Climate Smart Agriculture Sourcebook


Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)

Technologies designed to access, process and transmit information. ICTs encompass a full range of technologies – from traditional, widely used devices such as radios, telephones or TV, to more sophisticated tools like computers, mobile phones or the Internet (Weigel, Waldburger 2004).

Inputs-use efficiency

Yield per unit of inputs applied.

Integrated food-energy systems

Integrated food energy systems (IFES) are farming systems where both food and energy are produced, wither through optimization of land use through mixed cropping systems, or the optimization of biomass use through its cascading process.

IFES can be used to increase access to modern energy services (the third pillar of energy-smart food) as well as to increase production and use of renewable energy in agrifood chains (the second pillar) (Bogdanski et al., 2010; Bogdanski, 2012).


The practice of listing and filing information on resources such as breeds, varieties, stocks, or accessions in genebanks.