Climate Smart Agriculture Sourcebook


Farmer Field School (FFS)

A group of farmers gets together in one of their own fields to learn about their crops and things that affect them ( Farmer Field Schools aim to build farmers’ capacity to analyze their production systems, identify problems, test possible solutions, and eventually encourage the participants to adopt the practices most suitable to their farming systems (FAO 2011f).

Fee-for-service (FFS)

Payment model where services are unbundled and paid for separately.


Any single or multiple materials, whether processed, semi-processed or raw, which is intended to be fed directly to food-producing animals.

Feed-conversion efficiency

An animal’s capacity to convert feed mass into increased body mass, milk or eggs, represented as kilogram of feed per kilogram of weight gain, milk or eggs or per gd of protein.

Final energy consumption

Total energy consumed by end users, such as households, industry and agriculture. It is the energy which reaches the final consumer's door and excludes that which is used by the energy sector itself.


Feed of plant origin.


Raw plant material eaten by livestock, including grass, hay, legumes, silage and crop residues.


Waters with a consistently negligible salinity. 

Functional capacities

Functional capacities refer to Policy and Normative Capacity (capacity to formulate and implement policies and legislation), Knowledge Capacity (capacity to access, generate, manage and exchange relevant knowledge and to adapt it to local systems), Partnership Capacity (capacity to connect, to advocate and engage in networks, alliances and partnerships with international and national actors) and Implementation Capacity (capacity to manage and implement programmes from planning to monitoring and evaluation) (FAO, 2010)

Functional diversity

Variety of organisms and the ecosystem services they provide for the system to continue performing. A diversity of species enhances the compensation capacity of the agro-ecosystem acting as a buffer against failure due to environmental fluctuations: if one species fails, others can take on its role.