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Private Standards In The United States And European Union Markets For Fruit And Vegetables

Year of publication2007
AbstractOver the past 20 years the number of standards and certification programmes for agricultural production has grown rapidly. Producers who want to export are confronted not only by a plethora of import regulations, but also within import countries by different niche markets for which specific requirements have to be fulfilled. While the adoption of voluntary standards may grant export opportunities to farmers, they can also be considered barriers to entry for those who cannot apply them either because they are too onerous or because of the lack of knowledge about their requirements. In fact, some producers and exporters increasingly regard private standards as non‑tariff barriers to trade. New and more stringent standards are being developed year after year, and there is an urgent need to determine today, and in the future, the extent to which these govern world trade. This report gives an overview of standards and certification programmes relevant for fruit and v egetable producers and exporters in developing countries with a focus on the markets of the United States and the European Union. In addition, it gives an overview of current analytical work on standards and trade, reviews major assistance programmes related to standards and provides recommendations for further research.
Available inEnglish
Product typeBook (stand-alone)
Areas of workGlobal Commodity Markets
Keywords standards; private sector; international agreements; fruit; exports; vegetables; imports; quality controls; international organizations; market regulations; trade