The 2013 Human Development Report is the latest in the series of global Human Development Reports published by UNDP since 1990 as independent, empirically grounded analyses of major development issues, trends and policies.
Payments for environmental services (PES) are increasingly discussed as appropriate mechanisms for matching the de mand for environmental services with the incentives of land users whose actions m odify the supply of those environmental services. While there has been considerable discussion of the institutional mechanisms for PES, relatively little attention has been given to the inter-relat ionships between PES institutions and other rural institutions. This paper presents and builds upon the proposition that both the function and welfare effects of PES institutions depend crucially on the co-institutions of collective action (CA) and property rights (PR).
The project reviews Payments for Environmental Services (PES) schemes and other instruments to remunerate positive externalities in agriculture with the purpose of establishing the basis for informed decision-making on ecosystem services and food security, as a contribution to sustainable agriculture and rural development.
These guidelines are aimed primarily at all those involved in making policies at national and regional levels, such as decision-makers, civil servants and key policy advisors. Their function is to support increased recognition of agroforestry benefits, facilitate the development of policies promoting agroforestry systems and educate those that constrain agroforestry at the national level.
The guidelines present a set of principles rather than prescribed methods. They advise how to integrate agroforestry into policies, particularly helping countries to formulate policies for their specific conditions. They provide examples of good practices and success stories, as well as lessons learned from challenges and failures.
They are designed as an entry point for policy creation or change. In cases where agroforestry policy is completely absent, they can assist in creating awareness of agroforestry systems and show how, through innovative policy design taking trees, crops and animal production into account, policy issues can be addressed. In other cases, where agroforestry is recognized in policy frameworks, the guidelines can assist in improving the economic, social and policy context, so that incentives for practising agroforestry are strengthened.