Animal Health

Global Avian Influenza Viruses with Zoonotic Potential situation update

26 January 2023, 17:00 hours; Rome

Overview

This update covers avian influenza viruses with zoonotic potential occurring worldwide, i.e. H5Nx, H7Nx high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and H3N8, H5Nx, H6N1, H7Nx, H9N2, H10N3, H10N7, H10N8 and H11 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI).

Specific information is available for Avian Influenza A(H7N9) virus viruses and Sub-Saharan Africa HPAI in related FAO Avian Influenza situation updates.

HPAI outbreaks in animals officially reported since last update (22 December 2022): in total, 748 outbreaks have been reported in 4 geographic regions caused by HPAI (14), H5 HPAI (16), H5N1 HPAI (725), H5N5 HPAI (1) and H5N2 HPAI (11) (see Table 1 for details).

LPAI events in animals officially reported since last update (22 December 2022): 3 new events were reported (see Table 2 for details).

Number of human cases officially reported since last update (22 December 2022): 1 new event.

Map 1. Global distribution of AIV with zoonotic potential* observed since 1 October 2022 (i.e. current wave)

Global distribution of AIV with zoonotic potential* observed since 01 October 2022 (i.e. current wave)

Note: Symbols may overlap for events in similar geographic locations.
* includes H5Nx, high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses.

Map 2. Global distribution of AIV with zoonotic potential* observed in the period 1 October 2021 to 30 September 2022 (i.e. previous wave)

Global distribution of AIV with zoonotic potential* observed in the period 01 October 2021 to 30 September 2022 (i.e. previous wave)

Note: Symbols may overlap for events in similar geographic locations.
* includes H5Nx, H7Nx high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and H3N8, H5Nx, H7Nx and H9N2 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI).

Table 1. High pathogenicity avian influenza viruses with zoonotic potential: only countries reporting events in animals since 22 December 2022 are listed in the table. Data was retrieved from FAO EMPRES-i database, WOAH WAHIS portal, and other official sources from country governments.

Virus Country/Area Last observed outbreak #Events since 23 November Total #events reported since 1 October 2022 Species affected since 1 October 2022

HPAI
(not typed)

Cayman Islands

09/01/2023

1

1

Domestic birds

Ecuador 

16/01/2023

1

2

Domestic birds

Kazakhstan

20/01/2022

1 in wild birds

1 in wild birds

Anserinae

 

H5

Costa Rica

03/01/2023

1

1

Pelicans

Japan

20/12/2022

47 in wild birds

67 outbreaks  including 61 in wild birds

Wild birds including hooded crane, mute swan, Tundra swan, whooper swan, black-faced spoonbill, great cormorant, greater scaup, grey heron, mallard, eastern buzzard, large-billed crow, peregrine falcon, Ural owl, white-tailed eagle, Northern Goshawk, Pacific sea eagle, Captive birds including mute swan, Secretary bird, Chilean flamingo

Norway

14/12/2022

1

1

White tailed Eagle 

Peru

24/11/2022

4

6 including 1 in wild birds

Domestic chickens, Peruvian Pelicans (approx. 15000 birds) 

 

H5N1

Austria

16/01/2023

12 including 10 in wild birds

13 including 10 in wild birds

Mute Swan, Great Egret and unspecified domestic birds

Belgium

18/01/2023

14 (including 11 in wild birds)

59 (including 52 in wild birds)

Domestic chickens, and wild birds including Jackdaw, Owl, Common moorhen, Common Pheasant, Greylag Goose, Canada Goose, Mute Swan, Cackling goose, Mallard, Buzzard, Muscovy Duck, Egyptian goose, Great egret, Great white fronted goose, Black headed gull

Canada

02/12/2022

259

307 (including 45 in wild birds)

Domestic birds and wild birds including Blue winged teal, Canada Goose, Northern Gannet, American White Pelican, Great shearwater, Common Tern, Common Murre, Bald Eagle, snow goose, domestic turkey, sandpiper and wild mammals including Striped Skunks2

Colombia

11/12/2022

3

30 (including 1 in captive wild birds)

Unspecified domestic birds and wild birds including Blue-winged Teal, Yellow-crowned Parrot, Scarlet Macaw, Greylag Goose, and Common Guineafowl 

Czech Republic 

11/01/2023

15 including 4 in wild birds

21 including 4 in wild birds

Chickens, unspecified domestic birds, Greylag goose, Mallard

Denmark

31/12/2022

1

10 including 8 in wild birds

Domestic chicken, pheasants, turkeys, and wild birds including Common pheasant and Eurasian Eagle-Owl, White tailed eagle, mallard

Ecuador 

15/12/2022

1

1

Domestic birds

France

18/01/2023

77 including 31 wild birds and 1 mammal

114 including 27 in wild birds and mammals

Unspecified domestic birds Northern Gannet, Eurasian Collared, Mute Swan, Great egret, Mute Swan, Grey Heron, Brent Goose, Little Grebe, Crane, Greater flamingo, Greylag Goose, Common shelduck, Black headed gull, Peregrine Falcon, Buzzard, Cat

Germany

06/01/2023

32 (including 15 in wild birds)

69 (including 25 in wild birds

Domestic chickens, ducks, turkeys, and other unspecified birds, and wild birds including Anatidae, Accipitridae, Ardeidae, Laridae, and Passerinae species

Greenland

28/03/2022

1 (including 1 in wild birds)

1 including 1 in wild birds

Common Mure

Honduras

09/01/2023

3 including 3 in wild birds

3 including 3 in wild birds

Pelicans 

Hungary

16/01/2023

1

39

Unspecified domestic birds and mallard

Ireland

11/01/2023

1 (including 1 in wild birds

5 (including 2 in wild birds)

Domestic pheasants and other unspecified domestic birds, and wild birds including Northern Gannet, Mute Swan, Buzzard, Black headed gull

Israel 

02/01/2023

9 including 2 in wild birds

20 including 4 in wild birds

Domestic chickens, turkeys, unspecified birds, Charadriiae and Mallard

Italy

12/02/2023

9 including 9 in wild birds

47 (including 28 in wild birds)

Domestic chickens, turkey, guinea fowl and other unspecified birds, and wild birds including Mallard, Eurasian Wigeon, Greylag Goose, Eurasian Teal, Northern Pintail, Mute Swan, Buzzard, Yellow legged gull, Buzzard

Japan

22/01/2023

27 (including 1 environmental samples)

93* outbreaks (including 26* in wild birds and 9 environmental samples) *continuous detection in the Izumi wintering habitat of cranes reported daily are now counted as one (1) outbreak.

chickens and ducks, wild birds including hooded crane, red-crowned crane, white-naped crane, mute swan, Tundra swan, Whooper swan, Oriental stork, Eurasian wigeon, greater white-fronted goose, mallard, northern pintail, slaty-backed gull, black kite, eastern buzzard, Large-billed crow, peregrine falcon, and captive birds including emu, great white pelican.

Mexico

02/01/2023

10

36 (including 4 in wild birds)

Domestic chicken and unspecified birds

Republic of Moldova

19/01/2023

1

2

Domestic birds

Netherlands

18/01/2023

1

14

Domestic birds

Niger

02/01/2023

2

2

Domestic birds

Nigeria

19/12/2022

10

10

Domestic birds

Panama

04/01/2023

2 including 2 wild birds

2 including 2 wild birds

Pelicans and unspecified birds

The Philippines

18/01/2023

25

25

Domestic birds

Poland

21/01/2023

71 including 17 in wild birds

81 including 22 in wild birds

Unspecified domestic birds, mute swan, bean goose, Buzzard, Greylag Goose, Bean goose, Herring Gull, Duck, Chicken, Turkey

Republic of Korea

12/01/2023

16

64 (including 1 in wild birds)

Domestic Chickens, Ducks, Quails, and wild birds including Mandarin Duck

Romania

03/01/2023

1 in wild birds

7 in wild birds

Wild Mute Swan and Whooper Swan

Russian Federation

11/01/2023

2

6 including 1 in wild birds

Unspecified domestic birds, and wild birds including Caspian Tern, Great Black-headed Gull, and Dalmatian pelican, Crow

Serbia

23/01/2023

2 including 2 wild birds

16 including 11 wild birds

Domestic birds, Egret, Black headed gull, Buzzard, Greylag Goose, Mute Swan

Slovakia

13/01/2023

1

1

Domestic birds

Slovenia

03/01/2023

2 including 2 wild birds

5 including 5 wild birds

Mute Swan

Sweden

02/01/2023

5 in wild birds

10 including 10 in wild birds

Wild birds including Buzzard, Mute Swan and Black headed gull, Barnacle Goose, Grelag goose and Ardeindae

Switzerland

16/01/2023

2 in wild birds

6 in wild birds

Black headed gull, grey heron

Taiwan, China

18/01/2023

21

30 (including 1 wild bird and 2 environmental samples)

Domestic chickens, quail, geese and ducks, and Muscovy ducks and wild birds including unidentified duck

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

22/12/2022

18 (including 13 in wild birds)

330 (including 182 in wild birds)

Domestic chickens, ducks, geese, quail, turkey;  and Eurasian Sparrowhawk, Mallard, Greylag Goose, Pink-footed Goose, Golden Eagle, Grey Heron, Black-headed Heron, Brent Goose, Canada Goose, Barnacle Goose, Nene, Bufflehead, Common Goldeneye, Common Buzzard, Northern Harrier, Rock Pigeon, Whooper swan, Mute Swan, Peregrine Falcon, Common, Northern fulmar, Herring Gull, Mew Gull, Great black-backed Gull,  Red Kite, Northern Gannet, Anas acuta, Osprey, Common Pheasant, Eider, Great Skua, Tawny owl, Common Barn-Owl, Common Coot, Common Murre, Arctic Tern, Manx Shearwater, Moorhen, Pied Wagtail, Red breasted Goose, Red legged Partridge, Roseate Tern, Hen Harrier, and Little Gul, barn owl, buzzard3

United States of America

13/01/2023

34 (including 12 in wild birds and 4 in wild mammals)

1367 (including 1092 in wild birds and 8 in wild mammals)

Domestic turkeys and chickens, wild mammals including Skunk, Grizzly Bear, and a domestic cat and multiple wild bird species1

Viet Nam

21/11/2022

3

43

Domestic ducks and chickens

H5N2

Japan

17/01/2023

2

4

Domestic birds

South Africa

29/11/2022

1

2

Unspecified domestic birds

Taiwan, China

09/01/2023

7

13

Domestic ducks and chickens

H5N5

Taiwan, China

12/01/2023

1

1

Domestic Geese

 

1for a detailed list of wild bird species affected by H5 HPAI, consult 2022 Detections of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Birds webpage of the U.S. Department of Agriculture – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA – APHIS).

2total includes events with sample collection date since 1 October 2022, data issued from the Canada Food and Inspection Agency dashboard for avian influenza in wildlife

3for a detailed list of wild bird species affected by HPAI in Great Britain, consult weekly findings report on avian influenza in wild birds from Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA).

Table 2. Low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses: only countries reporting events in animals since 22 December 2022 are listed in the table.

VirusCountry/AreaLast observed outbreak#Events since 26 OctoberTotal #events reported since 1 October 2022Species affected since 1 October 2022

H5N2

Taiwan, China

22/11/2022

1 including environmental sample

1 including environmental sample

environmental sample

H7N3

Taiwan, China

03/12/2022

1 including environmental sample

1 including environmental sample

environmental sample

non H5
non H7

Japan

30/11/2022

1

1

Northern shoveler

Figure 1. Distributions of HPAI events observed since 01 October 2022 by subtype (Left) and by region (Right)

Table 3. Epidemiological overview for avian influenza viruses with zoonotic potential

Subtype

Epidemiological Situation Overview

H3N8 LPAI

- In April 2022, the first human infected with avian influenza A H3N8 virus was reported in Henan Province, China. In May 2022, a 5-year-old boy was diagnosed with influenza A(H3N8) infection in Changsha City, Hunan Province, China. To date, only two confirmed human cases with influenza A(H3N8) virus have been reported to WHO [reference1; reference2]. Genetically similar H3N8 viruses were detected in chickens at live poultry markets and chicken farms in Hong Kong, China [reference].
- H3 LPAI viruses are commonly found in waterfowl populations in many regions of the world.

H5N1 HPAI (1997)

- The ‘classic bird flu’, a high pathogenicity AI virus that can occasionally infect humans - Endemic in several countries in Africa, Americas, Europe, and Asia - Different clade reassortments including 2.3.2.1 and 2.3.4.4 clades
- October 2020: one influenza A(H5N1) case in Lao People's Democratic Republic in a one-year old female that was exposed to backyard poultry. Since 2003, a total of 868 cases of influenza A(H5N1) human infection have been reported worldwide.

H5N1 HPAI (2020-onwards)

-These H5N1 viruses were first detected in Europe in October 2020 after reassortment of H5N8 viruses with wild bird lineage N1 viruses.
- Since Autumn 2021 there has been domination of the H5N1 clade 2.3.4.4b viruses with a relatively stable genotype
-These viruses have spread globally with the movement of wild migratory birds and have reassorted with local low pathogenic viruses in many places.
-In Africa these viruses were first detected in early 2021.
-In late 2021 they were introduced into Asia
-In late 2021 introduction into the Americas.
-In 2022 Extensive infection in coastal seabirds and mass die offs of numerous ecologically important species of wild bird.
-In mid 2022 the virus was first detected in Central America and late 2022 in South America in wild birds and poultry with the southwards migration of wild birds.
In many areas these viruses have been maintained in poultry populations and there have been re introduction with wild bird movement.
-There have been a number of mammalian infections reported particularly in scavenging species
-For the updated list of bird species affected by H5Nx HPAI see Annex 1 below
--For an updated list of mammalian species infected with H5Nx (all clades) see Annex 2 below.
-For an updated list of confirmed human cases with A(H5N1) see [link]

H5N8 HPAI (2014)

- New strain spread from Far East to Central Asia, Middle East, Western Europe and Africa in June 2016 – September 2018: 52 countries affected
- Since December 2019: upsurge in Europe, Central and East Asia, and Middle East. H5N1 and H5N5 HPAI viruses have emerged from reassortments between clade 2.3.4.4b H5N8 HPAI viruses and other LPAI viruses found in wild bird reservoirs.
- Since October 2020, new H5Nx reassortants emerged in Europe originating from the H5N8 HPAI clade 2.3.4.4b and Eurasian LPAI viruses. Several subtypes were detected including H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H5N4, and H5N5 subtypes. H5N1 HPAI virus clade 2.3.4.4b was also detected in Africa, Asia, and was introduced in North America during end 2021.
- Algeria, Senegal, Lesotho, Mauritania, and Mali reported H5 HPAI for the first time ever in January-February 2021
- Seven human detections caused by influenza A(H5N8) were reported in the Russian Federation, all cases were asymptomatic and no sustained human-to-human transmission was observed. 
- For the updated list of bird and wild animal species affected by H5NX HPAI click HERE

H5N6 HPAI (2014)

- 1 human case with ‘H5N8-like’ H5
- To date, 82 human cases of influenza A(H5N6) have been reported, 81 occurring in China and one in Lao People's Democratic Republic
- H5N6 (2017, Netherlands) was not zoonotic and genetically different
- Detection of a H5N6 HPAI virus in June 2019 in Nigeria marked the first ever report of this subtype on the African continent
- Outbreaks in wild birds in Western China, in domestic poultry in Viet Nam, and a new introduction reported by the Philippines in the first quarter of 2020

H5N2 HPAI

- A sub-type widespread in its LPAI form, can cause local epizootics in its HPAI form - Major epizootics occurred in the United States of America and France in 2015
- Enzootic in Taiwan, Province of China
- Occasional sporadic reassortments detected in Europe

H5N5 HPAI

- Enzootic in Taiwan, Province of China first detected in September 2019

H7N9 LPAI (2013) and HPAI (2017)

- Reported only in China; recent HPAI mutation (observed end 2016)
- Most human cases exposed in live bird markets
- Period 5 (Oct 2016 to Sep 2017): significant increase in case numbers and geographic expansion
- Nation-wide vaccination campaign since Sep 2017: drop in number of animal outbreaks and human cases as well as detections
- See monthly FAO H7N9 situation update

H7N3 HPAI (2020)

- The United States of America reported an outbreak of H7N3 HPAI in a turkey farm in South Carolina. It was noted this new HPAI virus emerged from spontaneous mutation of an H7N3 LPAI virus that has been circulating in the country since March 2020 and was reported on the same premise. [reference1 reference2]
- H7 HPAI outbreaks have occurred yearly in Mexico since introduction in 2012.

H7N4 LPAI (December 2017)

- Found only in China and Cambodia (through live bird market surveillance)
- One human case in China with reported exposure to poultry

H9N2 LPAI

- First human case reported in 1998
- To date, around 89 influenza A(H9N2) human cases diagnosed worldwide, with at least 82 cases occurring in China since December 2015.
- Cause of significant production losses and mortalities in poultry production systems
- Endemic in several countries in Africa and Asia

H10N3 LPAI

On 31 May 2021, the National Health Commission, China reported the first influenza A(H10N3) human infection. This was the first human case reported globally. [reference]
- In September 2022, a second laboratory-confirmed human case of influenza A(H10N3) was reported in Henan Province, China. To date, two human cases of avian influenza A(H10N3) virus has been reported globally. [reference]

Recent publications

Yang, Q., Xue, X., Zhang, Z., Wu, M. J., Ji, J., Wang, W., Yin, H., Li, S., Dai, H., Duan, B., Liu, Q., & Song, J. (2022). Clade 2.3.4.4b H5N8 Subtype Avian Influenza Viruses Were Identified from the Common Crane Wintering in Yunnan Province, China. Viruses15(1), 38. [reference]

Fornasiero, D., Fusaro, A., Zecchin, B., Mazzucato, M., Scolamacchia, F., Manca, G., Terregino, C., Dorotea, T., & Mulatti, P. (2023). Integration of Epidemiological and Genomic Data to Investigate H5N1 HPAI Outbreaks in Northern Italy in 2021-2022. Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland)12(1), 100. [reference]

Mosaad, Z., Elhusseiny, M. H., Zanaty, A., Fathy, M. M., Hagag, N. M., Mady, W. H., Said, D., Elsayed, M. M., Erfan, A. M., Rabie, N., Samir, A., Samy, M., Arafa, A. S., Selim, A., Abdelhakim, A. M., Lindahl, J. F., Eid, S., Lundkvist, Å., Shahein, M. A., & Naguib, M. M. (2023). Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Virus (H5N1) of Clade 2.3.4.4b in Egypt, 2021-2022. Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland)12(1), 90. [reference]

El-Shesheny, R., Moatasim, Y., Mahmoud, S. H., Song, Y., El Taweel, A., Gomaa, M., Kamel, M. N., Sayes, M. E., Kandeil, A., Lam, T. T. Y., McKenzie, P. P., Webby, R. J., Kayali, G., & Ali, M. A. (2022). Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Clade 2.3.4.4b in Wild Birds and Live Bird Markets, Egypt. Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland)12(1), 36. [reference]

Wille, M., Lisovski, S., Roshier, D., Ferenczi, M., Hoye, B. J., Leen, T., Warner, S., Fouchier, R. A. M., Hurt, A. C., Holmes, E. C., & Klaassen, M. (2023). Strong host phylogenetic and ecological effects on host competency for avian influenza in Australian wild birds. Proceedings. Biological sciences290(1991), 20222237. [reference]

Thukral, H., Shanmugasundaram, K., Riyesh, T., Kumar, N., Singha, H., Gambhir, D., Laura, A., Tiwari, S., & Gulati, B. R. (2023). Multisectoral prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Haryana (India) using one health approach. Preventive veterinary medicine212, 105835. Advance online publication. [reference]

Molini, U., Yabe, J., Meki, I. K., Ahmed Ben Ali, H. O., Settypalli, T. B. K., Datta, S., Coetzee, L. M., Hamunyela, E., Khaiseb, S., Cattoli, G., Lamien, C. E., & Dundon, W. G. (2023). Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus outbreak among Cape cormorants (Phalacrocorax capensis) in Namibia, 2022. Emerging microbes & infections, 2167610. Advance online publication. [reference]

Foret-Lucas, C., Figueroa, T., Coggon, A., Houffschmitt, A., Dupré, G., Fusade-Boyer, M., Guérin, J. L., Delverdier, M., Bessière, P., & Volmer, R. (2023). In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of H5N8 High-Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus Neurotropism in Ducks and Chickens. Microbiology spectrum, e0422922. Advance online publication. [reference]

Zhang, Y., Shi, J., Cui, P., Zhang, Y., Chen, Y., Hou, Y., Liu, L., Jiang, Y., Guan, Y., Chen, H., Kong, H., & Deng, G. (2023). Genetic analysis and biological characterization of H10N3 influenza A viruses isolated in China from 2014 to 2021. Journal of medical virology, 10.1002/jmv.28476. Advance online publication. [reference]

Nemeth, N. M., Ruder, M. G., Poulson, R. L., Sargent, R., Breeding, S., Evans, M. N., Zimmerman, J., Hardman, R., Cunningham, M., Gibbs, S., & Stallknecht, D. E. (2023). Bald eagle mortality and nest failure due to clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza a virus. Scientific reports13(1), 191. [reference]

Zhu, Y., Cong, Y., Sun, Y., Han, J., Gai, L., Yang, T., Liu, C., Zhao, L., & Cong, Y. (2023). Isolation and Identification of Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N8) Subclade 2.3.4.4b from Geese in Northeastern China. Applied and environmental microbiology, e0157222. Advance online publication. [reference]

Xu, H., Li, L., Li, R., Guo, Z., Lin, M., Lu, Y., Hou, J., Govinden, R., Deng, B., & Chenia, H. Y. (2022). Evaluation of dendritic cell-targeting T7 phages as a vehicle to deliver avian influenza virus H5 DNA vaccine in SPF chickens. Frontiers in immunology13, 1063129. [reference]

Rattanamas, K., Taesuji, M., Kulthonggate, U., Jantafong, T., Mamom, T., & Ruenphet, S. (2022). Sensitivity of RNA viral nucleic acid-based detection of avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, and African horse sickness virus on flinders technology associates card using conventional reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Veterinary world15(11), 2754–2759. [reference]

Tare, D. S., Pawar, S. D., Keng, S. S., Kode, S. S., Walimbe, A. M., Limaye, V. V., & Mullick, J. (2022). The evolution, characterization and phylogeography of avian influenza H9N2 viruses from India. Virology579, 9–28. Advance online publication. [reference]

Parvin, R., Kabiraj, C. K., Hossain, I., Hassan, A., Begum, J. A., Nooruzzaman, M., Islam, M. T., & Chowdhury, E. H. (2022). Investigation of respiratory disease outbreaks of poultry in Bangladesh using two real-time PCR-based simultaneous detection assays. Frontiers in veterinary science9, 1036757. [reference]

Edwards, K. M., Siegers, J. Y., Wei, X., Aziz, A., Deng, Y. M., Yann, S., Bun, C., Bunnary, S., Izzard, L., Hak, M., Thielen, P., Tum, S., Wong, F., Lewis, N. S., James, J., Claes, F., Barr, I. G., Dhanasekaran, V., & Karlsson, E. A. (2023). Detection of Clade 2.3.4.4b Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Cambodia, 2021. Emerging infectious diseases29(1), 170–174. [reference]

Wu, H. I., Lin, R. S., Hwang, W. H., Huang, M. L., Chen, B. J., Yen, T. C., & Chao, D. Y. (2023). Integrating Citizen Scientist Data into the Surveillance System for Avian Influenza Virus, Taiwan. Emerging infectious diseases29(1), 45–53. [reference]

Liu, Y. C., Liao, G. R., Tsai, A. Y., Tseng, C. Y., Kuan, C. Y., Tsai, R. S., Albrecht, R. A., Kuo, R. L., Cheng, I. C., Liang, W. T., Ou, S. C., & Hsu, W. L. (2022). NS2 is a key determinant of compatibility in reassortant avian influenza virus with heterologous H7N9-derived NS segment. Virus research324, 199028. Advance online publication. [reference]

Cui, B., Yip, C. S. C., Chen, X., Xu, M. Y., Ke, J., & Tian, Y. (2022). Phasing out live poultry market trading policy in China: characteristics of chicken consumption, decision-making behavior, and consumer cluster analysis. Journal fur Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit = Journal of consumer protection and food safety, 1–11. Advance online publication. [reference]

Zhang, J., Wang, X., Ding, S., Ma, K., Jiang, Y., Guo, Y., Zhang, T., Liu, Y., Li, H., Liao, M., & Qi, W. (2022). Key amino acid position 272 in neuraminidase determines the replication and virulence of H5N6 avian influenza virus in mammals. iScience25(12), 105693. [reference]

Levy, S., Abd Alhadi, M., Azulay, A., Kahana, A., Bujanover, N., Gazit, R., McGargill, M. A., Friedman, L. M., & Hertz, T. (2022). FLU-LISA: High throughput antibody profiling using antigen microarrays. Immunology and cell biology, 10.1111/imcb.12618. Advance online publication. [reference]

Antigua, K. J. C., Baek, Y. H., Choi, W. S., Jeong, J. H., Kim, E. H., Oh, S., Yoon, S. W., Kim, C., Kim, E. G., Choi, S. Y., Hong, S. K., Choi, Y. K., & Song, M. S. (2022). Multiple HA substitutions in highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx viruses contributed to the change in the NA subtype preference. Virulence13(1), 990–1004. [reference]

Sagong, M., Lee, K. N., Lee, E. K., Kang, H., Choi, Y. K., & Lee, Y. J. (2022). Current situation and control strategies of H9N2 avian influenza in South Korea. Journal of veterinary science, 10.4142/jvs.22216. Advance online publication. [reference]

Zinyakov, N., Andriyasov, A., Zhestkov, P., Kozlov, A., Nikonova, Z., Ovchinnikova, E., Grekhneva, A., Shcherbakova, L., Andreychuk, D., Sprygin, A., Prokhvatilova, L., & Chvala, I. (2022). Analysis of Avian Influenza (H5N5) Viruses Isolated in the Southwestern European Part of the Russian Federation in 2020-2021. Viruses14(12), 2725. [reference]

FAO's support to countries

Global level
  • OFFLU held an online discussion on 5 December 2022 to discuss the avian influenza situation in poultry and wild birds for experts to share experiences on the most recent wave of outbreaks in different countries. A summary can be found [link].
  • FAO participated to the 7th World One Health Congress held on 8-11 November 2022 and presented preliminary results of the Qualitative Risk Assessment addressing H5 HPAI risk of introduction in Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
  • International Alliance for Biological Standardization (IABS) held a meeting on 25-26 October 2022 addressing High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Vaccination Strategies to prevent and control HPAI: Removing unnecessary barriers for usage. Conclusions and recommendations are now available [link].
  • The Quadripartite has published the One Health Joint Plan of Action (OH-JPA). It provides a framework for action and proposes a set of activities that the four organizations can offer together to enable countries to advance and scale up One Health in managing human, animal, plant and environment health threats. [link]
  • The OFFLU published the Vaccine Composition Meeting covering the period February – September 2022 for avian influenza and swine influenza.
  • The Zoonotic Session of the WHO Vaccine Composition Meeting was held on 20 September 2022. The report of the meeting is available on the WHO website. [link]
  • On 19 September 2022, FAO published the guidelines entitled Guiding principles for the design of avian influenza active surveillance in Asia: Designing active, comprehensive, risk-based avian influenza surveillance. [link]
  • On 14 September 2022, FAO issued an alert in English, French, and Spanish to Chief Veterinary Officers and FAO offices in Central America and South America regions on the risk of introduction and spread of H5NX HPAI.
  • FAO through its Virtual Learning Center developed an Avian Influenza Preparedness Course. More information available at this link.
  • The Tripartite (FAO-WOAH-WHO) together with the WOAH/FAO Network of Expertise on Animal Influenza (OFFLU) has conducted a joint rapid risk assessment addressing the recent influenza A(H3N8) human infection in China. [link]
  • The OFFLU annual report for 2021 is now available. [link]
  • On 8 April 2022, FAO issued an alert to Chief Veterinary Officers and FAO offices in Asia and the Pacific Region on the risk of a surge and spread of HPAI through increased poultry trade prior to and during Traditional New Year festivities in Asia.
  • On 4 March 2022, FAO issued an alert in English, French, and Spanish to Chief Veterinary Officers and FAO offices in the Americas Region on the risk of introduction and spread of H5NX HPAI.
  • Report of the WHO Vaccine Composition Meeting – February 2022. [link]
  • Avian influenza report of the WOAH/FAO Network of expertise on animal influenzas (OFFLU) covering the period September 2021 – February 2022. [link]
  • FAO held a webinar entitled Managing HPAI in wild birds on 10 February 2022. The recording of the webinar is available at those links: part 1 &part 2.
  • On 18 February 2022, FAO issued an alert to Chief Veterinary Officers, FAO offices, and wild bird partner organizations on the increased risk of High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza outbreaks in wild bird populations in Africa.
  • The Scientific Task Force on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds issued a statement on 21 January 2022 relative to recent mass mortality in some wild bird populations in the United Kingdom and Israel. [link]
  • The OFFLU Network issued a statement on 24 December 2021 addressing the recent itroduction of H5N1 HPAI in Canada. [link]
  • The OFFLU Network issued the summary of the OFFLU call for avian influenza global situation held on 8 November 2021. [link]
  • The OFFLU network issued an avian influenza statement on 10 November 2021 addressing recent H5Nx high pathogenicity avian influenza virus reassortments. [link]
  • Report of the WHO Vaccine Composition Meeting – September 2021. [link]
  • Avian influenza report of the OIE/FAO Network of expertise on animal influenzas (OFFLU) covering the period March – September 2021. [link]
  • On 29 October 2021, FAO sent an alert message on the risk of H5Nx HPAI (re-)introduction along migratory flyways to Chief Veterinary Officers globally.
  • The Tripartite Joint Risk Assessment (JRA) Operational Tool to address zoonotic health threats at the animal-human-environment interface will be published in Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), and Russian on 3 November 2021 during the One Health International Day.
  • FAO published the third edition of the Good emergency management practice - The essentials: A guide to preparing for animal health emergencies, freely available. [link]
  • FAO, in collaboration with WOAH, organized a webinar on H5 HPAI occurrence and prevention in North Africa on 20 May 2021.
  • As part of the OIE/FAO Network of Expertise on Animal Influenzas, FAO attended the Zoonotic Influenza Sessions of the WHO Vaccine Composition Meeting held from 2 to 4 March 2021. The report is now available online. [link]
  • On 26 February 2021, the OFFLU issued a statement on High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza in the Russian Federation relating to its detection in poultry workers. [link]
  • The FAO/CMS-led Scientific Task Force on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds issued a statement on 12 February 2021: H5N8 (and other subtypes) Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in poultry and wild birds - Winter of 2020/2021 with focus on management of protected areas in the African Eurasian region. [link]
  • WHO developed an online training course entitled Strengthening collaboration between human and animal health sectors for improved health security, freely available at this link. The course covers the Tripartite Zoonosis Guide and associated tools in Module 2.
  • A Q&A on avian influenza with FAO’s Global Surveillance Coordinator is now available on the FAO website. [link]
  • The Tripartite Joint Risk Assessment (JRA) Operational Tool to address zoonotic health threats at the animal-human-environment interface is now available online. [link]
  • On 13 November 2020, FAO sent an alert message on the risk of H5Nx HPAI re-introduction to Chief Veterinary Officers and FAO offices of at-risk countries in Africa region.
  • On 26 October 2020, the OFFLU issued a report on Highl Pathogenicity Avian Influenza in Kazakhstan describing the genetic characteristics of the latest H5N8 HPAI viruses detected recently in the country. [link]
  • On 09 October 2020, FAO sent an alert message on the risk of H5N8 HPAI re-introduction to Chief Veterinary Officers of at-risk countries in Europe, Middle East, and Western and Central Asia regions.
  • As part of the OIE/FAO Network of Expertise on Animal Influenzas, FAO attended the Zoonotic Influenza Sessions of the WHO Vaccine Composition Meeting held from 29 September to 1 October 2020; Report – October 2020. [link]
  • A paper from FAO entitled “A literature review of the use of environmental sampling in the surveillance of avian influenza viruses” (Hood et al., 2020) was published in the Transboundary and Emerging Diseases journal. [link]
  • The WHO consultation on the Composition of Influenza Virus Vaccines for the Northern Hemisphere 2020-2021 is currently being held (24-28 February 2020) at WHO Headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland. [link]
  • On 17 January 2020, FAO released an alert on H5N8 HPAI in Eastern Europe to warn the Chief Veterinary Officers and FAO offices about the potential spread of the disease and advise on measures to take for prevention and control.
  • The Tripartite Zoonoses Guide is now available in all UN languages. [link]
Regional level
  • Africa
    • For information on FAO support in Africa please refer to the FAO Sub-Saharan Africa HPAI situation update.
  • Asia
    • FAO RAP organized a quarterly coordination call on 8 December 2022 with ECTAD countries in Asia to discuss progresses and challenges around avian influenza surveillance in the region
    • FAO RAP organized an Avian Influenza Regional Consultation in Geelong, Australia on 2-4 November 2022 to discuss the way forward in avian influenza early warning, surveillance, diagnostics, and bioinformatics.
    • The FAO-ECTAD Team in Viet Nam prepared a report entitled Economic analysis of enhanced biosecurity practices in three types of chicken farms in Northern Viet Nam. [reference]
    • For information on FAO support in Asia please refer to the FAO H7N9 situation update.
  • Americas
    • The Global Framework-Transboundary Animal Diseases (GF-TADs) for the Americas will host a technical meeting on HPAI vaccination: Approach, tools, knowledge and experience for the Americas to be held virtually on 3 March 2023.
    • The first virtual meeting of the Standing Group of Experts on Avian Influenza (SGE-IA) took place on December 14th 2022. Recommendations from this meeting can be found here [link]
    • FAO is liaising with countries on a regional level to find ways to provide support in outbreaks in the Americas.

Recommendations for affected countries and those at risk

For a list of recommendations please refer click HERE

Important links

Next issue: 23 February 2023

The disease situation updates are produced by the FAO Emergency Prevention System for Animal Health (EMPRES-AH) as part of its mission to increase global disease intelligence.
Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added or changed since the last Global AIV with Zoonotic Potential situation update appears in orange. Human cases are depicted in the geographic location of their report. For some cases, exposure may have occurred in one geographic location but reported in another. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Ministries of Health, Provincial Government websites; Centers for Disease Prevention and Control [CDC]) and international sources (World Health Organization [WHO], World Organisation for Animal Health [WOAH]), as well as peer reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

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