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Desertification, insecurity and the loss of grazing land to expanding settlements has led to the southward migration of Nigeria’s pastoralists. This is causing violent competition over land with local farmers. This report analyses the conflict, and recommends some measure for conflict mitigation. To prevent the crisis from escalating, the government should strengthen security for herders and farmers, implement conflict resolution mechanisms and establish grazing reserves.

Year of publication: 2017
Organization: Individual authors 
Topic: Conflict, Food security, Land
Language: English
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: West Africa

Pastoralism is defined by the practice of mobile livestock herding though the term often encompasses pastoral farming and enclosed ranching. While it sounds like an outdated and inefficient way of life, pastoralism is highly dynamic and intricately linked to the modern world in a way that contributes significantly to national, regional, and international markets. But there is little doubt that this lifestyle presents significant health challenges and environmental pressures.

This issue of Currents takes a close look at recent studies documenting these challenges—from disease transmission to coping with water scarcity.  

Year of publication: 2017
Organization: United States Agency for International Development (USAID) 
Topic: Climate change, Food security, Gender and youth, Healthcare, Social services
Language: English
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: Global

Several interlinked triggers such as climate change, environmental degradation, lack of resources, and so on, cause large-scale displacement of populations in the Horn of Africa. This may, in turn, trigger conflicts and violence and increase the communities' vulnerability to natural hazards. There is a great need to address the risk and impacts of displacement caused by disasters and exacerbated by climate change. But to be able to do this, governments need baseline data regarding current displacement. 

This report provides such a baseline for the Greater Horn of Africa - Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda, plus Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania - with the ultimate aim of reducing future displacement risk. These countries also have a large pastoralist population. The report gives an overview of the scale, scope and distribution of risk associated with suddenonset natural hazards, and explains the methodology used to calculate it.

Year of publication: 2017
Organization: Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) 
Topic: Climate change, Conflict, Food security, Land, Resilience
Language: English
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: Eastern Africa

Climate change will have significant impacts on economic activity and value chains in Uganda. But it can also provide new possibilities for people and businesses – for example, to create new products and services, develop new markets and access new funding streams and finance mechanisms.

The semi-arid Karamoja region in the northeast of Uganda accounts for around 20% of Uganda’s total livestock. This paper identifies and explores the economic opportunities for entrepreneurs and companies to invest in climate change adaptation to enhance the resilience of Karamoja’s livestock value chain. Investment in this sector can reduce the vulnerability of pastoralists to climate change and contribute to national development goals.

Year of publication: 2017
Organization: Overseas Development Institute (ODI) 
Topic: Climate change, Economy, Innovation, Organization, Resilience, Value addition
Language: English
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: Eastern Africa

Pastoralism is a rational and viable economic land-use system able to generate significant returns in the dryland areas of Eastern Africa. Widespread misunderstanding about pastoralism has left it often under-protected, undervalued and an unintended victim of uninformed policies. However, this traditional livelihood system, which evolved as an adaptive strategy for thriving in some of the world’s harshest regions, is ideally suited to the climatic and economic uncertainties of our turbulent century. Therefore, informed and supportive policies need to be developed and implemented to realise the tremendous potential of pastoralism. This policy brief aims to facilitate informaed policy making by elaborating the direct and indirect values of pastoralism.

Year of publication: 2017
Organization: Coalition Of European Lobbies For Eastern African Pastoralism (CELEP) 
Topic: Climate change, Economy, Environmental services, Indigenous knowledge, Land, Resilience
Language: English
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: Eastern Africa

This report studies the policy and regulatory frameworks in IGAD and EAC regions of Africa, so as to inform advocacy by civil society and pastoralist groups in the two regions. It explains the link between food sovereignty and pastoralism, outlines the major regional policies related to pastoralism in the Horn and Eastern Africa, and discusses the challenges and opportunities related to these policies. It looks at the role of civil society organisations (CSOs) in articulating pastoralists’ concerns to policy frameworks at all levels and suggests how pastoralist communities, CSOs and other stakeholders could take advantage of the regional policies to advance the cause of food sovereignty.

Year of publication: 2017
Organization: Individual authors 
Topic: Food security, Indigenous peoples, Organization, Participation
Language: English
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: Eastern Africa

This report focusses on some new fringe activities that have developed among pastoralists such as cross-border trade and trafiicking and smuggling. It sees these activities as emerging from a changing relationship between the pastoralists, the state, and their national and transnational mobility. Although undertaken by only a handful of pastoralists, these activities have far-reaching national, regional and global impacts. 

This report is not a conventional study of pastoral socioeconomic production and reproduction systems as a whole, but instead is limited to exploring some new fringe activities with consequences for the present and future of pastoralism as a resilient and ever adaptive way of life despite the pressures and myriad of challenges it faces.

Year of publication: 2017
Organization: Individual authors 
Topic: Conflict, Economy, Finance, Resilience
Language: English
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa

Pastoral communities are facing increasing pressure on their livehoods due to depletion and degradation of their productive resources. Land tenure plays a decisive role in sustaining pastoral productive systems. However, these communities are also facing pressures on their land as a result of misconceptions about pastoralism, changing demographics, urbanisation, climate change, and environmental degradation. In addition, public policy has not always favoured the development of pastoralism. Given that pastoral communities reside in areas characterised by arid and semi-arid conditions, and where alternative uses of land such as crop farming may not be possible, this policy brief argues for the maintenance of collective land tenure as it enhances the sustainability of pastoral productive systems.

Year of publication: 2017
Organization: Evidence and lessons from Latin America (ELLA) 
Topic: Indigenous peoples, Land
Language: English
Type of document: Technical
Geographical coverage: Global
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