rights, distribution, and access. Depending on context, this can refer to resources, services, or power.



×

erosion

العربيةتعرية
中文水土流失
Français         érosion
Русскийэрозия
Españolerosión
 
AGROVOC erosion

Definition
The accelerated removal of topsoil from the land surface through water, wind and tillage.



×

exploration

العربيةاستكشاف
中文勘探
Français         exploration
Русскийгеологоразведка
Españolexploración
 
AGROVOC exploration

Definition
Exploration is the act of searching an area for the purpose of discovery of resources or information.



×

expropriation

العربيةمصادرة
中文征用
Français         expropriation
Русскийизъятие
Españolexpropiación
 
AGROVOC expropriation

Definition
Involuntary sale or transfer of land/property to the State or Government. Includes the procedures of expropriation, entitlements and determination of compensation etc.



×

ex-situ conservation

العربيةالحفظ خارج الموقع
中文迁地保护
Français         conservation ex situ
Русскийвнешняя консервация
Españolconservación ex-situ
 
AGROVOC ex-situ conservation

Definition
Ex situ conservation is the protection and maintenance of genetic resources outside their original environment.



×

extension

العربيةالإرشاد الزراعي
中文延期
Français         vulgarisation agricole
Русскийраспространение знаний
Españolextensión
 
AGROVOC agricultural extension

Definition
Technical field support. Extension services are one component of a government's (or agency's) plan to improve agricultural productivity through assistance and supervision.




  F
×

family farming

العربيةالزراعة الأُسرية
中文家庭农场
Français         agriculture familiale
Русскийсемейное фермерство
Españolagricultura familiar
 
AGROVOC family farming

Definition
Family farming includes all family-based agricultural activities, and it is linked to several areas of rural development. Family farming is a means of organizing agricultural, forestry, fisheries, pastoral and aquaculture production which is managed and operated by a family and predominantly reliant on family labour, including both women’s and men’s.



×

farmers' rights

العربيةحقوق المزارعين
中文农民的权利
Français         droits des cultivateurs
Русскийправа фермеров
Españolderechos del agricultor
 
AGROVOC farmers' rights

Definition
The protection of farmers’ rights includes the protection of traditional knowledge relevant to plant genetic resources, the right to equitably participate in sharing benefits arising from their utilization, and the right to participate in making decisions, at the national level, on matters related to their conservation and sustainable use (International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, art. 9).



×

farming

العربيةزراعة
中文耕作
Français         exploitation agricole
Русскийфермерство
Españolexplotación agrícola
 
AGROVOC farming systems

Definition
Techniques and requirements directed to cultivation and farming practices of specific crops. Methods compatible with the requirements of the protection of the environment and maintenance of the countryside.



×

federal state

العربيةدولة اتحادية
中文联邦州
Français         état fédéral
Русскийфедеративное государство
Españolestado federal
 
AGROVOC federations

Definition
A political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism).



×

feed additives

العربيةإضافات الأعلاف
中文饲料添加剂
Français         additif aux aliments des animaux
Русскийкормовые добавки
Españoladitivos de piensos
 
AGROVOC feed additives  

Definition
Any intentionally added ingredient not normally consumed as feed by itself, whether or not it has nutritional value, which affects the characteristics of feed or animal products.



×

fertilizers/nutrients

العربيةمخصبات / مغذيات
中文肥料/营养素
Français         engrais/nutriments
Русскийудобрения/питательные вещества
Españolfertilizantes/nutrientes
 
AGROVOC fertilizers; nutrients

Definition
Fertilizer: a substance that is used to provide nutrients to plants, usually via application to the soil, but also to foliage or through water in rice systems, fertigation, hydroponics or aquaculture operations. Nutrients: Elements essential for normal growth and reproduction of plants, generally not including carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.



×

fibre crops

العربيةمحاصيل أليَاف
中文纤维作物
Français         plantes à fibres
Русскийлубяные культуры
Españolplantas textiles
 
AGROVOC plant fibres; fibre crops; textile fibres

Definition
Fiber crops are plants that are deliberately grown for the production of fiber for textile (clothes), cordage (e.g., ropes), and filling (e.g., stuffing upholstery and mattresses).



×

financial agricultural measures

العربيةالتدابير المالية الزراعية
中文农业金融措施
Français         mesures financières agricoles
Русскиймеры по финансированию сельского хозяйства
Españolmedidas financieras agrícolas
 
AGROVOC agricultural credit

Definition
Measures that include the circulation of money, the granting of credit, the making of investments, and the provision of banking facilities in the agricultural sector.



×

financing

العربيةتمويل
中文融资
Français         financement
Русскийфинансирование
Españolfinanciamiento
 
AGROVOC financing

Definition
The act of obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise.



×

fiscal and market measures

العربيةالإجراءات المالية والسوقية
中文财政和市场措施
Français         mesures fiscales et de marché
Русскийфискальные и рыночные меры
Españolmedidas fiscales y de mercado
 
AGROVOC fiscal policies

Definition
Fiscal measures are policy instruments using government revenue collection (mainly taxes) and expenditure (spending) to influence the economy. Market measures are policy instruments that use markets, price, and other economic variables to provide incentives for producers and consumers.



×

fish diseases

العربيةأمراض الأسماك
中文鱼类疾病 
Français         maladie des poissons
Русскийболезни рыб
Españolenfermedades de los peces
 
AGROVOC fish diseases

Definition
Sign of fish disease include abnormalities and symptoms such as a fish not feeding, ulcers on the body, or cloudy eyes. The most common indicators of disease are fish coming to the surface and gasping for oxygen, or higher than usual levels of sickness or death in an aquaculture system.



×

fish products

العربيةمنتجات سمكية
中文鱼产品
Français         produits de la pêche
Русскийрыбная продукция
Españolproductos pesqueros
 
AGROVOC fish products

Definition
Refers to capture fisheries and aquaculture products, whether fresh, frozen, smoked, canned, or fishmeal.



×

fishery management and conservation

العربيةإدارة وحفظ مصايد الأسماك
中文渔业管理和保护
Français         gestion et conservation des pêches
Русскийуправление рыболовством и сохранение рыбных запасов
Españolmanejo y conservación pesquera
 
AGROVOC fishery management; sustainable fisheries

Definition
The integrated process of information gathering, analysis, planning, consultation, decision-making, allocation of resources and formulation and implementation, with enforcement as necessary, of regulations or rules which govern fisheries activities in order to ensure the continued productivity and sustainability of the resources and the accomplishment of other fisheries objectives.



×

fishing area

العربيةمنطقة الصيد
中文捕捞区
Français         zone de pêche
Русскийрыбопромысловый район
Españolzona de pesca
 
AGROVOC fishing areas

Definition
An area to which a specific regime for fishing applies. This regime may apply to a specific fisheries and may also generally restrict or prohibit fisheries.



×

fishing authorization

العربيةتصريح الصيد
中文捕捞授权
Français         autorisation de pêche
Русскийразрешение на промысел
Españolautorización de pesca
 
AGROVOC fishing authorizations

Definition
Appropriate licence, authorization or permit granted to engage in fishing or any related fisheries activity.



×

fishing charge

العربيةرسوم الصيد
中文捕捞费
Français         redevances de pêche
Русскийплатеж за рыбный промысел
Españolcánon de pesca
 
AGROVOC fishing licence fees

Definition
A charge related to authorizations or services provided by a public authority in relation to fisheries activities.



×

fishing gear/fishing method

العربيةمعدات الصيد / أسلوب صيد الأسماك
中文渔具/捕捞方法
Français         engins de pêche/méthodes de pêche
Русскийорудия лова/способы рыболовства
Españolaparejos de pesca/métodos de pesca
 
AGROVOC fishing gear; fishing methods

Definition
Any fishing device such as nets, lines, etc. (individual or collective). May also refer to the import, export, sale, possession of such gears. Provisions on fishing methods, such as the use of explosives or electricity, etc.



×

fishing vessel

العربيةمركب الصيد
中文渔船
Français         navire de pêche
Русскийрыболовное судно
Españolembarcación de pesca
 
AGROVOC fishing vessels

Definition
Any vessel used for fishing (including sport fishing) or for the storage, transhipment, refuelling or supplying of other fishing vessels. It also includes vessels processing fish at sea.



×

flood

العربيةفيضان
中文洪水
Français         inondation
Русскийнаводнение
Españolinundación
 
AGROVOC flooding

Definition
The overflowing of the normal confines of a stream or other body of water, or the accumulation of water over areas not normally submerged.



×

floriculture

العربيةزراعة الأزهار
中文花卉栽培
Français         floriculture
Русскийцветоводство
Españolfloricultura
 
AGROVOC floriculture

Definition
Relates to the cultivation of flowers.



×

food additives

العربيةمضافات غذائية
中文食品添加剂
Français         additifs alimentaires
Русскийпищевые добавки
Españoladitivos alimentarios
 
AGROVOC food additives

Definition
Food additive means any substance not normally consumed as a food by itself and not normally used as a typical ingredient of the food, whether or not it has nutritive value, the intentional addition of which to food for a technological (including organoleptic) purpose in the manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, packaging, transport or holding of such food results, or may be reasonably expected to result (directly or indirectly), in it or its by-products becoming a component of or otherwise affecting the characteristics of such foods. The term does not include contaminants or substances added to food for maintaining or improving nutritional qualities.



×

food assistance

العربيةمساعدة غذائية
中文粮食援助
Français         assistance alimentaire
Русскийпродовольственная помощь
Españolasistencia alimentaria
 
AGROVOC food assistance

Definition
Food assistance refers to the set of interventions designed to provide access to food to vulnerable and food insecure populations. Generally included are instruments like food transfers, vouchers and cash transfers to ensure access to food of a given quantity, quality or value.



×

food loss and waste

العربيةفقد الأغذية وهدرها 
中文粮食损失和浪费
Français         perte et gaspillage alimentaire
РусскийПищевые потери и отходы 
Españolpérdida y desperdicio de alimentos 
 
AGROVOC food wastes

Definition
Food loss and waste refer to the decrease in mass (quantitative) or nutritional value (qualitative) of food - edible parts - throughout the supply chain that was intended for human consumption. Food Loss refers to food that gets spilled, spoilt or otherwise lost, or incurs reduction of quality and value during its process in the food supply chain before it reaches its final product stage. Food loss typically takes place at production, post-harvest, processing, and distribution stages in the food supply chain. Food waste refers to food that completes the food supply chain up to a final product, of good quality and fit for consumption, but still doesn't get consumed because it is discarded, whether or not after it is left to spoil or expire. Food waste typically (but not exclusively) takes place at retail and consumption stages in the food supply chain.



×

food safety and quality

العربيةسلامة الأغذية وجودتها
中文食品安全与质量
Français         sécurité sanitaire et qualité des aliments
РусскийБезопасность и качество пищевых продуктов
EspañolInocuidad y calidad de los alimentos 
 
AGROVOC food quality; food safety

Definition
Food safety - Protecting the food supply from microbial, chemical (i.e. rancidity, browning) and physical (i.e. drying out, infestation) hazards or contamination that may occur during all stages of food production and handling-growing, harvesting, processing, transporting, preparing, distributing and storing. The goal of food safety monitoring is to keep food wholesome. Food quality is the inspection, analysis, and other relevant actions taken to provide control over what is being done, manufactured, or fabricated, so that a desirable level of quality is achieved and maintained.



×

food security

العربيةأمن غذائي
中文粮食安全
Français         sécurité alimentaire
Русскийпродовольственная безопасность
Españolseguridad alimentaria
 
AGROVOC food security; food shortages; food aid

Definition
A situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Based on the definition, four food security dimensions can be identified: food availability, economic and physical access to food, food utilization and stability over time.



×

food sovereignty

العربيةالسيادة الغذائية
中文粮食主权
Français         souveraineté alimentaire
Русскийпродовольственный суверенитет
Españolsoberanía alimentaria
 
AGROVOC food sovereignty

Definition
The right of people to define their own policies and strategies for the sustainable production, distribution and consumption of food, with respect for their own cultures and their own systems of managing natural resources and rural areas, and is considered to be a precondition for food security.



×

foreign fishing

العربيةصيد أجنبي
中文外国渔船
Français         pêche étrangère
Русскийрыбный промысел иностранными судами
Españolpesca por extranjeros
 
AGROVOC foreign fishing

Definition
Distant water fishing vessels or fishing vessels flying a foreign flag operating within the fishing zone of a coastal state.



×

foreign land tenure

العربيةملكية أجنبية للاراضي
中文国外土地占有制
Français         propriété étrangère
Русскийиностранное землепользование
Españolpropiedad de extranjeros
 
AGROVOC foreign land tenure

Definition
Provisions that regulate and/or restrict the ownership of land, or other rights to land, by foreigners, foreign organisations or foreign companies.



×

forest fires

العربيةحرائق الغابات
中文森林火灾
Français         feux de forêts
Русскийлесные пожары
Españolincendios forestales
 
AGROVOC forest fires

Definition
Forest-fires prevention and/or control, plans for forest-fire-prone zones, fire brigade, fire-breaks, watch-posts, regulation of authorised fires.



×

forest management/forest conservation

العربيةإدارة الغابات / حفظ الغابات
中文森林管理/森林保护
Français         gestion forestière/conservation des forêts
Русскийведение лесного хозяйства/сохранение лесов
Españolordenación forestal/conservación de montes
 
AGROVOC forest management; forest conservation

Definition
Forest conservation means all activities to preserve and rehabilitate forests, in particular activities designed to protect or restore the biological diversity and ecological functions of the forest ecosystem, while securing as far as possible their current and future value for mankind and in particular for forest-dependent people. Forest management means the management and use of forests and wooded lands in a way, and at a rate, that maintains their biological diversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and their potential to fulfill, now and in the future, relevant ecological, economic and social functions, at local, national, and global levels, without causing any damage to other ecosystems.



×

forest service

العربيةخدمة حرجية
中文森林服务
Français         service forestier 
Русскийлесная охрана 
Españolservicios forestales
 
AGROVOC forest service

Definition
Authorities in charge of forest management and conservation.



×

forest species

العربيةأنواع الغابات
中文森林物种
Français         essence forestière
Русскийлесные породы
Españolespecies forestales
 
AGROVOC forest types (by species composition)

Definition
A forest species is a species that forms part of a forest ecosystems or is dependent on a forest for part or all of its day-to-day living requirements or for its reproductive requirements. Therefore, an animal species may be considered a forest species even if it does not live most of its life in a forest.



×

forestry protection measures

العربيةإجراءات حماية الغابات
中文林业保护措施
Français         mesures de protection des forêts
Русскийлесозащитные меры
Españolmedidas de protección forestal
 
AGROVOC forest protection

Definition
Any action or measure aimed at prevention and control of damage to forests arising from human action/activity, wildlife, livestock, of pests and abiotic agents.



×

framework law

العربيةقانون إطاري
中文框架法律
Français         loi-cadre
Русскийрамочный закон
Españolley marco
 
AGROVOC legal frameworks

Definition
Framework laws are laws used to legislate on multisectoral matters in a consistent, coordinated and comprehensive fashion, laying down general principles and obligations while leaving the details to lower-level laws and giving the competent authorities the power to define the necessary measures within the framework established by law.



×

fraud/deceit/adulteration

العربيةالتزوير / الخداع / الغش
中文欺诈/欺骗/掺假
Français         fraude/adultération
Русскиймошенничество/обман/фальсификация
Españolfraude/engaño/adulteración
 
AGROVOC corruption; fraud; adulteration

Definition
Fraudulent practices involving food may be reduced to the following types of offenses: deceit, adulteration, sale of adulterated food and the sale of spoiled food or otherwise unfit for human consumption. Their common characteristic is that they imply in principle bad faith on the part of the person committing the offence.;Adulteration of food consists in its alteration with intent to deceive, e.g., the addition of unauthorized substances, the unlawful removal of nutritive principles or the substitution of ingredients (e.g., wine adulterated with methyl alcohol).



×

Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC)

العربيةالموافقة الحرة والمسبقة والمستنيرة
中文自由、事先和知情同意
Français         Le consentement préalable, donné librement et en connaissance de cause (CPLCC)
Русскийсвободное, предварительное и осознанное согласие
EspañolConsentimiento Libre, Previo e Informado (CLPI)
 
AGROVOC Free, Prior and Informed Consent

Definition
Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) is a specific right that pertains to indigenous peoples and is recognised in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP). It allows them to give or withhold consent to a project that may affect them or their territories. Once they have given their consent, they can withdraw it at any stage. Furthermore, FPIC enables them to negotiate the conditions under which the project will be designed, implemented, monitored and evaluated. This is also embedded within the universal right to self-determination.



×

freshwater fishes

العربيةأسماك المياه العذبة
中文淡水鱼
Français         poissons d'eau douce
Русскийпресноводные рыбы
Españolpeces de agua dulce
 
AGROVOC freshwater fishes

Definition
Carps, barbels and other cyprinids. Tilapia and other cichilds. Miscellaneous freshwater fishes.



×

freshwater quality/freshwater pollution

العربيةجودة المياه العذبة / تلوث المياه العذبة
中文淡水质量/淡水污染
Français         pollution des eaux douces/qualité des eaux douces
Русскийкачество пресных вод/загрязнение пресных вод
Españolcalidad de las aguas dulces/contaminación de las aguas dulces
 
AGROVOC water quality; water pollution

Definition
The quality of surface water in rivers and streams, lakes, ponds and wetlands is determined by interactions with soil, transported solids (organics, sediments), rocks, groundwater and the atmosphere. It may also be significantly affected by agricultural, industrial, mineral and energy extraction, urban and other human actions, as well as by atmospheric inputs.



×

fruits/edible nuts

العربيةالفاكهة والجوزيات
中文水果/食用坚果
Français         fruits/noix comestibles
Русскийфрукты/съедобные орехи
Españolfrutas/nueces comestibles
 
AGROVOC fruits; fruit trees; nut crops



×

fuelwood

العربيةحطب الوقود
中文薪材
Français         bois de chauffe
Русскийтопливная древесина
Españolleña
 
AGROVOC fuelwood

Definition
Wood in the rough (such as chips, sawdust and pellets) used for energy generation.




  G
×

game

العربيةحيوانات صيد / طرائد
中文猎物
Français         gibier
Русскийдичь
Españolanimal/carne de caza
 
AGROVOC game

Definition
Game is any animal hunted for sport or for food and the meat of those animals.



×

gender

العربيةجنس
中文性别
Français         genre
Русскийгендер
Españolgénero
 
AGROVOC gender

Definition
Refers to the social, economic and cultural roles and relations between women and men, taking into account their different access to and control over the resources, as well as their responsibilities in a given culture or location and in different population groups (children, aged people, ethnic groups, socio-economic, etc.)



×

genetic resources

العربيةالموارد الوراثية
中文遗传资源
Français         ressources génétiques
Русскийгенетические ресурсы
Españolrecursos genéticos
 
AGROVOC genetic resources

Definition
Genetic resources means genetic material of actual or potential value; genetic material means any material of plant, animal, microbial or other origin containing functional units of heredity.



×

GMO

العربيةكائنات محورة وراثياً
中文转基因生物
Français         OGM
РусскийГМО
EspañolOGM
 
AGROVOC genetically modified organisms

Definition
The modification of the genetic characteristics of a microorganism, plant or animal by inserting a modified gene or a gene from another variety or species.



×

good practices

العربيةالممارسات الجيدة
中文良好实践
Français         bonnes pratiques
Русскийпередовой опыт
Españolbuenas prácticas
 
AGROVOC good agricultural practices; good practices; good manufacturing practices

Definition
A good practice is a process or methodology that is ethical, fair, and replicable, has been shown to work well, succeeds in achieving its objective(s), and therefore can be recommended as a model.



×

governance

العربيةالإدارة
中文治理
Français         gouvernance
Русскийуправление
Españolgobernanza
 
AGROVOC governance

Definition
Governance refers to the complex mechanisms, processes, relationships and institutions through which authorities, citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their rights and obligations and mediate their differences.



×

grazing

العربيةالانتجاع
中文放牧
Français         pâturage
Русскийвыпас
Españolpastorear
 
AGROVOC grazing; transhumance

Definition
Grazing is land where farm animals feed on grass.



×

groundwater

العربيةالمياه الجوفية
中文地下水
Français         eaux souterraines
Русскийподземные воды
Españolaguas subterráneas
 
AGROVOC groundwater

Definition
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.




  H
×

HACCP

العربيةتحليل المخاطر ونقاط التحكم الحرجة
中文危害分析与关键控制点
Français         HACCP
РусскийHACCP
EspañolHACCP
 
AGROVOC HACCP

Definition
HACCP is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product.



×

harbour

العربيةميناء
中文港口
Français         port
Русскийпорт
Españolpuerto
 
AGROVOC harbours

Definition
A place on the coast where ships may moor in shelter, especially one protected from rough water by piers, jetties, and other artificial structures.



×

hazardous substances

العربيةمواد خطرة
中文有害物质
Français         substances dangereuses
Русскийопасные вещества
Españolsustancias peligrosas
 
AGROVOC toxic substances

Definition
A substance which by reason of its chemical or physical properties, and based on technical, scientific and medical evidence, is determined to cause, or likely to cause through its handling, harm to human health or the environment.



×

hazardous waste

العربيةمخلفات خطرة
中文危险废物
Français         déchets dangereux
Русскийопасные отходы
Españolresiduos peligrosos
 
AGROVOC hazardous wastes

Definition
Waste which is poisonous, corrosive, irritant, noxious, explosive, inflammable, toxic or harmful to the environment.



×

herd book

العربيةسجل القطيع
中文畜群登记/品种登记
Français         livre généalogique
Русскийплеменная книга
Españollibro genealógico
 
AGROVOC studbooks

Definition
A book recording the pedigrees of cattle, goats, or other livestock.



×

high seas

العربيةأعالي البحار
中文公海
Français         haute mer
Русскиймеждународные воды
Españolalta mar
 
AGROVOC high sea fisheries

Definition
All parts of the sea that are not included in the exclusive economic zone, in the territorial sea or in the internal waters of a State, or in the archipelagic waters of an archipelagic State (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, article 86).



×

hormones/steroids

العربيةالهرمونات / المنشطات
中文激素/类固醇
Français         hormones/stéroïdes
Русскийгормоны/стероиды
Españolhormonas/esteroides
 
AGROVOC hormones; steroid hormones

Definition
An artificial form of a natural chemical substance that is used for treating particular medical conditions, some of which may increase muscular development.



×

human rights

العربيةحقوق الإنسان
中文人权
Français         droits de l'homme
Русскийправа человека
Españolderechos humanos
 
AGROVOC human rights

Definition
Human rights are universal values and legal guarantees that protect individuals and groups against actions and omissions primarily by State agents that interfere with fundamental freedoms, entitlements and human dignity. The full spectrum of human rights involves respect for, and protection and fulfilment of, civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights, as well as the right to development. Human rights are universal— in other words, they belong inherently to all human beings—and are interdependent and indivisible.



×

hunting authorization/permit

العربيةترخيص الصيد / تصريح
中文狩猎授权/许可
Français         autorisation/permis de chasse
Русскийразрешение на охоту/охотничий билет
Españolautorización/permiso de caza
 
AGROVOC hunting licenses

Definition
An authorization to the bearer to hunt wild animals or game.



×

hunting authorization/permit fee

العربيةرسوم ترخيص الصيد / رسوم تصريح
中文狩猎授权/许可费用
Français         droit pour l'autorisation/permis de chasse
Русскийплата за разрешение на охоту/охотничий билет
Españoltarifas por autorización/permiso de caza
 
AGROVOC hunting permit fees

Definition
A charge related to authorizations or services provided by a public authority in relation to hunting activities.



×

hunting gear/hunting methods

العربيةمعدات الصيد / أساليب الصيد
中文猎捕工具/狩猎方法
Français         équipement de chasse/méthodes de chasse
Русскийохотничье снаряжение/способы охоты
Españolarmas de caza/métodos de caza
 
AGROVOC hunting gear; hunting methods

Definition
Tools, techniques, means, methods or equipment (modern or traditional) used to hunt.



×

hunting rights

العربيةحقوق الصيد
中文狩猎权
Français         droits de chasse
Русскийправо на охоту
Españolderechos de caza
 
AGROVOC hunting rights

Definition
Means a right/prerogative to hunt or allow the hunting of the wildlife on a land/area



×

hunting/capture

العربيةالصيد / القبض
中文狩猎/捕捉
Français         chasse/capture
Русскийохота/отлов
Españolcaza/captura
 
AGROVOC hunting; capture of animals

Definition
Activity designed for the capture of any wild game species, dead or alive.



×

hydropower generation

العربيةتوليد الطاقة الكهرمائية
中文水电发电
Français         production d'énergie hydroélectrique
Русскийпроизводство гидроэлектроэнергии
Españolproducción de energía hidroeléctrica
 
AGROVOC hydropower generation

Definition
Hydroelectric power, also called hydropower, electricity produced from generators driven by turbines that convert the potential energy of falling or fast-flowing water into mechanical energy.



×

hygiene/sanitary procedures

العربيةالنظافة / الإجراءات الصحية
中文卫生/卫生​​程序
Français         hygiène/procédures sanitaires
Русскийгигиена/санитарные меры
Españolhigiene/procedimientos sanitarios
 
AGROVOC hygiene; sanitation standard operating procedures

Definition
Relates to all measures necessary to ensure the safety and wholesomeness of animals/animal products and food. These measures cover all stages after primary production up to supply to the consumer.




  I
×

Illegal unreported and unregulated fishing (IUU fishing)

العربيةالصيد غير القانوني دون إبلاغ ودون تنظيم
中文非法、不报告和不管制(IUU)捕鱼
Français         Pêche illicite, non déclarée et non réglementée (INN)
РусскийНезаконный, несообщаемый и нерегулируемый (ННН) промысел
EspañolPesca ilegal, no declarada y no reglamentada (pesca INDNR)
 
AGROVOC illegal fishing

Definition
Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing is a broad term which includes: • Fishing and fishing-related activities conducted in contravention of national, regional and international laws. • Non-reporting, misreporting or under-reporting of information on fishing operations and their catches. • Fishing by “Stateless” vessels. • Fishing in convention areas of Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs) by non-party vessels. • Fishing activities which are not regulated by States and cannot be easily monitored and accounted for.


×

indigenous peoples

العربيةالشعوب الأصلية
中文土著人民
Français         peuples autochtones
Русскийкоренные народы
Españolpueblos indígenas
 
AGROVOC indigenous peoples

Definition
People whose ancestors inhabited a place or a country when persons from another culture or ethnic background arrived on the scene and dominated them through conquest, settlement, or other means and who today live more in conformity with their own social, economic, and cultural customs and traditions than those of the country of which they now form a part (also referred to as “native,” “aboriginal,” or “tribal” peoples).



×

industrial water use

العربيةاستخدام المياه الصناعية
中文工业用水
Français         eau à usage industriel
Русскийпромышленное водопользование
Españoluso industrial del agua
 
AGROVOC industrial water use

Definition
Water used for industrial purposes such as manufacturing, processing, washing, and cooling. Includes such industries as steel, chemical and allied products, paper and allied products, mining, and petroleum refining.



×

inheritance

العربيةتراث
中文遗产
Français         héritage
Русскийнаследование
Españolsucesión
 
AGROVOC inheritance (economics)

Definition
An estate or property which a person has by descent, as heir to another.



×

inland fisheries

العربيةمصايد الأسماك الداخلية
中文内陆渔业
Français         pêche continentale
Русскийвнутреннее рыболовство
Españolpesca continental
 
AGROVOC inland fisheries

Definition
Refers to freshwater or brackish water fisheries as opposed to marine fisheries.



×

inland waters

العربيةالمياه الداخلية
中文内陆水域
Français         eaux continentales
Русскийвнутренние воды
Españolaguas continentales
 
AGROVOC inland waters

Definition
Non-saline and brackish water bodies inland from the coastal zone.



×

innovation

العربيةابتكار
中文创新
Français         innovation
Русскийинновации
Españolinnovación

Definition
Innovations include the creation of new products and processes, the application of new products in other domains, or the enhancement of the routines and procedures associated with these applications.



×

insects

العربيةالحشرات
中文昆虫
Français         insectes
Русскийнасекомые
Españolinsectos
 
AGROVOC Insecta

Definition
A class of the Arthropoda typically having a segmented body with an external, chitinous covering, a pair of compound eyes, a pair of antennae, three pairs of mouthparts, and two pairs of wings.



×

inspection

العربيةتفتيش
中文检查
Français         inspection
Русскийинспекция
Españolinspección
 
AGROVOC inspection

Definition
Examination of a product design, product, process or installation and determination of its conformity with specific requirements or, on the basis of professional judgement, with general requirement.



×

institution

العربيةمؤسسة
中文机构
Français         institution
Русскийучреждение
Españolinstitución
 
AGROVOC institutions

Definition
A structure of social order governing the behaviour of a set of individuals and that shape human interactions by serving collectively valued goals. The term includes formal institutions (e.g. public institutions, non-governmental and private organizations, training and educational institutions such as universities and research institutes) and informal institutions (e.g. village committees, community groups, farmer groups). Informational institutions are in the forefront of organic agriculture development.



×

integrated management

العربيةإدارة متكاملة
中文综合管理
Français         gestion intégrée
Русскийкомплексное управление
Españolmanejo integrado
 
AGROVOC integrated management

Definition
A continuous process through which decisions are made for the sustainable use, development, and protection of areas and resources. Integrated management acknowledges the relationships that exist among different uses and the environments they potentially affect. It is designed to overcome the fragmentation inherent in a sectoral approach, analyses the implications of development, conflicting uses, and promotes linkages and harmonization among various activities.



×

integrated pest management-IPM/pest management strategies

العربيةالمكافحة المتكاملة للآفات / استراتيجيات إدارة الآفات
中文综合虫害管理-IPM /虫害治理策略
Français         gestion intégrée du risque phytosanitaire/stratégie phytosanitaire
Русскийинтегрированное управление пестицидами ИУП/стратегии борьбы с вредителями
Españolmanejo integrado de plagas/estrategias de manejo de plagas
 
AGROVOC Integrated Pest Management; pest management

Definition
A strategy for the management or eradication of a particular pest or pests. Integrated Pest Management is defined as a combination of processes where the use of chemical plant protection products is limited to the necessary minimum, and priority consideration given to biological and biotechnological measures, as well as to other cropping and growth technologies. Relates to plant protection programmes and integrated pest control/management strategies at the national, regional or territorial level, as well as to plant protection barriers, plant protection coordination and advisory bodies.



×

intellectual property rights

العربيةحقوق الملكية الفكرية
中文 知识产权
Français         droits de propriété intellectuelle
Русскийправа интеллектуальной собственности
Españolderechos de propiedad intelectual
 
AGROVOC intellectual property rights; patents

Definition
Intellectual property rights allow the creators – or owners of patents, trademarks or copyrighted works – to benefit from their own work or investment in a creation.



×

internal trade

العربيةتجارة داخلية
中文国内贸易
Français         commerce intérieur
Русскийвнутренняя торговля
Españolcomercio interior
 
AGROVOC trade

Definition
The exchange of domestic goods and services within the boundaries of a country.



×

international agreement-implementation

العربيةاتفاق دولي- التنفيذ
中文国际协议-实施
Français         accord international-mise en oeuvre
Русскиймеждународный договор-имплементация
Españolacuerdo internacional-implementación
 
AGROVOC international agreements

Definition
Use for every national text that puts an international agreement into effect. For some countries, international agreements have no effect in national law unless they are explicitly transformed into a law by the national legislation.



×

international agreement-text

العربيةاتفاق دولي - النص
中文国际协议-文本
Français         accord international-texte
Русскиймеждународный договор - текст
Españolacuerdo internacional-texto
 
AGROVOC international agreements

Definition
Used exclusively to classify texts of international agreements, either separate or as part of national legislation. May also refer to agreements to which both States and international organizations are party.



×

international cooperation

العربيةالتعاون الدولي 
中文 国际合作
Français         coopération internationale 
Русскиймеждународное сотрудничество
Españolcooperación internacional 
 
AGROVOC international cooperation; international relations

Definition
International cooperation refers to processes of policy coordination by which states and other entities (such as multinational corporations or nongovernmental organizations) adjust their behavior to the actual or anticipated preferences of other States, or of entities based in other countries.



×

international organization

العربيةمنظمة دولية
中文国际组织
Français         organisation internationale
Русскиймеждународная организация
Españolorganización internacional
 
AGROVOC international organizations

Definition
Includes any bilateral, subregional, regional, multilateral or global organizations. Includes also regional fisheries commissions.



×

international trade

العربيةتجارة دولية
中文国际贸易
Français         commerce international
Русскиймеждународная торговля
Españolcomercio internacional
 
AGROVOC international trade

Definition
International trade is the exchange of goods and services between countries.



×

invasive alien species  

العربيةالأنواع الغريبة الغازية
中文 外来入侵物种
Français         espèces exotiques envahissantes
Русскийчужеродные виды
Españolespecies exóticas invasoras 
 
AGROVOC introduced species

Definition
Invasive alien species are plants, animals, pathogens and other organisms that are non-native to an ecosystem, and which may cause economic or environmental harm or adversely affect human health. In particular, they impact adversely upon biodiversity, including decline or elimination of native species - through competition, predation, or transmission of pathogens - and the disruption of local ecosystems and ecosystem functions.



×

inventory

العربيةجرد
中文森林资源清查
Français         inventaire
Русскийтаксация/подсчет/кадастр
Españolinventarios
 
AGROVOC surveys

Definition
An itemized list of current assets, resources, goods or materials.



×

irrigation

العربيةري
中文灌溉
Français         irrigation
Русскийорошение
Españolirrigación
 
AGROVOC irrigation

Definition
Artificial application of water to assist in the growing of crops (and pastures).




  J
×

jurisdiction

العربيةالاختصاص القضائي
中文管辖权
Français         juridiction 
Русскийюрисдикция
Españoljurisdiccion
 
AGROVOC jurisdiction

Definition
Power or right of a legal or political agency to exercise its authority over a person, subject matter, or territory.




  L
×

labour

العربيةعمالة
中文劳动力
Français         travail
Русскийтруд
Españoltrabajo
 
AGROVOC labour

Definition
Human beings as factors of production. The labour supply consists of all those able and willing to work, including the self-employed and unemployed as well as employed workers. On a farm, usually it is broadly classified into operator's labour, family labour and hired labour.



×

land based credit

العربيةرهن
中文以土地为基础的信用
Français         crédit hypothécaire
Русскийземельная ипотека
Españolcrédito hipotecario
 
AGROVOC collateral (land)

Definition
Credit or loan in which an immovable property is used as a guarantee for the repayment. Mortgages, hypothecation, liens, etc.



×

land clearing

العربيةتمهيد الأراضي
中文土地清理
Français         défrichement
Русскийрасчистка земель
Españolroza
 
AGROVOC land clearing

Definition
Land clearing is the removal of native vegetation for agricultural purposes and other developmental projects.



×

land commission

العربيةاللجنة العقارية
中文土地委员会
Français         commission foncière
Русскийземельная комиссия
Españolcomisión de tierras
 
AGROVOC land commissions

Definition
These are formally-constituted bodies that investigate land-related issues, or implement some aspect of land policy, such as adjudication.



×

land consolidation

العربيةتجميع الأراضى
中文土地的合并集中
Français         aménagement foncier
Русскийконсолидация земель
Españolconcentración parcelaria
 
AGROVOC land consolidation

Definition
Type of land reform whereby parcels of land are reshaped and/or redistributed to achieve a more efficient (agricultural) use. Including re-allotment.



×

land reform

العربيةإصلاح الأراضي
中文土地改革
Français         réforme agraire
Русскийземельная реформа
Españolreforma agraria
 
AGROVOC land reform

Definition
The redistribution of land to the rural poor for equity and agricultural efficiency purposes.



×

land subdivision

العربيةتخصيص الأراضي
中文土地划拨
Français         allocation des terres
Русскийраздел земельных участков
Españolsubdivisión de tierras
 
AGROVOC land subdivision

Definition
Refers to the splitting up of land into usable or buildable plots. Includes partition of land for the purpose of selling or planning.



×

land tenure

العربيةحيازة الأراضي
中文土地占有制
Français         régime foncier
Русскийземлепользование
Españoltenencia de tierras
 
AGROVOC land tenure

Definition
Land tenure refers to the relationship (whether defined under formal de jure law or under customary law) that individuals and groups hold with respect to land and related resources. Land tenure rules define the ways in which property rights to land are allocated, transferred, used, or managed in a particular society. For our purposes, land is used here to include most fixed natural resources associated with land (e.g., trees, minerals, pasture, water); in essence, all land-based resources.



×

land valuation

العربيةتقييم الأراضي
中文土地估价
Français         évaluation foncière
Русскийоценка земель
Españolvaloración de tierras
 
AGROVOC land evaluation

Definition
Assessment of value of land for taxation purposes, valuers' committees, compensation for expropriation.



×

landing

العربيةهبوط
中文卸鱼
Français         débarquement
Русскийвыгрузка
Españoldesembarco
 
AGROVOC landing

Definition
The movement of fish and fishery products in any form from a vessel to dockside in a port or free-trade zone, even if subsequently transferred to another vessel.



×

land-use planning

العربيةتخطيط استعمالات الأراضي
中文土地利用规划
Français         planification territoriale
Русскийпланирование землепользования/территориальное планирование
Españolmanejo de tierras
 
AGROVOC land use planning

Definition
The systematic assessment of land and water potential, alternative patterns of land use and other physical, social and economic conditions, for the purpose of selecting and adopting the land-use options that are the most beneficial to land users without degrading the resources or the environment, together with the selection of measures most likely to encourage such land uses.



×

lease

العربيةالإيجار
中文租赁
Français         location
Русскийаренда
Españolarrendamiento
 
AGROVOC leases

Definition
A contract granting use or occupation of property during a specified period in exchange for a specified rent.



×

legal proceedings/administrative proceedings

العربيةإجراءات قانونية / إجراءات إدارية
中文法律诉讼/行政诉讼
Français         procédures judiciaires/procédures administratives
Русскийсудопроизводство/административное производство
Españolprocedimientos judiciales/procedimientos administrativos
 
AGROVOC legal proceedings

Definition
An administrative proceeding is a non-judicial determination of fault or wrongdoing and may include, in some cases, penalties of various forms. They are typically conducted by government or military institutions. Legal proceeding: Action or procedure instituted in a court of law to acquire a benefit, interest, or right or to enforce a remedy.



×

less favoured areas

العربيةمناطق أقل حظا
中文处境较差的地区
Français         aires défavorisées
Русскийменее благоприятные районы
Españoláreas deprimidas
 
AGROVOC less favoured areas

Definition
Less-favoured area (LFA) is a term used to describe an area with natural handicaps (lack of water, climate, short crop season and tendencies of depopulation), or that is mountainous or hilly, as defined by its altitude and slope.



×

liability/compensation

العربيةمسؤولية / تعويض
中文责任/补偿
Français         responsabilité/indemnisation
Русскийответственность/компенсация
Españolresponsabilidad/indemnización
 
AGROVOC liability; compensation

Definition
Liability - A comprehensive legal term that describes the condition of being actually or potentially subject to a legal obligation. Compensation is the the act or state of compensating, as by rewarding someone for service or by making up for someone's loss, damage, or injury by giving the injured party an appropriate benefit.



×

livestock water use

Français         utilisation de l'eau par le bétail
Русскийводопользование для нужд животноводства
Españoluso de agua para ganado
 
AGROVOC livestock water use

Definition
Livestock water use is water associated with livestock watering, feedlots, dairy operations, and other on-farm needs. Livestock includes dairy cows and heifers, beef cattle and calves, sheep and lambs, goats, hogs and pigs, horses, and poultry. Other livestock water uses include cooling of facilities for the animals and products, dairy sanitation and wash down of facilities, animal waste-disposal systems, and incidental water losses. The livestock category excludes on-farm domestic use, lawn and garden watering, and irrigation water use.



×

local government

العربيةحكومة محلية
中文地方政府
Français         collectivité locale
Русскийместное самоуправление
Españolgobierno local
 
AGROVOC local government

Definition
Level of administration below the national government within a particular sovereign state, geographically localised and with limited powers (e.g. county councils, borough councils, municipalities, departments, districts).




  M
×

management/conservation

العربيةإدارة / حفظ
中文管理/保护
Français         gestion/conservation
Русскийуправление/сохранение
Españolordenación/conservación
 
AGROVOC management; conservation agriculture

Definition
Any kind of provision and measure for the management and conservation of natural resources, e.g. forests, protected areas, coastal resources.



×

mariculture

العربيةتربية الأحياء البحرية
中文海水养殖
Français         mariculture
Русскиймарикультура
Españolmarinocultura
 
AGROVOC mariculture

Definition
Cultivation, management and harvesting of marine organisms in the sea, in specially constructed rearing facilities e.g. cages, pens and long-lines.



×

marine area

العربيةمنطقة بحرية
中文海洋区域
Français         aire marine
Русскийморской район
Españolárea marina
 
AGROVOC marine areas

Definition
Area relating to or found in the sea.;



×

marine fisheries

العربيةمصايد الأسماك البحرية
中文海洋渔业
Français         pêche maritime
Русскийморское рыболовство
Españolpesca marítima
 
AGROVOC marine fisheries

Definition
The industry or occupation devoted to the catching, harvesting, processing, or selling of fish, shellfish, or other aquatic animals in marine areas.



×

marine fishes

العربيةأسماك بحرية
中文海洋鱼类
Français         poissons marins
Русскийморские рыбы
Españolpeces marinos
 
AGROVOC saltwater fishes

Definition
Marine fishes are the fishes that live in ocean water.



×

marine mammals

العربيةالثديات البحرية
中文海洋哺乳动物
Français         mammifères marins
Русскийморские млекопитающие
Españolmamíferos marinos
 
AGROVOC aquatic mammals

Definition
Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.



×

marine pollution

العربيةالتلوث البحري
中文海洋污染
Français         pollution de la mer
Русскийзагрязнение морской среды
Españolcontaminación marina
 
AGROVOC sea pollution

Definition
Provisions on the protection of (or prohibitions concerning) the marine environment from pollution.



×

marine protected areas

العربيةالمناطق البحرية المحمية
中文海洋保护区
Français         zones marines protégées
Русскийморские особо охраняемые природные территории
Españoláreas marinas protegidas
 
AGROVOC marine protected areas

Definition
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) involve the protective management of natural marine areas according to pre-defined management objectives. MPAs can be conserved for a number of reasons including economic resources, biodiversity conservation, and species protection. They are created by delineating zones with permitted and non-permitted uses within that zone.



×

maritime zone

العربيةالمنطقة البحرية
中文海洋带
Français         zone marine
Русскийморская зона
Españolzona marítima
 
AGROVOC maritime zones

Definition
The maritime zones recognized under international law include internal waters, the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone, the continental shelf, the high seas and the Area. With the exception of the high seas and the Area, each of these maritime zones is measured from the baseline determined in accordance with customary international law as reflected in the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention.



×

marking/identification

العربيةوسم / تعريف
中文打标/识别
Français         marquage/identificacion
Русскиймаркировка/идентификация
Españolmarcado/identificación
 
AGROVOC marking

Definition
Application of marks, ear tags or other means of identification to animals. Tree marking for specific purposes (trade, sale, harvest).



×

meat

العربيةلحوم
中文
Français         viande
Русскиймясо
Españolcarne
 
AGROVOC meat

Definition
The flesh of animals (including fishes and birds and snails) used as food.



×

medicinal plants

العربيةنباتات طبية
中文药用植物
Français         plantes médicinales
РусскийЛека́рственные расте́ния
Españolplantas medicinales
 
AGROVOC medicinal plants

Definition
Any plant whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or plant part is used for therapeutic, tonic, purgative, or other health-promoting purposes.



×

mesh

العربيةشبكة
中文捕捞网网孔
Français         maillage
Русскийячейка сети
Españolmallas
 
AGROVOC fishing nets

Definition
Refers to provisions regulating the size of a fishing net mesh and the method by which it shall be measured.



×

migration

العربيةهجرة
中文迁徙
Français         migration
Русскиймиграция
Españolmigración
 
AGROVOC migration

Definition
The movement of a person or a group of persons, either across an international border, or within a State. It is a population movement, encompassing any kind of movement of people, whatever its length, composition and causes; it includes migration of refugees, displaced persons, economic migrants, and persons moving for other purposes, including family reunification (IOM, 2011).



×

migratory species

العربيةأنواع مهاجرة
中文迁徙物种
Français         espèces migratoires
Русскиймигрирующие виды
Españolespecies migratorias
 
AGROVOC animal migration

Definition
Any species or lower taxon of wild animals, in which a significant proportion of the members of the entire population or any geographically separate part of the population cyclically and predictably crosses one or more national jurisdictional boundaries.



×

milk/dairy products

العربيةحليب / منتجات الألبان
中文奶/乳制品
Français         lait/produits laitiers
Русскиймолоко/молочная продукция
Españolleche/productos lácteos
 
AGROVOC milk products

Definition
Dairy products or milk products are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals. They are primarily produced from mammals such as cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels and humans. Dairy products include food items such as yogurt, cheese and butter.



×

mineral water

العربيةالمياه المعدنية
中文矿泉水
Français         eau minérale
Españolagua mineral
 
AGROVOC mineral waters

Definition
Water from a mineral spring that contains various minerals, such as salts and sulfur compounds.



×

minerals

العربيةمعادن
中文矿物质
Français         minéraux
Русскийминералы
Españolminerales
 
AGROVOC minerals

Definition
A naturally occurring, inorganic, solid, crystalline substance which has a fixed structure and a chemical composition which is either fixed or which may vary within certain defined limits.



×

mining

العربيةتعدين
中文采矿(业)
Français         exploitation minière
Русскийразработка полезных ископаемых
Españolminería
 
AGROVOC mining

Definition
The extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.



×

molluscs

العربيةرخويات
中文软体动物
Français         mollusques
Русскиймоллюски
Españolmoluscos
 
AGROVOC Mollusca

Definition
Class of animals with soft bodies (and often hard shells), e.g. oysters, mussels, cuttlefish, snails, slugs.



×

monitoring

العربيةالمراقبة
中文监控
Français         monitorage
Русскиймониторинг
Españolmonitoreo
 
AGROVOC monitoring

Definition
Monitoring is a periodically recurring task already beginning in the planning stage of a project or programme. Monitoring allows results, processes and experiences to be documented and used as a basis to steer decision-making and learning processes. Monitoring is checking progress against plans. The data acquired through monitoring is used for evaluation.;



×

mountain area

العربيةامنطقة جبلية
中文山区
Français         zone de montagne
Русскийгорный район
Españolzona de montaña
 
AGROVOC highlands

Definition
Land area that rises prominently above its surroundings, generally exhibiting steep slopes, a relatively confined summit area, and considerable local relief. Mountains generally are understood to be larger than hills, but the term has no standardized geological meaning.



×

MRL-maximum residue limit

العربيةالحدود القصوى للمخلفات
中文MRL-最大残留限量
Français         limite maximum de résidu
Русскийпредельно допустимая концентрация (ПДК)
Españollímite máximo de residuos
 
AGROVOC maximum residue limits

Definition
The maximum concentration of residue resulting from the use of a veterinary drug or a pesticide that is recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted or recognized as acceptable in or on a food.




  N
×

national parks

العربيةمتنزهات وطنية
中文国家公园
Français         parcs nationaux
Русскийнациональные парки
Españolparques nacionales
 
AGROVOC national parks

Definition
Protected area managed mainly for ecosystem protection and recreation. National parks are relatively large areas, which contain representative samples of major natural regions, features or scenery, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites, and habitats are of special scientific, educational and recreational interest. The area is managed and developed so as to sustain recreation and educational activities on a controlled basis. The area and visitors ‘use are managed at a level which maintains the area in a natural or semi-natural state.



×

natural gas

العربيةغاز طبيعي
中文天然气
Français         gaz naturel
Русскийприродный газ
Españolgas natural
 
AGROVOC natural gas

Definition
Flammable gas, consisting largely of methane and other hydrocarbons, occurring naturally underground (often in association with petroleum) and used as fuel.



×

navigation

العربيةملاحة
中文航行
Français         navigation
Русскийсудоходство
Españolnavegación
 
AGROVOC navigation

Definition
Right/freedom of navigation, innocent/transit passage, including ports and harbours navigation regulations.



×

noise pollution

العربيةتلوث ضوضائي
中文噪音污染
Français         pollution sonore (de l'environnement)
Русскийшумовое загрязнение
Españolcontaminación acústica
 
AGROVOC noise

Definition
Pollution generating from harmful or unwanted sounds.



×

non-commercial fishing

العربيةصيد غير تجاري
中文非商业捕鱼
Français         pêche non-commerciale
Русскийнекоммерческое рыболовство
Españolpesca no-comercial
 
AGROVOC sport fishing

Definition
Includes recreational, sport, non-commercial and self-supporting fishing.



×

non-edible products

العربيةمنتجات غير صالحة للاكل
中文非食用产品
Français         produits non commestibles
Русскийнесъедобная продукция
Españolproductos no comestibles
 
AGROVOC non food products

Definition
Includes: animal by-products, animal products industry, wool, feathers, leather.



×

non-governmental entity

العربيةهيئة غير حكومية
中文非政府机构
Français         entité non-gouvernementale
Русскийнеправительственная организация
Españolentidad no gubernamental
 
AGROVOC nongovernmental organizations

Definition
Any organization, commercial or non-commercial, which is independent from government, such as associations, companies, joint ventures, users' organizations.



×

non-wood forest products 

العربيةﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺟﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺒﻴﺔ
中文非木材林产品
Français         produit forestier non ligneux
Русскийнедревесная лесная продукция
Españolproductos forestales no madereros
 
AGROVOC nonwood forest products

Definition
Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are any product or service other than timber that is produced in forests. They include fruits and nuts, vegetables, fish and game, medicinal plants, resins, essences and a range of barks and fibres such as bamboo, rattans, and a host of other palms and grasses.



×

novel food

العربيةالمواد الغذائية الجديدة
中文新型食品
Français         aliment nouveau
Русскийновые пищевые продукты
Españolproductos alimenticios nuevos
 
AGROVOC novel foods

Definition
Novel food is defined as a type of food that does not have a significant history of consumption or is produced by a method that has not previously been used for food.



×

nuclear energy

العربيةطاقة نووية
中文核能
Français         énergie nucléaire
Русскийатомная энергия
Españolenergía nuclear
 
AGROVOC nuclear energy

Definition
Energy released by reactions within atomic nuclei, as in nuclear fission or fusion.



×

nutrition

العربيةتغذية
中文营养
Français         nutrition
Русскийпитание
Españolnutrición
 
AGROVOC nutrition

Definition
The intake of food, and the interplay of biological, social, and economic processes that influence the growth, function and repair of the body.




  O
×

offences/penalties

العربيةالمخالفات / العقوبات
中文违反法律规定/处罚或制裁
Français         infractions/sanctions
Русскийправонарушения/меры наказания
Españolinfracciones/sanciones
 
AGROVOC penalties; offences

Definition
Any kind of violation of the provisions provided for by law. Penalties/sanctions for any kind of violation of the provisions provided for by law.



×

oil

العربيةنفط
中文石油
Français         hydrocarbures
Русскийнефть
Españolhidrocarburos
 
AGROVOC oil products

Definition
A viscous liquid derived from petroleum, especially for use as a fuel or lubricant.



×

oil pollution

العربيةتلوث نفطي
中文石油污染
Français         pollution par les hydrocarbures
Русскийзагрязнение нефтепродуктами
Españolcontaminación oleosa
 
AGROVOC oil pollution

Definition
Contamination of any ecosystem, but usually of freshwater or marine ecosystems, by oil or other petroleum products.



×

oils/oilseeds/fats

العربيةالزيوت / البذور الزيتية / الدهون
中文油/油籽/脂肪
Français         huiles/oléagineux/graisses
Русскийрастительные масла/семена масличных культур/жиры
Españolaceites/semillas oleaginosas/grasas
 
AGROVOC oils; oilseeds; fats

Definition
Includes cottonseed, flaxseed, peanuts, soybeans, sunflower, peppermint and spearmint, mint oil and olive oil, fats and oils.



×

oleaginous plants

العربيةالنباتات الزيتية
中文含油植物
Français         plantes oléagineuses
Русскиймасличные растения
Españolplantas oleaginosas
 
AGROVOC oil crops; plant oils

Definition
a plant from which vegetable oil can be extracted from the fruit or seeds.



×

organic waste

العربيةالنفايات العضوية
中文有机废物
Français         déchets organiques
Русскийорганические отходы
Españoldesechos orgánicos
 
AGROVOC organic wastes

Definition
Waste of a biological origin such as paper and cardboard, food, green and garden waste, animal waste and biosolids and sludges.



×

outer space

العربيةالفضاء الخارجي
中文外太空
Français         espace extra-atmosphérique
Русскийкосмическое пространство
Españolespacio exterior
 
AGROVOC outer space

Definition
The physical universe beyond the earth's atmosphere.



×

ownership

العربيةملكية
中文所有权
Français         propriété
Русскийвладение
Españolpropiedad
 
AGROVOC ownership

Definition
Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over property, which may be any asset, including an object, land or real estate, intellectual property.



×

ozone layer

العربيةطبقة الاوزون
中文臭氧层
Français         couche d'ozone
Русскийозоновый слой
Españolcapa de ozono
 
AGROVOC ozone layer

Definition
The layer of ozone in the atmosphere between 20 and 50 km above the surface of the Earth.




  P
×

packaging/labelling

العربيةالتعبئة والتغليف / الوسم
中文包装/标签
Français         emballage/étiquetage
Русскийупаковка/маркировка
Españolenvasado/etiquetado
 
AGROVOC packaging; product labelling

Definition
Refers to all aspects required by law with respect to packaging/re-packaging and labelling, such as: full details of product identification, composition, safety precaution, storage, instructions and summary of uses, warnings, provisions on packaging/recycling, etc.



×

pastoralism

العربيةالرعي
中文放牧
Français         pastoralisme
Русскийпастбищное животноводство
Españolpastoreo
 
AGROVOC pastoralism

Definition
Pastoralism refers to livestock-based livelihood and food systems relying on seasonal mobility of animals and people within and across borders.



×

payments for ecosystem services/ payment for environmental services (PES)

العربيةالدفع مقابل خدمات النظم الإيكولوجية / الدفع مقابل الخدمات البيئية
中文生态系统服务补偿/环境服务付费
Français         rémunération des services des écosystèmes/Paiement des services environnementaux
Русскийплата за экосистемные услуги/плата за экологические услуги
Españolpago por servicios ecosistémicos/pago por servicios ambientales
 
AGROVOC payments for ecosystem services

Definition
Payments for ecosystem services (PES) occur when a beneficiary or user of an ecosystem service makes a direct or indirect payment to the provider of that service. The idea is that whoever preserves or maintains an ecosystem service should be paid for doing so.



×

pesticides

العربيةالمبيدات
中文农药
Français         pesticides
Русскийпестициды
Españolplaguicidas
 
AGROVOC pesticides

Definition
Any substance intended for preventing, destroying, attracting, repelling, or controlling any pest including unwanted species of plants or animals during the production, storage, transport, distribution and processing of food, agricultural commodities, or animal feeds or which may be administered to animals for the control of ectoparasites.



×

pests/diseases

العربيةالآفات / الأمراض
中文虫害/疾病
Français         parasites/maladies
Русскийвредители/болезни
Españolplagas/enfermedades
 
AGROVOC pests; diseases

Definition
Pests are destructive insects or other animals that attacks crops, food, livestock, etc. Disease is a deviation from the state of complete physical or social well-being of an organism involving a well-defined set of symptoms and etiology, and leading to an impairment of its normal function.



×

PIC-prior informed consent

العربيةالموافقة المسبقة عن علم
中文PIC-事先知情同意
Français         ICP-information et consentement préalables
РусскийПОС-предварительно обоснованное согласие
EspañolICP-procedimiento de información y consentimiento previos
 
AGROVOC prior informed consent

Definition
In the context of Access Benefit Sharing and the Nagoya Protocol, PIC refers to the administrative permit given by the competent national authority of a provider country to a user, prior to accessing genetic resources. In the context of the Rotterdam Convention, a PIC procedure is established to ensure that restricted hazardous chemicals are not exported to countries that do not wish to receive them.



×

plant production

العربيةانتاج نباتي
中文工厂的生产
Français         production végétale
Русскийрастениеводство
Españolproducción vegetal
 
AGROVOC crop production

Definition
The plant production system encompassing the basic genetic and physiological regulations on plant growth, the impact on growth of soil, water, nutrients, disease and pests and the influence of management processes.



×

plant protection

العربيةحماية النبات
中文植物保护
Français         protection des végétaux
Русскийзащита растений
Españolprotección vegetal
 
AGROVOC plant protection

Definition
Preventing, destroying or controlling any pest causing harm during or otherwise interfering with the production, processing, storage, transport or marketing of food, agricultural commodities, wood and wood products.



×

plant variety

العربيةتنوع النباتات
中文植物品种
Français         variété végétale
Русскийсорта растений
Españolvariedad vegetal
 
AGROVOC varieties 

Definition
A plant grouping, within a single botanical taxon of the lowest known rank, defined by the reproducible expression of its distinguishing and other genetic characteristics. A variety may be represented by seed, transplants, plants, tubers, tissue culture plantlets, and other forms.



×

planting material/seeds

العربيةمواد / بذور الغرس
中文种植材料/种子
Français         matériel de reproduction/semences
Русскийпосадочный материал/семена
Españolmateriales de propagación/semillas
 
AGROVOC seed

Definition
Planting material means any part of the plant that can be used for reproduction. Seeds - the unit of reproduction of a flowering plant, capable of developing into another such plant.



×

plastic

العربيةالبلاستيك
中文塑料
Français         plastique
Русскийпластик
Españolplástico
 
AGROVOC plastics

Definition
A synthetic material made from a wide range of organic polymers.



×

policy/planning

العربيةسياسة / تخطيط
中文政策/计划
Français         politique/planification
Русскийполитика/планирование
Españolpolítica/planificación
 
AGROVOC policies; planning

Definition
Policy is the course of action for an undertaking adopted by a government, a person or another party. Instruments that exist to support policy and tools used to achieve policy objectives include some or all of the following: societal instruments, economic and command-and-control instruments, direct government involvement and institutional and organizational arrangements. Planning is the plotting of a course of action (involving executive action or enforcement) which is proposed to carry-out some proceeding, devising the relative positions and timing of a set of actions.



×

polluter pays principle

العربيةمبدأ الملوث يدفع
中文污染者付费原则
Français         principe pollueur-payeur
Русскийто принцип
Españolprincipio contaminador-pagador
 
AGROVOC polluter pays principle

Definition
The principle that countries or private companies or even individuals should in some way compensate others for the effects of pollution that they (or their citizens) generate or have generated.



×

pollution control

العربيةضبط التلوث
中文污染控制
Français         lutte contre la pollution
Русскийборьба с загрязнением
Españolcontrol de la contaminación
 
AGROVOC pollution control

Definition
Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. It means the control of emissions and effluents into air, water or soil. Without pollution control, the waste products from overconsumption, heating, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation and other human activities, whether they accumulate or disperse, will degrade the environment.



×

port State measures

العربيةتدابير دولة الميناء
中文港口国措施
Français         mesures du ressort de l’État du port
Русскиймеры государства порта
Españolmedidas del Estado rector del puerto
 
AGROVOC Port State Measures

Definition
As a tool to combat IUU fishing, Port State Measures (PSM) are requirements established or interventions undertaken by port states which a foreign fishing vessel must comply with or is subjected to as a condition for use of ports within the port state. National PSM would typically include requirements related to prior notification of port entry, use of designated ports, restrictions on port entry and landing/transhipment of fish, restrictions on supplies and services, documentation requirements and port inspections, as well as related measures, such as IUU vessel listing, trade-related measures and sanctions.



×

post-harvest treatment

العربيةعلاج ما بعد الحصاد
中文收获后处理
Français         traitement post-récolte
Русскийпослеуборочная обработка
Españoltratamientos de postcosecha
 
AGROVOC postharvest control

Definition
Relates to post-harvest procedures such as chemotherapy, fumigation, thermotherapy, as well as to specific products used for post-harvest purposes.



×

potable water

العربيةالمياه الصالحة للشرب
中文饮用水
Français         eau potable
Русскийпитьевая вода
Españolagua potable
 
AGROVOC drinking water

Definition
Water that is safe to drink or use for food preparation.



×

poultry

العربيةدواجن
中文家禽
Français         volaille
Русскийптицеводство
Españolaves de corral
 
AGROVOC poultry

Definition
Domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese to produce meat, eggs for food, or feathers.



×

poultry products

العربيةمنتجات الدواجن
中文家禽产品
Français         produits de volaille
Русскийпродукция птицеводства
Españolproductos de aves caseras
 
AGROVOC poultry meat

Definition
Poultry products means eggs, dressed poultry, eviscerated poultry, or frozenegg, liquid egg, or dried egg.



×

poverty

العربيةفقر
中文贫穷
Français         pauvreté
Русскийбедность
Españolpobreza
 
AGROVOC poverty

Definition
A pronounced deprivation of well-being related to lack of material income or consumption, low levels of education and health, vulnerability and exposure to risk, and voicelessness and powerlessness.



×

precautionary principle

العربيةمبدأ تحوطي
中文预防性原则
Français         principe de précaution
Русскийпринцип предосторожности
Españolprincipio de cautela
 
AGROVOC precautionary principle

Definition
Principle adopted by the UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992) that in order to protect the environment, a precautionary approach should be widely applied, meaning that where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage to the environment, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.



×

prescription/adverse possession

العربيةوصفة الامتلاك / حيازة سلبية
中文长期占有/逆权侵占
Français         prescription acquisitive/usucapion
Русскийправо приобретательной давности/противопоставленное владение
Españolprescripción/usucapión
 
AGROVOC prescription

Definition
Prescription is the manner of acquiring property by a long, honest, and uninterrupted possession or use during the time required by law. Adverse possession is a legal principle under which a person who does not have legal title to a piece of property — usually land — acquires legal ownership based on continuous possession or occupation of the property without the permission of its legal owner.



×

priorities

العربيةأولويات
中文优先顺序
Français         priorités
Русскийприоритеты
Españolprioridades
 
AGROVOC prioritization

Definition
Rules on priorities for the allocation of a resource between different uses. This implies priority criteria.



×

private forest

العربيةالغابات الخاصة
中文私有林
Français         forêt privée
Русскийчастные леса
Españolbosques privados
 
AGROVOC private forests

Definition
Exploitation of a private forest, private ownership of a forest, compulsory measures limiting the property right (such as measures against fire and desertification, requiring reforestation ...), participation in consortia of forest owners, production orientation.



×

private land

العربيةالأراضي الخاصة
中文私人土地
Français         terres privées
Русскийчастные земли
Españolterrenos privados
 
AGROVOC private land

Definition
Land that is not owned by the government.



×

procedural matters

العربيةالمسائل الإجرائية
中文程序性事项
Français         questions de procédures
Русскийпроцедурные вопросы
Españolcuestiones de procedimiento
 
AGROVOC procedural matters

Definition
Set of actions that is the official, legal, or accepted way of doing something.



×

processing/handling

العربيةتجهيز / مناولة
中文加工/处理
Français         transformation/manutention
Русскийпереработка/обработка грузов
Españolprocesamiento/manipulación
 
AGROVOC processing; handling

Definition
All activities relating to production/processing/manufacturing/transforming cycle. This keyword also includes facilities and premises where products are handled and processed.



×

prohibited crops

العربيةمحاصيل محظورة
中文被禁止的作物
Français         cultures interdites
Русскийзапрещенные к возделыванию растения
Españolcultivos prohibidos
 
AGROVOC prohibited crops

Definition
Includes crops that have been prohibited for different reasons (mainly for health reasons): coca, marihuana, opium, etc.



×

property rights

العربيةحقوق الملكية
中文产权
Français         droits de propriété
Русскийимущественные права
Españolderechos de propiedad
 
AGROVOC property rights

Definition
Property rights refer to a bundle of rights to use, control, and transfer assets, including land. These include the rights to occupy, enjoy, and use; to restrict others from entry or use; to dispose, buy, or inherit; to develop or improve; to cultivate; to sublet; to realize financial benefits; and to access services in association with land. Property rights can also include ideas and designs (copyrights, patents, and intellectual materials), as well as rights over “moveable property,” for example, cars, cows, mobile homes, and wildlife.



×

protected area

العربيةمنطقة محمية
中文保护区
Français         aire protégée
Русскийособо охраняемая природная территория
Españolzona protegida
 
AGROVOC protected areas

Definition
Refers to any area specifically designated and delineated by law for protection purposes. The essence is that within the area, a special legal regime applies, including special restrictions and/or prohibitions.



×

protection forest

العربيةحماية الغابات
中文禁伐林
Français         forêt de protection
Русскийзащитные леса
Españolbosques de protección
 
AGROVOC protective forests

Definition
Protected forests subject to a particular legal regime, so declared in order to protect soil and water, stabilize steep slopes, maintain sustained yield of forest produce, conserve dry-zones and mangroves forests, conserve environment and biodiversity.



×

protection of environment

العربيةحماية البيئة
中文环境保护
Français         protection de l’environnement
Русскийохрана окружающей среды
Españolprotección del medio ambiente
 
AGROVOC environmental protection

Definition
Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment by individuals, organizations and governments. Its objectives are to conserve natural resources and the existing natural environment and, where possible, to repair damage and reverse trends.;



×

protection of habitats

العربيةحماية الموائل
中文栖息地保护
Français         protection de l'habitat
Русскийохрана мест обитаний
Españolprotección del hábitat
 
AGROVOC habitat improvement

Definition
Measures contributing to ensuring biodiversity within an an environment defined by specific biological and ecological factors



×

protection of species

العربيةحماية الأنواع
中文物种保护
Français         protection des espèces
Русскийохрана видов
Españolprotecíon de las especies
 
AGROVOC protected species

Definition
Measure taken to ensure the conservation of species.



×

public forest

العربيةالغابات العامة
中文公共林地
Français         forêt publique
Русскийгосударственные леса
Españolbosques demaniales
 
AGROVOC state forests

Definition
Woodland and forest belonging to the State or to a local public entity, forest belonging to the public domain, forest estate, acquisition, delimitation, classified forest.



×

public health

العربيةصحة عامة
中文公共卫生
Français         santé publique
Русскийздоровье населения
Españolsalud pública
 
AGROVOC public health

Definition
Public health means the health of individuals in the context of the wider health of the community.



×

public land

العربيةالأراضي العامة
中文公共土地
Français         terres publiques
Русскийгосударственные земли
Españolterrenos públicos
 
AGROVOC state land

Definition
Includes crown lands, national lands, State lands, government lands or a more general definition of the public domain related to land. Includes distribution, lease, sale, grants of, management, etc.



×

public participation

العربيةمشاركة الجمهور
中文公众参与
Français         participation du public
Русскийучастие общественности
Españolparticipación pública
 
AGROVOC public opinion; citizen participation; participation

Definition
The use of appropriate procedures for informing the public and in obtaining early and continuing participation in planning and decision making.



×

public private partnership (PPP)

Français         partenariats public-privé (PPP)
Русскийгосударственно-частное партнерство
Españolparticipación público privada (PPP)
 
AGROVOC public private partnerships

Definition
PPP involves a contract between a public sector authority and a private party, in which the private party provides a public service or project and assumes substantial financial, technical and operational risk in the project.



×

public water

العربيةالمياه العامة
中文公共用水
Français         eau publique
Русскийгосударственная система водоснабжения
Españolaguas públicas
 
AGROVOC public water

Definition
Waters deemed by law to form part of the public domain, as opposed to private water. They might include the territorial sea, groundwaters, as well as waterways, rivers, lakes and other water resources considered of public interest.




  Q
×

quarantine

العربيةالحجر الصحي
中文检疫
Français         quarantaine
Русскийкарантин
Españolcuarentena
 
AGROVOC quarantine

Definition
Quarantine is defined as the official confinement of plants/animals subject to phytosanitary regulations for observation and research and for further inspection and/or testing. Quarantine regulations constitute a basic component of plant protection and animal health legislation and a form of State-organized measure to secure plant protection and animal health. Includes: plant/animal quarantine, inland quarantine, quarantine officers, harmful quarantine organisms and plants, the International Plant Quarantine Treatment Manual, detection and delimiting surveys, quarantine area, quarantine pest, quarantine treatments and procedures, quarantine station or facilities, post-entry quarantine, quarantine measures on custom-houses, etc.




  R
×

radiation

العربيةإشعاع
中文辐射
Français         radiation
Русскийрадиация
Españolradiación
 
AGROVOC radiation

Definition
Energy that comes from a source and travels through some material or through space. Light, heat and sound are types of radiation. Includes ionizing radiation (radioactivity), electromagnetic radiation (gamma rays, X-rays, and ultraviolet, light, infrared, and radio waves.)



×

rainwater

العربيةمياه الأمطار
中文雨水
Français         eau de pluie
Русскийдождевая вода
Españolagua de lluvia
 
AGROVOC rainwater

Definition
Water that has fallen as or been obtained from rain.



×

ranching/captive breeding

العربيةتربية المواشي/ تكاثر في الأسر
中文放养/圈养繁殖
Français         ranch/reproduction en captivité
Русскийскотоводство/разведение в неволе
Españolcría en ranchos/cría en cautividad
 
AGROVOC breeding; extensive husbandry

Definition
Ranching/captive breeding is the process of breeding/ranching wildlife outside of their natural habitat in restricted conditions such as fauna reserves, zoos and other conservation facilities (ex situ).



×

range

العربيةالمراعي
中文范围
Français         pâturages/terrains de parcours
Русскийпастбищное угодье
Españolpastoreo
 
AGROVOC rangelands

Definition
Provisions on cattle trails and transhumance ways. Lands subject to a right of grazing.



×

ratification

العربيةالتصديق
中文批准
Français         ratification
Русскийратификация
Españolratificación
 
AGROVOC ratification

Definition
Ratification defines the act whereby a State indicates its consent to be bound by a treaty. Acts of acceptance or approval of a treaty have the same legal effect as acts of ratification and consequently express the consent of a State to be bound by a treaty.



×

recreational forest

العربيةالغابات الترفيهية
中文休闲森林
Français         forêt récréative
Русскийрекреационные леса
Españolbosques recreativos
 
AGROVOC recreational forests

Definition
Area and percent of forest land managed for general recreation and tourism, in relation to the total area of forest land. Includes management of recreational forests, access.



×

recreational water use

العربيةاستخدام المياه الترفيهية
中文休闲用水的使用
Français         eau à usage récréatif
Русскийрекреационное водопользование
Españolagua de uso recreativo
 
AGROVOC recreational water use

Definition
Provisions on water used for recreational purposes such as bathing or rafting in rivers, filling up of swimming pools, etc.



×

recycling/reuse

العربيةإعادة التدوير / إعادة الاستخدام
中文回收/再利用
Français         recyclage/réemploi
Русскийутилизация/повторное использование
Españolreciclado/reutilización
 
AGROVOC recycling

Definition
Process of converting material (especially waste) to a previous state so that it is a reusable material.



×

registration

العربيةتسجيل
中文注册
Français         enregistrement
Русскийрегистрация
Españolregistro
 
AGROVOC registration

Definition
Registration is the process by which rights and interests are recorded in registers.



×

renewable energy

العربيةطاقة متجددة
中文再生能源
Français         énergie renouvelable
Русскийвозобновляемая энергия
Españolenergía renovable
 
AGROVOC renewable energy

Definition
Energy sources that are, within a short time frame relative to the Earth’s natural cycles, sustainable, and include non-carbon technologies such as solar energy, hydropower, and wind, as well as carbon-neutral technologies such as biomass.



×

reptiles

العربيةزواحف
中文爬行动物
Français         reptiles
Русскийрептилии
Españolreptiles
 
AGROVOC reptiles

Definition
A vertebrate animal of a class that includes snakes, lizards, crocodiles, turtles, and tortoises. They are distinguished by having a dry scaly skin and typically laying soft-shelled eggs on land.



×

research

العربيةبحث
中文研究
Français         recherche
Русскийнаучные исследования
Españolinvestigación
 
AGROVOC research

Definition
The study of a subject in detail, especially in order to discover new information or reach a new understanding.



×

residues

العربيةالبقايا
中文残留
Français         résidus
Русскийостатки
Españolresiduos
 
AGROVOC residues

Definition
Residual amounts of extraneous chemicals in organisms, goods or environment.



×

resource/damage valuation

العربيةتقييم الموارد / الضرر
中文资源/损害估值
Français         évaluation des ressources/des dommages
Русскийоценка ресурсов/ущерба
Españolvaloración del daño/recurso
 
AGROVOC resource evaluation

Definition
Measurement and valuation of natural capital - the stock of renewable and non-renewable resources that yields a flow of benefits to people. Natural capital includes clean air, water, energy, food and raw materials, among others.



×

right of use

العربيةحق الاستخدام
中文使用权
Français         droit d'usage
Русскийправо пользования
Españolderecho de uso
 
AGROVOC property rights; right of access

Definition
The right to use and/or harvest products from resources controlled by the State or owned by other persons. Rights of use are contemplated in special contracts such as lease, loan, usufruct, as well as in servitudes.



×

right to clean/healthy environment

العربيةالحق في بيئة نظيفة / صحية
中文享有清洁/健康环境的权利
Français         droit à un environnement propre/sain
Русскийправо на чистую/благоприятную окружающую среду
Españolderecho a un medio ambiente limpio/sano
 
AGROVOC right to clean and healthy environment

Definition
The right to a healthy environment brings together all that humanity has learned about how human rights and the environment interact. It encompasses the environmental dimensions of the rights to life, health, food, water, sanitation, property, private life, culture, and non-discrimination, among others.



×

right to food

العربيةالحق في الغذاء
中文食物权
Français         droit à l'alimentation
Русскийправо на питание
Españolderecho a la alimentación
 
AGROVOC right to food

Definition
The right to have regular, permanent and free access, either Directly or by means of financial purchases, to quantitatively and qualitatively adequate and sufficient food corresponding to the cultural traditions of the people to which the consumer belongs, and which ensures a physical and mental, individual and collective, fulfilling and dignified life free of fear.



×

right to property

العربيةالحق في الملكية
中文财产权
Français         droit à la propriété
Русскийправо собственности
Españolderecho a la propiedad
 
AGROVOC property rights



×

right to water

العربيةالحق في المياه
中文水权
Français         droit à l'eau
Русскийправо на воду
Españolderecho al agua
 
AGROVOC right to water

Definition
The right to water entitles everyone to have access to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic use. It incorporates the right to sanitation entitling everyone to have physical and affordable access to sanitation, in all spheres of life, that is safe, hygienic, secure, and socially and culturally acceptable and that provides privacy and ensures dignity.



×

risk assessment/management

العربيةتقييم / إدارة المخاطر
中文风险评估/管理
Français         évaluation/gestion des risques
Русскийоценка рисков/управление рисками
Españolevaluación/manejo de riesgos
 
AGROVOC risk assessment; risk management

Definition
Risk assessment is the overall process of analysis and evaluation of a risk with regard to its impact and the likelihood of its being realized, and the selection of an appropriate risk response. Risk management is the process of identifying, selecting and implementing measures that can be applied to reduce the level of risk.



×

river basin institution

العربيةمؤسسة حوض النهر
中文河流流域机构
Français         institution de bassin
Русскийречное бассейновое управление
Españolinstitución de cuenca
 
AGROVOC river basin institutions

Definition
Institution or entity specifically created for the management and protection of rivers and their drainage basins.



×

rodents

العربيةقوارض
中文啮齿动物
Français         rongeurs
Русскийгрызуны
Españolroedores
 
AGROVOC rodents

Definition
A gnawing mammal of an order that includes rats, mice, squirrels, hamsters, porcupines, and their relatives, distinguished by strong constantly growing incisors and no canine teeth.



×

royalties/fees

العربيةإتاوات / رسوم
中文特许权使用费/手续费
Français         royalties/redevances
Русскийроялти/сборы
Españolderechos/cánones
 
AGROVOC royalties

Definition
Refers to any payment in the form of a fee, charge or royalty due in connection with any activity or service performed by a public or private authority, e.g., inspection process, application process to obtain an authorization, a licence or a permit, etc. Includes rate setting.



×

rural employment

العربيةالعمالة الريفية
中文农村就业
Français         emploi rural
Русскийсельская занятость
Españolempleo rural
 
AGROVOC rural employment

Definition
Rural employment refers to any activity, occupation, work, business or service performed by rural people for remuneration, profit, social or family gain, or by force, in cash or kind, including under a contract of hire, written or oral, expressed or implied, and regardless if the activity is performed on a self-directed, part-time, full-time or casual basis. Rural employment is comprised of agricultural employment, which includes both on-farm self-employment and wage employment in the agricultural sector, as well as non-agricultural employment, which includes non-farm self-employment and wage employment.



×

rural youth

العربيةشباب الريف
中文农村青年
Français         jeunesse rurale
Русскийсельская молодежь
Españoljuventud rural
 
AGROVOC rural youth

Definition
Identifies challenges, opportunities, objectives and activities focused on youth in rural areas




  S
×

saltwater intrusion/siltation

العربيةتسرب المياه المالحة / التغرين
中文盐水入侵/淤积
Français         invasion d'eau salée/ensablement
Русскийзасоление/заиливание
Españolinfiltración de aguas salinas/sedimentación
 
AGROVOC saline water; siltation

Definition
Saltwater intrusion is the movement of saline water into freshwater aquifers, which can lead to groundwater quality degradation, including drinking water sources, and other consequences. Siltation - Referring to the build up of silt (fine particles of soil, rock, mud, clay, dirt) that is suspended in rivers or other bodies of water.



×

school feeding

العربيةالتغذية المدرسية
中文学校饮食
Français         alimentation scolaire
Русскийшкольное питание
Españolalimentación escolar
 
AGROVOC school feeding

Definition
Interventions that deliver a meal or snack to children in the school setting, with the intent of improving attendance, enrollment, nutritional status and learning outcomes.;



×

seasons

العربيةفصول
中文
Français         périodes
Русскийсезоны
Españoltemporadas
 
AGROVOC seasons

Definition
Period of time during which fishing or hunting of certain species in certain areas is allowed or prohibited.



×

servitude

العربيةحق ارتفاق
中文在他人土地上的通行权(或类似的权力)
Français         servitude
Русскийсервитут
Españolservidumbre
 
AGROVOC servient tenement

Definition
A charge or burden upon one estate (servient estate) for the benefit or advantage of an estate belonging to another (dominant estate).



×

sewerage

العربيةمجاري الصرف الصحي
中文污水处理
Français         égouts
Русскийканализация
Españolalcantarillado
 
AGROVOC sewerage

Definition
A system of drainage by sewers. Includes provisions on technical and hygienic standards.



×

sheep/goats

العربيةالغنم / الماعز
中文绵羊/山羊
Français         ovins/caprins
Русскийовцы/козы
Españolovinos/caprinos
 
AGROVOC sheep; goats

Definition
Are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals typically kept as livestock.



×

size

العربيةحجم
中文尺寸
Français         taille
Русскийразмеры земельных участков
Españoltalla
 
AGROVOC size

Definition
A minimum or maximum limit on the size of fish that may be legally caught.



×

slaughtering

العربيةالذبح
中文屠宰
Français         abattage
Русскийубой скота
Españolmatanza
 
AGROVOC slaughtering

Definition
The killing or butchering of cattle, sheep, etc., especially for food.



×

smallholders/peasants

العربيةصغار المزارعين / فلاحون
中文小农户/农民
Français         petits exploitants/paysans
Русскиймелкие фермеры/крестьяне
Españolpequeños agricultores/campesinos
 
AGROVOC smallholders; peasant workers; peasantry

Definition
A smallholding is a small farm. In third world countries, smallholdings are usually farms supporting a single family with a mixture of cash crops and subsistence farming. A Peasant is a poor smallholder or agricultural laborer of low social status.



×

social impact assessment

العربيةتقييم الأثر الاجتماعي
中文社会影响评价
Français         étude d’impact social (EIS)
Русскийоценка социального воздействия
Españolevaluación del impacto social
 
AGROVOC social impact assessment

Definition
A process of evaluating the likely impacts, both beneficial and adverse, of a proposed development that may affect the rights, which have an economic, social, cultural, civic and political dimension, as well as the well-being, vitality and viability, of an affected community – that is, the quality of life of a community as measured in terms of various socio-economic indicators, such as income distribution, physical and social integrity and protection of individuals and communities, employment levels and standards of housing and accommodation, infrastructure, services.



×

social protection

العربيةالحماية الاجتماعية
中文社会保护
Français         protection sociale
Русскийсоциальная защита
Españolprotección social
 
AGROVOC social protection

Definition
Social protection is a set of interventions whose objective is to reduce social and economic risk and vulnerability, and to alleviate extreme poverty and deprivation: social assistance, social insurance, labour market protection.



×

soil conservation/soil improvement

العربيةحفظ التربة / تحسين التربة
中文土壤保持/土壤改良
Français         conservation du sol/amélioration du sol
Русскийохрана почв/улучшение почвы
Españolconservación de suelos/mejoramiento de suelos
 
AGROVOC soil conservation; soil improvement

Definition
Soil conservation is the protection of soil from erosion and other types of deterioration, so as to maintain soil fertility and productivity. It generally includes watershed management and water management. Soil improvement concerns in the first place the appropriate management of problem soils. It also involves the improvement of degraded soils in terms of soil prevention, mitigation, and rehabilitation.



×

soil pollution/quality

العربيةتلوث / جودة التربة
中文土壤污染/质量
Français         pollution du sol/qualité
Русскийзагрязнение почвы/качество почвы
Españolcontaminación del suelo/calidad
 
AGROVOC soil pollution

Definition
Soil pollution refers to the presence in the soil of a chemical or substance out of place and/or present at a higher than normal concentration that has adverse effects on any non-targeted organism. Soil quality refers to the soil's biological, chemical, and physical properties and processes and its capacity to perform essential ecosystem services.



×

soil rehabilitation

العربيةإعادة تأهيل التربة
中文土壤修复
Français         remise en état des sols
Русскийвосстановление почв
Españolsaneamiento de suelos
 
AGROVOC land rehabilitation

Definition
It is used to refer to the re-establishment of soil ecosystem functions after these have been affected or impaired by land degradation.



×

solid waste

العربيةنفايات صلبة
中文固体垃圾
Français         déchets solides
Русскийтвердые отходы
Españolresiduos sólidos
 
AGROVOC solid wastes

Definition
Any solid, semi-solid, or contained gaseous materials discarded from industrial, commercial, mining, or agricultural operations, and from community activities. Solid waste includes garbage, construction debris, commercial refuse, sludge from water supply or waste treatment plants, or air pollution control facilities, and other discarded materials.



×

sovereignty

العربيةسيادة
中文主权
Français         souveraineté
Русскийсуверенитет
Españolsoberanía
 
AGROVOC sovereignty

Definition
Authority of a political state subject to no higher power, expressed within its territory in full self-government.



×

special dietary uses

العربيةالاستخدامات الغذائية الخاصة
中文特殊膳食用
Français         aliments diététiques et de régime
Русскийспециальное диетическое питание
Españolregímenes dietéticos especiales
 
AGROVOC diet treatment; dietetic foods

Definition
Foods prepared to meet the particular nutritional needs of persons whose normal processes of assimilation or metabolism are modified, or who require a controlled intake of food or certain nutrients.



×

special fund

العربيةصندوق خاص
中文专项基金
Français         fonds spécial
Русскийспециальный фонд
Españolfondo especial
 
AGROVOC fund

Definition
Any fund that is established for a specific purpose (e.g. food security fund, pest management strategies, land improvement fund, aquaculture development fund, land acquisition fund, etc.).



×

standards

العربيةمعايير
中文标准
Français         normes
Русскийстандарты
Españolnormas
 
AGROVOC standards

Definition
Provisions establishing requirements against which natural resources and products must conform. Standards may be "compulsory" or "recommended"



×

stock enhancement/repopulation

العربيةتعزيز المخزون / إعادة تعمير
中文种群增殖/种群恢复
Français         re-empoissonnement/repeuplement
Русскийнаращивание запасов/пополнение численности биологических видов
Españolincremento del stock/repoblación
 
AGROVOC restocking

Definition
Release of fish, sea ranching, fish stocking, in relation also to sport fishing (trout), repopulation of wild animals.



×

sub-national agreement

العربيةاتفاق شبه القطري
中文次国家级协议
Français         accord sous-national
Русскийсубнациональное соглашение
Españolacuerdo subnacional
 
AGROVOC sub-national agreement

Definition
Agreement between two or more of the constituent states of a federal State, e.g. between the federation and the states, or any agreement between public authorities within a sovereign state.



×

subsidy/incentive

العربيةدعم / حافز
中文补贴/奖励
Français         subvention/incitation
Русскийсубсидии/поощрительные меры
Españolsubvención/incentivo
 
AGROVOC subsidies; incentives

Definition
Subsidies-Payment or benefit given to partially offset the cost of specific activities, such as the manufacture, production, or export of an article. Incentives - Generally refers to financial incentives (compensation, interest subsidies, production subsidies, tax exemption, tax reduction, grants, bonuses, rewards, loans with low interest rates, etc.) set by a government in order to support the management and development of a given sector.



×

sugar

العربيةسكر
中文
Français         sucre
Русскийсахар
Españolazúcar
 
AGROVOC sugar

Definition
Any carbohydrate sweetening matter.



×

sugar cane/sugar beet

العربيةقصب السكر / سكر البنجر
中文甘蔗/甜菜
Français         canne à sucre/betterave sucrière
Русскийсахарный тростник/сахарная свекла
Españolcaña de azúcar/remolacha de azúcar
 
AGROVOC sugarcane; sugarbeet

Definition
Sugar cane is a perennial grass (replanted at certain intervals using pieces of the cane stalk) cultivated mainly between the tropics all over the world. In certain countries, sugar cane is also eaten raw in non-negligible quantities and used for feed. Sugar beet - A biennial plant grown as an annual crop, propagated by flower seeds, chiefly for the manufacture of sugar from its roots.



×

supremacy of international law

العربيةسيادة القانون الدولي
中文国际法至上
Français         primauté du droit international
Русскийверховенство международного права
Españolsupremacía del derecho internacional
 
AGROVOC supremacy of international law



×

surface water

العربيةالمياه السطحية
中文地表水
Français         eaux superficielles
Русскийповерхностные воды
Españolaguas superficiales
 
AGROVOC surface water

Definition
All water naturally open to the atmosphere, including rivers, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, streams, impoundments, seas, estuaries and wetlands. The term also covers springs, wells or other collectors of water that are directly influenced by surface waters.



×

survey/mapping

العربيةالمسح / رسم الخرائط
中文勘测/绘图
Français         relevés/plans
Русскийтопографическая съемка/картография
Españollevantamiento topográfico/cartografía
 
AGROVOC cadastre surveys; surveys; cartography

Definition
The measuring of parcels/plots of land and the determining of its boundaries. Including survey practices; training, registration, licensing and qualification of surveyors; survey standards. Used also when Survey Boards are created. Hydrographic surveys support a variety of activities: nautical charting, port and harbor maintenance (dredging), coastal engineering (beach erosion and replenishment studies), coastal zone management, and offshore resource development. Surveys are concerned with water depth and the nature of the sea floor material.



×

sustainable development

العربيةتنمية مستدامة
中文可持续发展
Français         développement durable
Русскийустойчивое развитие
Españoldesarrollo sostenible
 
AGROVOC sustainable development

Definition
Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services on which the economy and society depend. The desired result is a state of society where living conditions and resources are used to continue to meet human needs without undermining the integrity and stability of the natural system. Sustainable development can be defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.



×

sustainable use

العربيةاستخدام مستدام
中文可持续利用
Français         utilisation durable
Русскийустойчивое использование
Españoluso sostenible
 
AGROVOC sustainable use

Definition
Use of resources in a way and at a rate that does not lead to the long-term degradation of the environment, thereby maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations.



×

swine

العربيةالخنازير
中文
Français         porcins
Русскийсвиньи/свинина
Españolporcinos
 
AGROVOC swine

Definition
Any of various stout-bodied short-legged omnivorous artiodactyl mammals (family Suidae) with a thick bristly skin and a long flexible snout.




  T
×

taxes 

العربيةالضرائب
中文税收
Français         impôts
Русский налоги
EspañolImpuestos 
 
AGROVOC taxes; levies

Definition
A tax is a financial charge on individuals or businesses collected by the Government.



×

territorial sea

العربيةالبحر الإقليمي
中文领海
Français         mer territoriale
Русскийтерриториальное море
Españolmar territorial
 
AGROVOC Territorial waters

Definition
Territorial sea, as defined by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most 12 nautical miles (22 km; 14 mi) from the baseline (usually the mean low-water mark) of a coastal state. The territorial sea is regarded as the sovereign territory of the state, although foreign ships (military and civilian) are allowed innocent passage through it, or transit passage for straits; this sovereignty also extends to the airspace over and seabed below.



×

thermal and medicinal waters

العربيةمياه حارة ومعالجة
中文温泉水和医疗用水
Français         eaux thermales et médicinales
Русскийтермальные и лечебные воды
Españolaguas termales y medicinales
 
AGROVOC thermal water

Definition
a type of mineral water that is located deep underground which contains healing properties and is exempt from bacteria and pollution. Naturally pure and rich in mineral salts, iodine and CO2, thermal water is recognized for its therapeutic properties, particularly those that concern the skin.



×

timber

العربيةخشب
中文木材
Français         bois
Русскийдревесина
Españolmadera
 
AGROVOC wood

Definition
Any wood or tree which has felled or has been felled or cut off and all wood whether unsawn, hewn, sawn or machined, split, or otherwise cut up or fashioned but does not include any article manufactured from such wood or firewood.



×

timber extraction/logging

العربيةاستخراج الأخشاب / قطع الأشجار
中文木材采伐/森林砍伐
Français         coupe de bois/exploitation forestière
Русскийдобыча древесины/лесозаготовки
Españolcorte y extracción/explotación forestal
 
AGROVOC logging

Definition
Generally refers to the process of felling and extracting timber from forests.



×

tobacco

العربيةتبغ
中文烟草
Français         tabac
Русскийтабак
Españoltabaco
 
AGROVOC tobacco

Definition
Any product prepared from the cured leaves of the tobacco plant.



×

total allowable catch

العربيةإجمالي الصيد المسموح به
中文总可捕捞量
Français         volume admissible de captures
Русскийобщий допустимый улов
Españolvolumen admisible de captura
 
AGROVOC catch composition

Definition
The total allowable catch is the amount of marine living resources that can be harvested without endangering the aforementioned resources.



×

tourism

العربيةسياحة
中文旅游
Français         tourisme
Русскийтуризм
Españolturismo
 
AGROVOC tourism

Definition
Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act.



×

toxicity/poisoning

العربيةالتسمم
中文毒性/中毒
Français         toxicité/empoisonnement
Русскийтоксичность/отравление
Españoltoxicidad/envenenamiento
 
AGROVOC toxicity; poisoning

Definition
Toxicity means a physiological or biological property which determines the capacity of a chemical to do harm or produce injury to a living organism by other than mechanical means. Poisoning means occurrence of damage or disturbance caused by a poison, and includes intoxication.



×

traceability

العربيةنظام التتبع
中文可追溯性
Français         traçabilité
Русскийотслеживаемость
Españolrastreabilidad alimentaria
 
AGROVOC traceability; product traceability

Definition
Ability to trace the application, location, and/or history of an activity or item by means of recorded data.



×

trade in species

العربيةالتجارة في الأنواع
中文贸易物种
Français         commerce d'espèces
Русскийторговля видами
Españolcomercio de especies
 
AGROVOC trade

Definition
The Export, re-export, import and introduction from the sea of a species, i.e. an animal or plant, whether alive or dead, any recognizable part or derivate thereof.



×

traditional knowledge/indigenous knowledge

العربيةمعرفة تقليدية/ معرفة السكان الأصليين
中文传统知识/土著知识
Français         savoir traditionnel/savoir autochtones
Русскийтрадиционные знания/знания коренного населения
Españolconocimientos tradicionales/ conocimiento indígena
 
AGROVOC indigenous knowledge

Definition
Traditional knowledge (TK), indigenous knowledge (IK), traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and local knowledge generally refer to knowledge systems embedded in the cultural traditions of regional, indigenous, or local communities.



×

traditional rights/customary rights

العربيةحقوق تقليدية / حقوق عرفية
中文传统权利/习惯权利
Français         droits traditionnels/droits coutumiers
Русскийтрадиционные права/права, основанные на обычае
Españolderechos tradicionales/derechos consuetudinarios
 
AGROVOC customary land rights

Definition
Traditional or customary rights' refer to established, traditional patterns of norms that can be observed within a particular socio-cultural setting.



×

transboundary effects

العربيةتأثيرات عبر الحدود
中文跨界影响
Français         effet transfrontière
Русскийтрансграничное воздействие
Españolefectos transfronterizos
 
AGROVOC transboundary pollution

Definition
Environmental effects in adjacent State territories caused by various sources, i.e. underwater noise, marine discharges, atmospheric emissions, accidental events.



×

transboundary movement of waste

العربيةتنقل عبر الحدود للنفايات
中文废物越境转移
Français         mouvement transfrontière des déchets
Русскийтрансграничное перемещение отходов
Españolmovimientos transfronterizos de desechos
 
AGROVOC transboundary movement of waste

Definition
Any movement of hazardous wastes or other wastes from an area under the national jurisdiction of one State to or through an area under the national jurisdiction of another State or to or through an area not under the national jurisdiction of any State, provided at least two States are involved in the movement.



×

transfer rights 

العربيةحقوق التحويل
中文转让权
Français         droit de transfert 
Русскийпередача права
Españolderechos de transferencia 
 
AGROVOC transfer rights

Definition
Transfer rights refer to the owner's right to give up to new owners the right to carry out any material and legal act of alteration, destruction, alienation or abandonment.



×

transport/storage

العربيةنقل / تخزين
中文运输/仓储
Français         transport/dépôt
Русскийтранспортировка/хранение
Españoltransporte/depósito
 
AGROVOC transport; storage

Definition
Transportation provides the physical means of carrying goods from one place to another. Storage is the process concerned with retaining and preserving the goods.



×

transshipment

العربيةإعادة الشحن
中文转载,移装
Français         transbordement
Русскийперегрузка
Españoltransbordo
 
AGROVOC transshipment

Definition
Transshipment means the unloading of goods from one ship and its loading into another to complete a journey to a further destination, even when the cargo may have to remain ashore some time before its onward journey.



×

treated food

العربيةالمنتجات الغذائية المصنعة
中文处理过的食物
Français         produits alimentaires traités
Русскийобработанные продукты питания
Españolalimentos tratados
 
AGROVOC food preservation

Definition
Food treatment refers to such preservation methods as: ionizing radiation, chemical and other preservation methods, irradiation, dehydration, freezing/quick freezing, refrigeration, heat processing, pasteurization, sterilization, thawing.



×

turtles

العربيةسلاحف
中文
Français         tortues
Русскийчерепахи
Españoltortugas
 
AGROVOC turtles

Definition
Any reptile with a body encased in a bony shell, including tortoises.




  U
×

uncodified constitution

العربيةدستور غير مدون
中文不成文宪法
Français         constitution non codifiée
Русскийнекодифицированная конституция
Españolconstitución no codificada
 
AGROVOC uncodified constitution

Definition
An uncodified constitution is the fundamental law of a sovereign state whose text is not embodied in a single document and is based upon customs, usage, judicial precedent and a variety of statutes and legal instruments.



×

unitary state

العربيةالدولة الوحدوية
中文单一制国家
Français         état unitaire
Русскийунитарное государство
Españolestado unitario
 
AGROVOC unitary states

Definition
A unitary state is a system of political organization in which the power resides in a centralized government, in contrast to a federal state. The central government is ultimately supreme and may create (or abolish) administrative divisions (sub-national units). Such units exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.



×

urban and peri-urban agriculture

العربيةالزراعة الحضرية وشبه الحضرية
中文城市和城郊农业
Français         agriculture urbaine et péri-urbaine
Русскийгородское и пригородное сельское хозяйство
Españolagricultura urbana y periurbana
 
AGROVOC urban agriculture; peri-urban agriculture

Definition
"Urban" agriculture refers to small areas (e.g. vacant plots, gardens, verges, balconies, containers) within the city for growing crops and raising small livestock or milk cows for own-consumption or sale in neighborhood markets. "Peri-urban" agriculture refers to farm units close to town which operate intensive semi- or fully commercial farms to grow vegetables and other horticulture, raise chickens and other livestock, and produce milk and eggs.



×

urban land

العربيةالأراضي الحضرية
中文城市土地
Français         terrains urbains
Русскийгородские земли
Españolterrenos urbanos
 
AGROVOC urban areas

Definition
Urban areas are generally characterized by moderate and higher density residential, commercial, and industrial development, and the availability of public services required for that development, specifically central water and sewer, an extensive road network, public transit, and other such services (for example, safety and emergency response).



×

use restrictions

العربيةقيود على الاستخدام
中文使用限制
Français         restrictions à l'utilisation
Русскийограничения на использование
Españolrestricciones para el uso
 
AGROVOC use restrictions

Definition
Includes conditions on use, e.g. soil conservation orders, use regulations, etc.




  V
×

vaccination

العربيةتلقيح
中文疫苗接种
Français         vaccination
Русскийвакцинация
Españolvacunación
 
AGROVOC vaccination

Definition
The immunisation of susceptible animals through the administration of a vaccine comprising antigens appropriate to the disease to be controlled.



×

vegetables/legumes

العربيةالخضروات / البقوليات
中文蔬菜/豆类
Français         légumes/légumineuses
Русскийовощи/бобовые
Españolverduras/legumbres
 
AGROVOC vegetables; legumes

Definition
A vegetable is the edible portion of a plant. Vegetables are usually grouped according to the portion of the plant that is eaten such as leaves (lettuce), stem (celery), roots (carrot), tubers (potato), bulbs (onion) and flowers (broccoli). Legume - the fruit or seed of plants of the legume family (such as peas or beans) used for food.



×

vending

العربيةبيع
中文在公共场所贩卖
Français         vente
Русскиймелкорозничная торговля
Españolventa
 
AGROVOC retail marketing

Definition
The sale of food products, including the informal retail sector.



×

vested rights 

العربية الحقوق المكتسبة 
中文既得权利
Français         droits acquis 
Русскийзакрепленные права
Españolderechos adquiridos
 
AGROVOC vested rights

Definition
Rights belonging to a person as a property interest which cannot be impaired or taken away (as through retroactive legislation) without the consent of the owner. Including acquired rights, established rights, customary rights, community rights.



×

veterinary drugs

العربيةالأدوية البيطرية
中文兽药
Français         médicament vétérinaire
РусскийВетеринарные препараты 
Españolmedicamentos veterinarios
 
AGROVOC drugs

Definition
Relates to veterinary medicines/medications, veterinary products, drugs used exclusively for animals.



×

viticulture/oenological practices

العربيةزراعة الكروم / ممرسات صناعة الخمور
中文葡萄栽培/酿酒
Français         viticulture/pratiques vinicoles
Русскийвиноградарство/винодельческая практика
Españolviticultura/prácticas enológicas
 
AGROVOC viticulture; oenology

Definition
Viticulture refers to the process of growing grapes, whereas viniculture and oenological practices refer to wine production.




  W
×

waste disposal

العربيةالتخلص من النفايات
中文废物处理
Français         élimination de déchets
Русскийудаление отходов
Españoleliminación de desechos
 
AGROVOC waste disposal

Definition
The collection , sorting, and transport of waste as well as its tipping above or under ground. Includes also waste dumping, i.e. the disposal of waste without environmental controls.



×

waste domestic sources

العربيةالنفايات البلدية
中文生活垃圾
Français         déchets ménagers
Русскийбытовые отходы
Españoldesechos urbanos
 
AGROVOC household wastes

Definition
Household or Domestic Waste – Solid waste, composed of garbage and rubbish, which normally originates from residential, private households, or apartment buildings. Domestic waste may contain a significant amount of toxic or hazardous waste from improperly discarded pesticides, paints, batteries, and cleaners.



×

waste management

العربيةإدارة النفايات
中文废弃物管理
Français         gestion des déchets
Русскийуправление отходами
Españolgestión de desechos
 
AGROVOC waste management

Definition
Waste management is a set of activities that include the following: 1)collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste; 2) control, monitoring and regulation of the production, collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste; and 3) prevention of waste production through in-process modification, reuse and recycling. The term usually relates to all kinds of waste, whether generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, or other human activities,] including municipal (residential, institutional, commercial), agricultural, and special (health care, household hazardous wastes, sewage sludge). Waste management is intended to reduce adverse effects of waste on health, the environment or aesthetics.



×

waste non-domestic sources

العربيةالنفايات الصناعية
中文非生活来源的废弃物
Français         déchets industriels
Русскийпромышленные отходы
Españolresiduos industriales
 
AGROVOC non-domestic wastes

Definition
Any solid, semi-solid or wastewater discarded from industrial, commercial, mining, or agricultural operations, and from community activities. Includes the runoff from areas that received pollutants associated with industrial or commercial storage, handling, or processing.



×

waste prevention

العربيةمنع تكون النفايات
中文预防浪费
Français         prévention des déchets
Русскийпредотвращение образования отходов
Españolprevención de residuos
 
AGROVOC waste reduction

Definition
Measures or techniques that reduce the amount and/or toxicity of wastes generated during industrial production processes.The term is also applied to recycling and other efforts to reduce the amount of waste going into the waste stream.



×

water abstraction

العربيةاستخراج المياه
中文取水
Français         prélèvement d'eau
Русскийводозабор
Españolcaptación de agua
 
AGROVOC water extraction

Definition
Water abstraction is the process of taking water from any source, either temporarily or permanently, for flood control or to obtain water for, for example, irrigation.



×

water charges

العربيةرسوم المياه
中文水费
Français         redevances pour les eaux
Русскийплата за водопользование
Españolcánon de aguas
 
AGROVOC water charges

Definition
Water charges refers to the payments that a beneficiary makes for a water service (domestic supply, irrigation, etc.). The action of establishing the price, or tariff, on the basis of which water charges are calculated is often referred to as water pricing but is clearly very different from the formal economic ‘pricing’ of water as a natural resource, where the notion of shadow pricing applies.



×

water conservation zone

العربيةمنطقة المحافظة على المياه
中文水源保护区
Français         zone de conservation des eaux
Русскийводоохранная зона
Españolzona de conservación de aguas
 
AGROVOC water conservation zones

Definition
Designated area put in place to safeguard the safe and secure use and sufficient quantities of surface water and groundwater for drinking water production or the conservation of habitat or species directly depending on the water zone.



×

water desalination

العربيةتحلية المياه
中文海水淡化
Français         dessalement de l'eau
Русскийопреснение воды
Españoldesalinación del agua
 
AGROVOC water desalting

Definition
Process of removing dissolved salt and other minerals from seawater to create freshwater.



×

water quality standards

العربيةمعايير جودة المياه
中文水质标准
Français         normes de qualité de l'eau
Русскийстандарты качества воды
Españolnormas sobre calidad del agua
 
AGROVOC water quality standards

Definition
Measures that define the desired condition of purity or quality for any waters in relation to their reasonable and necessary use.



×

water resources management

العربيةإدارة الموارد المائية
中文水资源管理
Français         gestion des resources en eau
Русскийуправление водными ресурсами
Españolgestión de los recursos hídricos
 
AGROVOC freshwater management

Definition
Water resources management (WRM)- the process of planning, developing, and managing water resources, in terms of both water quantity and quality, across all water uses.



×

water rights

العربيةحقوق المياه
中文水权
Français         droits d'utilisation de l'eau
Русскийправа на воду
Españolderechos de agua
 
AGROVOC water rights

Definition
The right to abstract, use and transfer water. It also includes the ownership of water. Usually in the form of a permit, but water rights can have different sources such as custom (established use) or ownership of (riparian) land.



×

water shortage/drought

العربيةنقص المياه / الجفاف
中文水资源短缺/旱灾
Français         insuffisance d'eau/sécheresse
Русскийнехватка воды/засуха
Españolescasez de agua/sequía
 
AGROVOC water availability; drought

Definition
Lack of safe water due to arid conditions or distribution problems. Provisions on emergency situations.



×

water supply

العربيةتوفير المياه
中文水供应
Français         approvisionnement en eau
Русскийводоснабжение
Españolabastecimiento de agua
 
AGROVOC water supply

Definition
Supply of water for domestic, commercial, thermoelectric power, industrial, public water uses (fountains, fire hydrants, field delivery point, etc.).



×

water users' associations

العربيةجمعيات مستخدمي المياه
中文用水户协会
Français         associations d'usagers de l'eau
Русскийассоциации водопользователей
Españolasociación de usuarios de aguas
 
AGROVOC water user associations

Definition
Cooperation associations of Water users who undertake water related activities for their mutual benefit.



×

waterworks

العربيةمرافق المياه
中文给水工程
Français         ouvrages
Русскийгидротехнические сооружения
Españolinstalaciones
 
AGROVOC hydraulic structures

Definition
A manmade structure that serves the purpose of diverting, restricting, stopping, or otherwise controlling the natural flow of water.



×

weeds

العربيةالأعشاب الضارة
中文杂草
Français         mauvaises herbes
Русскийсорняки
Españolmalezas
 
AGROVOC weeds

Definition
A wild plant growing where it is not wanted and in competition with cultivated plants.



×

well sinking/boreholes

العربيةحفر الآبار
中文打井/钻孔
Français         forage de puits/puits
Русскийбурение скважин/скважины
Españolperforación de pozos/pozos
 
AGROVOC wells

Definition
A well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, or drilling to access liquid resources, usually water.



×

wetlands

العربيةالأراضي الرطبة
中文沼泽地
Français         zones humides
Русскийводно-болотные угодья
Españolzonas húmedas
 
AGROVOC wetlands

Definition
Areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six meters.



×

wild fauna

العربيةالحيوانات البرية
中文野生动物
Français         faune sauvage
Русскийдикая фауна
Españolfauna silvestre
 
AGROVOC wild animals

Definition
Undomesticated animals living independently of humans.



×

wild flora

العربيةالنباتات البرية
中文野生植物
Français         flore sauvage
Русскийдикая флора
Españolflora silvestre
 
AGROVOC wild plants

Definition
Plants growing in a natural state (independent of humans, therefore not cultivated).



×

wildlife products

العربيةمنتجات الحياة البرية
中文野生动物制品
Français         produits de la chasse
Русскийпродукты дикой фауны
Españolproductos silvestres
 
AGROVOC wildlife products

Definition
Products derived from any readily recognizable part or derivative of a wild species, such as elephant ivory, tiger products, corals, bushmeat.




  Z
×

zoning

العربيةتقسيم المناطق
中文化分或指定的区域
Français         zonage
Русскийзонирование
Españolzonificación
 
AGROVOC zoning

Definition
Refers to any area/zone specifically designated and delineated by law for control purposes.