Portal Terminológico de la FAO

Desert Locust

Desert Locust is considered to be one of the most dangerous pests that threaten crop production and food security. It might be the oldest registered pest for its danger and great ability to live and breed under various ecological and climatic regimes in vast areas covering 29 million square kilometers, extending from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to India and Pakistan in the east, and comprising the whole area or parts of 64 countries.

Since Desert Locust is one of the pests that has a capacity to fly long distances and migrate very fast, it is considered to be an international pest that neither a single nor a number of countries are able to control without the collaboration of all concerned. Consequently, it was viewed that the Desert Locust breeding areas should be divided into three major regions: Eastern, Central and Western regions, so that survey and control is blocked within each region and does not spread to the other regions. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has taken the responsibility of coordinating the Desert Locust management in these three regions, in addition to encouraging further studies and research in the field of Desert Locust management, which will prevent future locust occurrence and invasions.

In view of the wide-range of terms and local expressions, of the limited availability of specialized scientific locust glossaries and of the rapid scientific and technological developments, it was felt necessary to issue an inclusive, simplified and clear glossary in three languages: Arabic, English and French. This glossary includes scientific and technical terms, expressions and idioms that are commonly and frequently used in the field of locust and grasshoppers; and it meets the urgent need of professionals and all other concerned in both applied and research activities in the three regions.

In this respect, the working paper on preparing and producing an encyclopaedic glossary was presented and endorsed by the 24th Session of FAO Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region (CRC) in April 2004 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. It was agreed by the Commission that the draft of both English and Arabic versions, after being prepared by an expert, would be circulated to all concerned such as universities, research centers and scientific institutes in order to gather views and comments.

Consequently, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations selected one of the eminent experts in the Central Region, Professor Mahmoud Fahmy Harb, from the Plant Protection Research Institute in Egypt. He was the consultant who took over this task, in view of his deep knowledge and extensive scientific and practical experience in the field. Initially, he devoted himself to preparing the glossary in English by compiling most of the English expressions, terms and scientific idioms which are relevant to locust field and allied sciences and presenting their meanings and explanations, utilizing each and every available resource.

After circulation of the English draft of the glossary, the feedback was inserted in the English final version and the Arabic draft was prepared, in which, the consultant not only presented the corresponding Arabic meaning, word by word, but also added more meanings and explanations whenever necessary, as there are different dialects in the Arabic speaking countries.

The Arabic version of the glossary was also widely circulated for comments and views, and subsequently, it was dispatched to the FAO Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Western Region in order to be prepared into French.

In this regard, we would like to express our sincere appreciation and deep gratitude to Professor Mahmoud Fahmy Harb, for his acknowledged hard work and time spent over three years in preparing this glossary which contains more than three thousand concepts. We also wish to thank our colleagues who participated in the completion of the glossary by sending us their suggestions and comments. A special thanks goes also to Dr. Munir Butrous, Secretary of the Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region, for his endeavours and time given to valuable discussions, suggestions, technical and scientific advices during the course of this work, and for revising the final versions of the English/English and English/Arabic glossaries.

We welcome everyone who will take advantage of this glossary and also who would like to develop this work further by adding or amending any entries.

Dr. Mohamed Ibrahim Albraithen
Assistant Director General for the Office of the United Nations in the Near East

The Glossary comprises complex English scientific and technical terms and idioms whose precise meanings cannot easily be identified in the agricultural fields. Arabic terms were therefore presented to express the meaning of these concepts and idioms as far as possible. In cases where no Arabic equivalent or definition exists, the term or the idiom has been carefully translated by consultants.

Finally, the Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region expresses its appreciation and deep gratitude to everyone contributing to produce the glossary in this form.

About the author

About the author

  • Professor Dr Mahmoud Fahmy Harb, the author of this glossary, is an eminent Professor in the Plant Protection Research Institute in Cairo, Egypt. He was born in Egypt in January 1943 and graduated from Ain Shams University in Egypt, 1968, with a BSc in Agriculture, Economic Entomology Department. He received both a MSc in Toxicology of Insecticides, 1976, and a PhD in Locust Control, 1984, from Al Azhar University, Egypt.
  • Dr Harb spent more than 35 years in the field of research and locust control, in addition to allied sciences and other activities. He published many scientific papers and supervised several postgraduate theses (MSc and PhD) in the faculties of Agriculture and Science.
  • He conducted numerous study tours to East Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya and Sudan in the period 1983-1985); to India at New Delhi Agricultural Research Center, 1980; to the USA at the Universities of California and Oregon, 1990; and to UK at Imperial College London, 1998. All these tours were connected to the field of locusts, pesticides, sprayers, and ground and aerial spraying techniques.
  • He carried out a number of consultancy missions for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in Oman and Saudi Arabia in 1976 and in 1992, in connection with Desert Locust survey and control techniques.Dr Harb contributed to international cooperation in the agriculture sector. He was selected by the Arab Organization for Agricultural Development (AOAD) in 1998 to perform a regional study that included nine Arab countries and to draft a project document in order to disseminate and apply remote sensing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to monitor desertification and Desert Locust movements. This task was accomplished in cooperation with the Soil and Water Research Institute (SWRI), Egypt.
  • Dr Harb also participated in an Egyptian-Libyan international cooperation meeting held in Tripoli, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, in 2001- for the coordination of joint survey and control operations.He worked as a Master Trainer in the field of locust survey and control techniques as well as ground and aerial spraying equipment at both the national and regional levels (Oman, 1992; Yemen, 1995 and Syria, 2003).
  • He also organized and held more than 50 training courses in the same field and prepared the relevant scientific material. These courses took place all over Egypt under the National American Research Project (NARP), which began in 1995 and lasted five years.
  • Dr. Harb is a member of the Entomological Society of America and the Entomological Society of Egypt as well as the Permanent Committee for Evaluation of Sprayers at the Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture. He participated in two international workshops: one organized by FAO in 1994 and the other co-organized by FAO and the Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES) in 2002, on the evaluation of sprayers used in locust control and on the establishment of the standards of the basic designs and performance of the Ultra Low Volume (ULV) sprayers.
  • Throughout his career, Dr Harb attended and participated in many national and international scientific conferences and in the meetings of the Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region, which are held regularly in one of the countries of the Region, as well as in the FAO Desert Locust Control Committee (DLCC) which is usually held at FAO Headquarters in Rome, Italy.
  • Over the past seven years, Dr Harb has translated many publications, bulletins, press releases, technical brochures, guidelines, booklets, user manuals for equipment and sprayers, and scientific books, as well as the Desert Locust Guidelines (7 volumes) and Spraying Equipment Guidelines (10 volumes) issued by FAO in English. All these publications pertain to the fields of locust, pesticides, equipment, spraying technologies, plant protection…etc.
  • Dr Harb has two sons and a daughter.



المراجـع الأجنبيـة:English & French References

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- محمد السيد حسنين (1971) معجم انجليزي-فرنسي-عربي للمصطلحات المستعملة في بحوث ومقاومة الجراد، منظمة الأغذية والزراعة- مشروع الجراد الصحراوي التابع لبرنامج الأمم المتحدة للتنمية. مطابع المركز الدولي للتعليم الوظيفي للكبار في العالم العربي، المنوفية، ج. م. ع. 390 صفحة.
- منظمة الأغذية والزراعة (فاو) (1980) معجم فرنسي- انكليزي- عربي لمصطلحات الجراد، المحطات الميدانية لبحوث الجراد، السلسلة الفنية No. AGP/DL/TS/21 قسم الإنتاج النباتي ووقاية النباتات- مكافحة الجراد، روما.
- قاموس إلياس للكمبيوتر والإنترنت (2003) انجليزي – انجليزي- عربي، دار الياس العصرية للطباعة والنشر – القاهرة، 637 صفحة.
- نبيل الزهيري (1996) المعجم الموسوعي لمصطلحات الكمبيوتر (الطبعة الأولى)، انكليزي-عربي، مكتبة لبنان ناشرون- بيروت.
- عطالله خلف الدويني وحلمي ميخائيل بشاي (2001) دليل مصطلحات علم الحيوان انجليزي –عربي (الطبعة الرابعة)، دار المعارف ، ج.م.ع 572 صفحة.
- أحمد فؤاد عفيفي ومصطفى السيد عبدالله وعبد المنعم إبراهيم أبوالعطا (1999) أطلس النباتات (الطبعة الثانية)، انجليزي –عربي، دار المعارف، ج.م.ع.
- حسين زهدي (1997) الأرصاد الجوية ونظره إلى المستقبل (الطبعة الأولى)، مركز الأهرام للترجمة والنشر، القاهرة.
- المصطلحات العلمية في مجال مبيدات الآفات (لاتاريخ)، شركة سوميتومو كيميكل المحدودة، أوزاكا، اليابان.
- أحمد شفيق الخطيب (1990) معجم المصطلحات الجغرافية والبيئة الطبيعية (طبعة جديدة) انجليزي- عربي، مكتبة لبنان، 59pp.
- محمد جمال الدين الغندي (1964) الطبيعة الجوية.وزارة الثقافة والإرشاد القومي، المؤسسة المصرية العامة للتأليف والترجمة والطباعة والنشر، القاهرة.
- هذا بخلاف الكثير من البحوث المنشورة في المجلات العلمية الأجنبية والنشرات والتقارير الفنية المعتمدة من الجهات المعنية ومواقع الإنترنت الموثوق بها.